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Journal ArticleDOI

A Fixed Zone Perturb and Observe MPPT Technique for A Standalone Distributed PV System

15 Mar 2021-IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-pp 1-1

TL;DR: The FZPO technique requires a PV panel’s information only at the initial design stage but not during real-time tracking, making the implementation possible using only low-cost processors, and the implementation and design of the proposed controller are presented.
Abstract: This paper proposes a fixed zone perturb & observe (FZPO) technique to achieve an improved steady-state efficiency as well as a fast and drift-free maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) systems without any additional sensors. In this technique, the PV array’s power-voltage curves are divided into multiple zones with unique zone boundary voltages for different irradiance conditions. This technique employs a combination of adaptive and fixed step-sizes to improve the performance, where the adaptive step-size is calculated from simple mathematical equations, resulting in a reduced computational burden. Besides, natural drift-free tracking is achieved without any additional sampling or computation, overcoming existing techniques’ limitations. The FZPO technique requires a PV panel’s information only at the initial design stage but not during real-time tracking, making the implementation possible using only low-cost processors. This paper presents the implementation and design of the proposed controller. The FZPO technique’s performance is validated through a comprehensive set of hardware experiments on a buck-boost full-bridge converter under various irradiance conditions per the EN50530 standard. For a step-change in irradiance, the FZPO technique is experimentally verified to be 42% and 20% more efficient than the conventional and VSS techniques, respectively. During the irradiance varying conditions using the FZPO technique, the peak power loss is one-sixth compared to the conventional and VSS techniques. Practical field-related considerations such as PV panel temperature effects are further investigated through experiments.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Adaptive hill-climbing MPPT algorithms have superior performance as opposed to their conventional counterparts under medium-high irradiance. However, the performance of these hill-climbing algorithms remains mostly unknown under low irradiance condition. The low irradiance conditions are prominent in tropical countries during rainy seasons and niche PV applications. Additionally, several thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies have better efficiency under low irradiance conditions. Hence, the optimum operation of MPPT algorithms under low irradiance conditions is vital. In the real-time implementation, MPPT algorithms can fail to detect the incremental changes in voltage and current under low irradiance conditions. Hence, analog to digital converter (ADC) resolution becomes a critical constraint that governs the performance of hill-climbing (HC) MPPT algorithms. This work entails a detailed calculation to determine the perturbation step-sizes of the MPPT algorithms under a wide range of irradiance. Two distinct perturbation step-sizes are determined corresponding to the minimum and optimum change in voltage and current due to perturbation, that is sensed by the ADC. The authors also defined a general expression to determine the optimum digitized step-size for duty-based perturb and observe algorithm under low irradiance condition. This expression is formulated by considering the resolution of the ADC and the desirability of keeping the power oscillations at an acceptable level. Finally, the performance of eight hill-climbing algorithms for two distinct step-sizes is analyzed on a small-scale experimental prototype under both uniform and sudden changes in low values of irradiance. The statistical analysis validates that the adaptive HC drift-free MPPT algorithm outperforms other HC algorithms when implemented with the optimum perturbation step-size under low irradiance conditions.

2 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Mayank Arora1, C. Vyjayanthi1Institutions (1)
25 Jun 2021-
Abstract: This paper presents a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for a solar photovoltaic system utilizing the k factor approach and performance parameters. This method for MPPT execution is created by calculating the slope (dI/dD) and comparing it with the power change($\Delta$P). The duty cycle($\Delta$D) is calculated by analyzing the power change. And this power change makes the MPPT method to reach the maximum power point faster with less fluctuations using the constant k with value 0.8. In MATLAB/Simulink, the proposed technique is implemented and compared with the Perturb Observe and Incremental conductance technique, the findings indicate a decrease in monitoring time and steady-state power oscillations.

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Fangrui Liu1, Shanxu Duan1, Fei Liu1, Bangyin Liu1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: A modified variable step size INC MPPT algorithm is proposed, which automatically adjusts the step size to track the PV array maximum power point and can effectively improve the MPPT speed and accuracy simultaneously.
Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are employed in photovoltaic (PV) systems to make full utilization of PV array output power which depends on solar irradiation and ambient temperature. Among all the MPPT strategies, the incremental conductance (INC) algorithm is widely used due to the high tracking accuracy at steady state and good adaptability to the rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. In this paper, a modified variable step size INC MPPT algorithm is proposed, which automatically adjusts the step size to track the PV array maximum power point. Compared with the conventional fixed step size method, the proposed approach can effectively improve the MPPT speed and accuracy simultaneously. Furthermore, it is simple and can be easily implemented in digital signal processors. A theoretical analysis and the design principle of the proposed method are provided and its feasibility is also verified by simulation and experimental results.

1,108 citations


"A Fixed Zone Perturb and Observe MP..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Variable Step-size (VSS) [23] Yes 1 No Simple mathematical equation....

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  • ...12: Hardware experimental set-up of 200 W BBFB converter Other MPPT techniques, such as VSS [23] and conventional P&O with similar complexity levels as that of FZPO, are also chosen for hardware implementation and side-by-side comparison....

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  • ...Therefore, these are not suitable for standalone (off-grid) solar applications due to periodic service interruptions [23, 30, 31]....

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  • ...For this, the P-V curve slope (in other words, change in power (∆P ) for a given change in voltage (∆V )) is obtained from the solar PV model [23, 25, 39] given in (1) and (2)....

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  • ...For VSS, the scaling factor N is tuned as 4 based on the design guidelines provided in [23]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper proposes an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for the photovoltaic (PV) system using a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The main advantage of the method is the reduction of the steady- state oscillation (to practically zero) once the maximum power point (MPP) is located. Furthermore, the proposed method has the ability to track the MPP for the extreme environmental condition, e.g., large fluctuations of insolation and partial shading condition. The algorithm is simple and can be computed very rapidly; thus, its implementation using a low-cost microcontroller is possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, MATLAB simulations are carried out under very challenging conditions, namely step changes in irradiance, step changes in load, and partial shading of the PV array. Its performance is compared with the conventional Hill Climbing (HC) method. Finally, an experimental rig that comprises of a buck-boost converter fed by a custom-designed solar array simulator is set up to emulate the simulation. The soft- ware development is carried out in the Dspace 1104 environment using a TMS320F240 digital signal processor. The superiority of the proposed method over the HC in terms of tracking speed and steady-state oscillations is highlighted by simulation and experimental results.

699 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is presented, and a single-stage configuration is implemented, resulting in size and weight reduction and increased efficiency.
Abstract: A novel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is presented. Using the slope of power versus voltage of a PV array, the proposed MPPT controller allows the conversion system to track the maximum power point very rapidly. As opposed to conventional two-stage designs, a single-stage configuration is implemented, resulting in size and weight reduction and increased efficiency. The proposed system acts as a solar generator on sunny days, in addition to working as an active power line conditioner on rainy days. Finally, computer simulations and experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed technique.

679 citations


"A Fixed Zone Perturb and Observe MP..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Incremental conductance based P&O method is presented in [20] to improve tracking speed and reduce...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The simulations and experimental results show that the proposed dP-P&O MPPT provides a quick and accurate tracking even in very fast changing environmental conditions.
Abstract: This paper presents a high-performance maximum power point tracker (MPPT) optimized for fast cloudy conditions, e.g., rapidly changing irradiation on the photovoltaic panels. The rapidly changing conditions are tracked by an optimized hill-climbing MPPT method called dP-P&O. This algorithm separates the effects of the irradiation change from the effect of the tracker's perturbation and uses this information to optimize the tracking according to the irradiation change. The knowledge of the direction of the irradiation change enables the MPPT to use different optimized tracking schemes for the different cases of increasing, decreasing, or steady irradiance. When the irradiance is changing rapidly this strategy leads to faster and better tracking, while in steady-state conditions it leads to lower oscillations around the MPP. The simulations and experimental results show that the proposed dP-P&O MPPT provides a quick and accurate tracking even in very fast changing environmental conditions.

419 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A dynamical electrical array reconfiguration strategy is applied on the photovoltaic generator of a grid-connected PV system based on a plant-oriented configuration in order to improve its energy production when the operating conditions of the solar panels are different.
Abstract: This paper applies a dynamical electrical array reconfiguration (EAR) strategy on the photovoltaic (PV) generator of a grid-connected PV system based on a plant-oriented configuration, in order to improve its energy production when the operating conditions of the solar panels are different. The EAR strategy is carried out by inserting a controllable switching matrix between the PV generator and the central inverter, which allows the electrical reconnection of the available PV modules. As a result, the PV system exhibits a self-capacity for real-time adaptation to the PV generator external operating conditions and improves the energy extraction of the system. Experimental results are provided to validate the proposed approach.

412 citations


"A Fixed Zone Perturb and Observe MP..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The PV system is constructed in either a centralized or a distributed architecture [2, 3], and the power output depends on the solar irradiance, and operating conditions [4–6]....

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  • ...1 and therefore, the individual MPPT controller for each PV string results in efficient tracking [2]....

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