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Journal ArticleDOI

A di-O-dihydrogeranylgeranyl glycerol from Thermococcus S 557, a novel ether lipid, and likely intermediate in the biosynthesis of diethers in Archæa

09 Apr 2001-Tetrahedron Letters (Pergamon)-Vol. 42, Iss: 15, pp 2795-2797
TL;DR: In this paper, the lipids of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent archaeon, Thermococcus S 557, were isolated, purified and structurally determined based on acid methanolysis and spectroscopic studies.
About: This article is published in Tetrahedron Letters.The article was published on 2001-04-09 and is currently open access. It has received 24 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Ether lipid & Thermococcus.

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Summary

  • The lipids of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent archæon, Thermococcus S 557, were isolated, purified and structurally determined.
  • Based on acid methanolysis and spectroscopic studies, the polar lipids were shown to comprise diphytanyl glycerol and dibiphytanyl diglycerol, typical membrane lipids of Archæa.
  • From the neutral lipids, 2,3-di-O-dihydro-14,15-geranylgeranyl glycerol was isolated.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review covers the 390 novel marine natural products described to date from deep-water (>50 m) marine fauna, with details on the source organism, its depth and country of origin, along with any reported biological activity of the metabolites.

176 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New cost-effective technologies in deep-sea research and more advanced molecular techniques aimed at screening a more inclusive genetic assembly are poised to accelerate natural product discoveries from these microbial diversity hot spots.
Abstract: Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are among the most extreme and dynamic environments on Earth. However, islands of highly dense and biologically diverse communities exist in the immediate vicinity of hydrothermal vent flows, in stark contrast to the surrounding bare seafloor. These communities comprise organisms with distinct metabolisms based on chemosynthesis and growth rates comparable to those from shallow water tropical environments, which have been rich sources of biologically active natural products. The geological setting and geochemical nature of deep-sea vents that impact the biogeography of vent organisms, chemosynthesis, and the known biological and metabolic diversity of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea, including the handful of natural products isolated to date from deep-sea vent organisms, are considered here in an assessment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents as potential hot spots for natural products investigations. Of critical importance too are the logistics of collecting deep vent organisms, opp...

131 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The contribution of vent microbes to the arsenal of natural products will likely grow, given the culturability of vents; numerous reports of bioactive natural products from microbes inhabiting high acid, high temperature, or high pressure environments; and the recent isolation of new chroman derivatives and siderophores from deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.
Abstract: Microbes from extreme environments do not necessarily require extreme culture conditions. Perhaps the most extreme environments known, deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites, support an incredible array of archaea, bacteria, and fungi, many of which have now been cultured. Microbes cultured from extreme environments have not disappointed in the natural products arena; diverse bioactive secondary metabolites have been isolated from cultured extreme-tolerant microbes, extremophiles, and deep-sea microbes. The contribution of vent microbes to our arsenal of natural products will likely grow, given the culturability of vent microbes; their metabolic, physiologic, and phylogenetic diversity; numerous reports of bioactive natural products from microbes inhabiting high acid, high temperature, or high pressure environments; and the recent isolation of new chroman derivatives and siderophores from deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.

121 citations


Cites background from "A di-O-dihydrogeranylgeranyl glycer..."

  • ...The vent archaeon Thermococcus sp. (cultured anaerobically at 85°C) (Gonthier et al. 2001) synthesizes a novel glycerol diether lipid....

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  • ...(cultured anaerobically at 85°C) (Gonthier et al. 2001) synthesizes a novel glycerol diether lipid....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress, known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure.
Abstract: Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Among the fifty-two piezophilic and piezotolerant prokaryotes isolated so far from different deep-sea environments, only fifteen (four Bacteria and eleven Archaea) that are true hyper/thermophiles and piezophiles have been isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents; these belong mainly to the Thermococcales order. Different strategies are used by microorganisms to thrive in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in which “extreme” physico-chemical conditions prevail and where non-adapted organisms cannot live, or even survive. HHP is known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure. Physically the impact of pressure resembles a lowering of temperature, since it reinforces the structure of certain molecules, such as membrane lipids, and an increase in temperature, since it will also destabilize other structures, such as proteins. However, universal molecular signatures of HHP adaptation are not yet known and are still to be deciphered.

114 citations


Cites background from "A di-O-dihydrogeranylgeranyl glycer..."

  • ...…burtonii (Franzmann et al. 1992; Nichols et al. 2004), but unsaturated lipids have been characterized in several species of hyperthermophiles (Hafenbradl et al. 1993; Gonthier et al. 2001), which might indicate the occurrence of a similar adaptive strategy in hydrothermal vent organisms....

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  • ...2004), but unsaturated lipids have been characterized in several species of hyperthermophiles (Hafenbradl et al. 1993; Gonthier et al. 2001), which might indicate the occurrence of a similar adaptive strategy in hydrothermal vent organisms....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence for homeoviscous adaptation in Archaea is reviewed, the limits of this strategy are discussed, and the knowledge in this very peculiar domain of life is discussed.

102 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Apr 1999-Nature
TL;DR: Studies of sediments related to a decomposing methane hydrate provide strong evidence that methane is being consumed by archaebacteria that are phylogenetically distinct from known methanogens.
Abstract: Large amounts of methane are produced in marine sediments but are then consumed before contacting aerobic waters or the atmosphere1. Although no organism that can consume methane anaerobically has ever been isolated, biogeochemical evidence indicates that the overall process involves a transfer of electrons from methane to sulphate and is probably mediated by several organisms, including a methanogen (operating in reverse) and a sulphate-reducer (using an unknown intermediate substrate)2. Here we describe studies of sediments related to a decomposing methane hydrate. These provide strong evidence that methane is being consumed by archaebacteria that are phylogenetically distinct from known methanogens. Specifically, lipid biomarkers that are commonly characteristic of archaea are so strongly depleted in carbon-13 that methane must be the carbon source, rather than the metabolic product, for the organisms that have produced them. Parallel gene surveys of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) indicate the predominance of a new archael group which is peripherally related to the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales.

1,170 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is considered that archaebacteria are as far from eubacteria as they are from eucaryotes, thus contributing to a better understanding of the universal ancestor.

396 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The similarity of the morphology and of DNA composition, the homology of the component patterns of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and their immunochemical crossreactivity support the conclusion that several extreme thermoacidophiles are related to each other.
Abstract: The similarity of the morphology and of DNA composition, the homology of the component patterns of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and their immunochemical crossreactivity support the conclusion that several extreme thermoacidophiles are related to each other. We name two new species of the genus Sulfolobus. The first, Sulfolobus solfataricus (DSM 1616 and DSM 1617) has the same GC content in its DNA and the same general properties as S. acidocaldarius, but differs significantly from the latter species in the molecular weights of the 11 components of its RNA polymerase and in the salt requirements of this enzyme. The second, Sulfolobus brierleyi, DSM 1651, differs from S. acidocaldarius in several respects. The cells show much less stability at neutral pH. The GC content is significantly lower. The RNA polymerase lacks two components present in the enzymes from the other species. The residual 9 components show larger size differences from the homologous subunits of the S. acidocaldarius enzyme. Like the enzyme from S. solfataricus, the polymerase from S. brierleyi yields an incomplete immunochemical crossreaction with an antibody against the RNA polymerase from S. acidocaldarius. The isolates DSM 1616 and DSM 1617 of Sulfolobus solfataricus are probably identical with or similar to the “Caldariella” strains MT 3 and MT 4, isolated by de Rosa et al. (1975). Like all other known archaebacterial RNA polymerases the enzymes from these species are insensitive to rifampicin and streptolydigin.

386 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 1979-Science
TL;DR: The occurrence of both types of isopranyl glycerol ethers in methanogenic bacteria supports the proposal that they have a close genealogical relationship to the extremely halophilic and thermoacidophilic bacteria.
Abstract: The lipids of nine different methanogenic bacterial strains are comprised of diphytanyl glycerol diethers, previously known only in extremely halophilic bacterial, as well as dibiphytanyl diglycerol tetraethers, known formerly only in the extremely thermoacidophilic bacteria Thermoplasma and Sulfolobus. Of the methanogens examined from four representative taxonomic groups, Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum contained both types of isopranyl ethers in nearly equal proportions, whereas the coccal forms, Methanosarcina and Methanococcus, possessed diphytanyl glycerol diethers, but with only a trace of or no dibiphytanyl diglycerol tetraethers. The occurrence of both types of isopranyl glycerol ethers in methanogenic bacteria supports the proposal that they have a close genealogical relationship to the extremely halophilic and thermoacidophilic bacteria.

285 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The glycerol ethers are proposed to be unique fully saturated diglycerol tetraethers, primarily C86H172O6, Mr 1300, which contain two sn-2,3-glycerol residues bridged through ether linkages by two C40 isopranoid branched diols.

211 citations

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Q1. What have the authors contributed in "A di-o-dihydrogeranylgeranyl glycerol from thermococcus s 557, a novel ether lipid, and likely intermediate in the biosynthesis of diethers in archæa " ?

In this paper, the lipids of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent archæon, Thermococcus S 557, were isolated, purified and structurally determined.