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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.STR.2020.09.001

A “Drug Sweeping” State of the TriABC Triclosan Efflux Pump from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

04 Mar 2021-Structure (Cell Press)-Vol. 29, Iss: 3
Abstract: The structure of the TriABC inner membrane component of the triclosan/SDS-specific efflux pump from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined by cryoelectron microscopy to 4.5 A resolution. The complete structure of the inner membrane transporter TriC of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily was solved, including a partial structure of the fused periplasmic membrane fusion subunits, TriA and TriB. The substrate-free conformation of TriABC represents an intermediate step in efflux complex assembly before the engagement of the outer membrane channel. Structural analysis identified a tunnel network whose constriction impedes substrate efflux, indicating inhibition of TriABC in the unengaged state. Blind docking studies revealed binding to TriC at the same loci by substrates and bulkier non-substrates. Together with functional analyses, we propose that selective substrate translocation involves conformational gating at the tunnel narrowing that, together with conformational ordering of TriA and TriB, creates an engaged state capable of mediating substrate efflux.

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Topics: Membrane fusion protein (52%), Periplasmic space (52%), Bacterial outer membrane (51%) ... show more
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.CHEMREV.1C00055
Ilyas Alav1, Jessica Kobylka2, Miriam S. Kuth2, Klaas M. Pos2  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
28 Apr 2021-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Tripartite efflux pumps and the related type 1 secretion systems (T1SSs) in Gram-negative organisms are diverse in function, energization, and structural organization. They form continuous conduits spanning both the inner and the outer membrane and are composed of three principal components—the energized inner membrane transporters (belonging to ABC, RND, and MFS families), the outer membrane factor channel-like proteins, and linking the two, the periplasmic adaptor proteins (PAPs), also known as the membrane fusion proteins (MFPs). In this review we summarize the recent advances in understanding of structural biology, function, and regulation of these systems, highlighting the previously undescribed role of PAPs in providing a common architectural scaffold across diverse families of transporters. Despite being built from a limited number of basic structural domains, these complexes present a staggering variety of architectures. While key insights have been derived from the RND transporter systems, a closer inspection of the operation and structural organization of different tripartite systems reveals unexpected analogies between them, including those formed around MFS- and ATP-driven transporters, suggesting that they operate around basic common principles. Based on that we are proposing a new integrated model of PAP-mediated communication within the conformational cycling of tripartite systems, which could be expanded to other types of assemblies.

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10 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVRES.2021.110897
Chaoyu Tong1, Hong Hu1, Gang Chen1, Zhengyan Li1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Disinfectants are widely acknowledged for removing microorganisms from the surface of the objects and transmission media. However, the emergence of disinfectant resistance has become a severe threat to the safety of life and health and the rational allocation of resources due to the reduced disinfectant effectiveness. The horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of disinfectant resistance genes has also expanded the resistant flora, making the situation worse. This review focused on the resistance mechanisms of disinfectant resistant bacteria on biofilms, cell membrane permeability, efflux pumps, degradable enzymes, and disinfectant targets. Efflux can be the fastest and most effective resistance mechanism for bacteria to respond to stress. The qac genes, located on some plasmids which can transmit resistance through conjugative transfer, are the most commonly reported in the study of disinfectant resistance genes. Whether the qac genes can be transferred through transformation or transduction is still unclear. Studying the factors affecting the resistance of bacteria to disinfectants can find breakthrough methods to more adequately deal with the problem of reduced disinfectant effectiveness. It has been confirmed that the interaction of probiotics and bacteria or the addition of 4-oxazolidinone can inhibit the formation of biofilms. Chemicals such as eugenol and indole derivatives can increase bacterial sensitivity by reducing the expression of efflux pumps. The role of these findings in anti-disinfectant resistance has proved invaluable.

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Topics: Disinfectant (52%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.CHEMREV.0C01137
17 Feb 2021-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Cell envelope plays a dual role in the life of bacteria by simultaneously protecting it from a hostile environment and facilitating access to beneficial molecules. At the heart of this ability lie the restrictive properties of the cellular membrane augmented by efflux transporters, which preclude intracellular penetration of most molecules except with the help of specialized uptake mediators. Recently, kinetic properties of the cell envelope came into focus driven on one hand by the urgent need in new antibiotics and, on the other hand, by experimental and theoretical advances in studies of transmembrane transport. A notable result from these studies is the development of a kinetic formalism that integrates the Michaelis-Menten behavior of individual transporters with transmembrane diffusion and offers a quantitative basis for the analysis of intracellular penetration of bioactive compounds. This review surveys key experimental and computational approaches to the investigation of transport by individual translocators and in whole cells, summarizes key findings from these studies and outlines implications for antibiotic discovery. Special emphasis is placed on Gram-negative bacteria, whose envelope contains two separate membranes. This feature sets these organisms apart from Gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotic cells by providing them with full benefits of the synergy between slow transmembrane diffusion and active efflux.

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Topics: Efflux (51%), Membrane transport (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIBIOTICS10070774
Martijn Zwama1, Kunihiko Nishino1Institutions (1)
25 Jun 2021-Antibiotics
Abstract: The rise in multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. MDR in bacterial pathogens is a major challenge in healthcare, as bacterial infections are becoming untreatable by commercially available antibiotics. One of the main causes of MDR is the over-expression of intrinsic and acquired multidrug efflux pumps, belonging to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, which can efflux a wide range of structurally different antibiotics. Besides over-expression, however, recent amino acid substitutions within the pumps themselves—causing an increased drug efflux efficiency—are causing additional worry. In this review, we take a closer look at clinically, environmentally and laboratory-evolved Gram-negative bacterial strains and their decreased drug sensitivity as a result of mutations directly in the RND-type pumps themselves (from Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Legionella pneumophila). We also focus on the evolution of the efflux pumps by comparing hundreds of efflux pumps to determine where conservation is concentrated and where differences in amino acids can shed light on the broad and even broadening drug recognition. Knowledge of conservation, as well as of novel gain-of-function efflux pump mutations, is essential for the development of novel antibiotics and efflux pump inhibitors.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ACCOUNTS.0C00843
Abstract: Antibiotics are miracle drugs that can cure infectious bacterial diseases. However, their utility is challenged by antibiotic-resistant bacteria emerging in clinics and straining modern medicine and our ways of life. Certain bacteria such as Gram-negative (Gram(-)) and Mycobacteriales species are intrinsically resistant to most clinical antibiotics and can further gain multidrug resistance through mutations and plasmid acquisition. These species stand out by the presence of an additional external lipidic membrane, the outer membrane (OM), that is composed of unique glycolipids. Although formidable, the OM is a passive permeability barrier that can reduce penetration of antibiotics but cannot affect intracellular steady-state concentrations of drugs. The two-membrane envelopes are further reinforced by active efflux transporters that expel antibiotics from cells against their concentration gradients. The major mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Gram(-) pathogens is the active efflux of drugs, which acts synergistically with the low permeability barrier of the OM and other mutational and plasmid-borne mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.The synergy between active efflux and slow uptake offers Gram(-) bacteria an impressive degree of protection from potentially harmful chemicals, but it is also their Achilles heel. Kinetic studies have revealed that even small changes in the efficiency of either of the two factors can have dramatic effects on drug penetration into the cell. In line with these expectations, two major approaches to overcome this antibiotic resistance mechanism are currently being explored: (1) facilitation of antibiotic penetration across the outer membranes and (2) avoidance and inhibition of clinically relevant multidrug efflux pumps. Herein we summarize the progress in the latter approach with a focus on efflux pumps from the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily. The ability to export various substrates across the OM at the expense of the proton-motive force acting on the inner membrane and the engagement of accessory proteins for their functions are the major mechanistic advantages of these pumps. Both the RND transporters and their accessory proteins are being targeted in the discovery of efflux pump inhibitors, which in combination with antibiotics can potentiate antibacterial activities. We discuss intriguing relationships between substrates and inhibitors of efflux pumps, as these two types of ligands face similar barriers and binding sites in the transporters and accessory proteins and both types of activities often occur with the same chemical scaffold. Several distinct chemical classes of efflux inhibitors have been discovered that are as structurally diverse as the substrates of efflux pumps. Recent mechanistic insights, both empirical and computational, have led to the identification of features that distinguish OM permeators and efflux pump avoiders as well as efflux inhibitors from substrates. These findings suggest a path forward for optimizing the OM permeation and efflux-inhibitory activities in antibiotics and other chemically diverse compounds.

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Topics: Efflux (63%), Modern medicine (51%), Antibiotic resistance (50%)

2 Citations


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77 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.2089
01 Jul 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.

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Topics: Image processing (54%), Bioimage informatics (52%)

34,063 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JCC.20084
Abstract: The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/.

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Topics: Unix (50%), OS X (50%)

28,452 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0907444910007493
Abstract: Coot is a molecular-graphics application for model building and validation of biological macromolecules. The program displays electron-density maps and atomic models and allows model manipulations such as idealization, real-space refinement, manual rotation/translation, rigid-body fitting, ligand search, solvation, mutations, rotamers and Ramachandran idealization. Furthermore, tools are provided for model validation as well as interfaces to external programs for refinement, validation and graphics. The software is designed to be easy to learn for novice users, which is achieved by ensuring that tools for common tasks are `discoverable' through familiar user-interface elements (menus and toolbars) or by intuitive behaviour (mouse controls). Recent developments have focused on providing tools for expert users, with customisable key bindings, extensions and an extensive scripting interface. The software is under rapid development, but has already achieved very widespread use within the crystallographic community. The current state of the software is presented, with a description of the facilities available and of some of the underlying methods employed.

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Topics: Software design (52%), Scripting language (51%), Software (50%)

17,770 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0907444909052925
Paul D. Adams1, Paul D. Adams2, Pavel V. Afonine1, Gábor Bunkóczi3  +15 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Macromolecular X-ray crystallography is routinely applied to understand biological processes at a molecular level. How­ever, significant time and effort are still required to solve and complete many of these structures because of the need for manual interpretation of complex numerical data using many software packages and the repeated use of interactive three-dimensional graphics. PHENIX has been developed to provide a comprehensive system for macromolecular crystallo­graphic structure solution with an emphasis on the automation of all procedures. This has relied on the development of algorithms that minimize or eliminate subjective input, the development of algorithms that automate procedures that are traditionally performed by hand and, finally, the development of a framework that allows a tight integration between the algorithms.

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15,827 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.3213
Jianyi Yang1, Renxiang Yan1, Ambrish Roy1, Dong Xu1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2015-Nature Methods
Abstract: The lowest free-energy conformations are identified by structure clustering. A second round of assembly simulation is conducted, starting from the centroid models, to remove steric clashes and refine global topology. Final atomic structure models are constructed from the low-energy conformations by a two-step atomic-level energy minimization approach. The correctness of the global model is assessed by the confidence score, which is based on the significance of threading alignments and the density of structure clustering; the residue-level local quality of the structural models and B factor of the target protein are evaluated by a newly developed method, ResQ, built on the variation of modeling simulations and the uncertainty of homologous alignments through support vector regression training. For function annotation, the structure models with the highest confidence scores are matched against the BioLiP5 database of ligand-protein interactions to detect homologous function templates. Functional insights on ligand-binding site (LBS), Enzyme Commission (EC) and Gene Ontology (GO) are deduced from the functional templates. We developed three complementary algorithms (COFACTOR, TM-SITE and S-SITE) to enhance function inferences, the consensus of which is derived by COACH4 using support vector machines. Detailed instructions for installation, implementation and result interpretation of the Suite can be found in the Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Tables 1 and 2. The I-TASSER Suite pipeline was tested in recent communitywide structure and function prediction experiments, including CASP10 (ref. 1) and CAMEO2. Overall, I-TASSER generated the correct fold with a template modeling score (TM-score) >0.5 for 10 out of 36 “New Fold” (NF) targets in the CASP10, which have no homologous templates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Of the 110 template-based modeling targets, 92 had a TM-score >0.5, and 89 had the templates drawn closer to the native with an average r.m.s. deviation improvement of 1.05 Å in the same threadingaligned regions6. In CAMEO, COACH generated LBS predictions for 4,271 targets with an average accuracy 0.86, which was 20% higher than that of the second-best method in the experiment. Here we illustrate I-TASSER Suite–based structure and function modeling using six examples (Fig. 1b–g) from the communitywide blind tests1,2. R0006 and R0007 are two NF targets from CASP10, and I-TASSER constructed models of correct fold with a TM-score of 0.62 for both targets (Fig. 1b,c). An illustration of local quality estimation by ResQ is shown for T0652, which has an average error 0.75 Å compared to the actual deviation of the model from the native (Fig. 1h). The four LBS prediction examples (Fig. 1d–g) are from CASP10 (ref. 1) and CAMEO2; COACH generated ligand models all with a ligand r.m.s. deviation below 2 Å. COACH also correctly assigned the threeand fourdigit EC numbers to the enzyme targets C0050 and C0046 (Supplementary Table 3). In summary, we developed a stand-alone I-TASSER Suite that can be used for off-line protein structure and function prediction. The I-TASSER Suite: protein structure and function prediction

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3,715 Citations


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