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Journal ArticleDOI

A flexible new technique for camera calibration

ZhenQiu Zhang1
01 Nov 2000-IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (IEEE Computer Society)-Vol. 22, Iss: 11, pp 1330-1334

TL;DR: A flexible technique to easily calibrate a camera that only requires the camera to observe a planar pattern shown at a few (at least two) different orientations is proposed and advances 3D computer vision one more step from laboratory environments to real world use.

AbstractWe propose a flexible technique to easily calibrate a camera. It only requires the camera to observe a planar pattern shown at a few (at least two) different orientations. Either the camera or the planar pattern can be freely moved. The motion need not be known. Radial lens distortion is modeled. The proposed procedure consists of a closed-form solution, followed by a nonlinear refinement based on the maximum likelihood criterion. Both computer simulation and real data have been used to test the proposed technique and very good results have been obtained. Compared with classical techniques which use expensive equipment such as two or three orthogonal planes, the proposed technique is easy to use and flexible. It advances 3D computer vision one more step from laboratory environments to real world use.

Topics: Camera resectioning (66%), Camera auto-calibration (66%), Pinhole camera model (62%), Camera matrix (61%), Image sensor (53%)

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Citations
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01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: This book is referred to read because it is an inspiring book to give you more chance to get experiences and also thoughts and it will show the best book collections and completed collections.
Abstract: Downloading the book in this website lists can give you more advantages. It will show you the best book collections and completed collections. So many books can be found in this website. So, this is not only this multiple view geometry in computer vision. However, this book is referred to read because it is an inspiring book to give you more chance to get experiences and also thoughts. This is simple, read the soft file of the book and you get it.

13,284 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper has designed a stand-alone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can easily be extended to include new algorithms.
Abstract: Stereo matching is one of the most active research areas in computer vision. While a large number of algorithms for stereo correspondence have been developed, relatively little work has been done on characterizing their performance. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of dense, two-frame stereo methods designed to assess the different components and design decisions made in individual stereo algorithms. Using this taxonomy, we compare existing stereo methods and present experiments evaluating the performance of many different variants. In order to establish a common software platform and a collection of data sets for easy evaluation, we have designed a stand-alone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can be easily extended to include new algorithms. We have also produced several new multiframe stereo data sets with ground truth, and are making both the code and data sets available on the Web.

7,020 citations


Cites background from "A flexible new technique for camera..."

  • ...Recent references on stereo camera calibration and rectification include [130, 70, 131, 52, 39]....

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Book
30 Sep 2010
TL;DR: Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images and takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene.
Abstract: Humans perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world with apparent ease. However, despite all of the recent advances in computer vision research, the dream of having a computer interpret an image at the same level as a two-year old remains elusive. Why is computer vision such a challenging problem and what is the current state of the art? Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images. It also describes challenging real-world applications where vision is being successfully used, both for specialized applications such as medical imaging, and for fun, consumer-level tasks such as image editing and stitching, which students can apply to their own personal photos and videos. More than just a source of recipes, this exceptionally authoritative and comprehensive textbook/reference also takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene. These problems are also analyzed using statistical models and solved using rigorous engineering techniques Topics and features: structured to support active curricula and project-oriented courses, with tips in the Introduction for using the book in a variety of customized courses; presents exercises at the end of each chapter with a heavy emphasis on testing algorithms and containing numerous suggestions for small mid-term projects; provides additional material and more detailed mathematical topics in the Appendices, which cover linear algebra, numerical techniques, and Bayesian estimation theory; suggests additional reading at the end of each chapter, including the latest research in each sub-field, in addition to a full Bibliography at the end of the book; supplies supplementary course material for students at the associated website, http://szeliski.org/Book/. Suitable for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in computer science or engineering, this textbook focuses on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and encourages students to push their creative boundaries. Its design and exposition also make it eminently suitable as a unique reference to the fundamental techniques and current research literature in computer vision.

3,770 citations


Cites background from "A flexible new technique for camera..."

  • ...8: Sample calibration patterns: (a) a three-dimensional target from (Quan and Lan 1999); (b) a two-dimensional target from (Zhang 2000)....

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  • ...1: Some examples of geometric alignment and calibration: (a) geometric alignment of 2D images for stitching; (b) a two-dimensional calibration target (Zhang 2000); (c) calibration from vanishing points; (d) scene with easy to find lines and vanishing directions (Criminisi et al....

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  • ...2008), and (c) calibration patterns (Zhang 2000)....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Zhengyou Zhang1
01 Sep 1999
TL;DR: Compared with classical techniques which use expensive equipment, such as two or three orthogonal planes, the proposed technique is easy to use and flexible, and advances 3D computer vision one step from laboratory environments to real-world use.
Abstract: Proposes a flexible new technique to easily calibrate a camera. It only requires the camera to observe a planar pattern shown at a few (at least two) different orientations. Either the camera or the planar pattern can be freely moved. The motion need not be known. Radial lens distortion is modeled. The proposed procedure consists of a closed-form solution followed by a nonlinear refinement based on the maximum likelihood criterion. Both computer simulation and real data have been used to test the proposed technique, and very good results have been obtained. Compared with classical techniques which use expensive equipment, such as two or three orthogonal planes, the proposed technique is easy to use and flexible. It advances 3D computer vision one step from laboratory environments to real-world use. The corresponding software is available from the author's Web page ( ).

2,473 citations


Cites background from "A flexible new technique for camera..."

  • ...The proof is omitted due to space limitation, and is available from our technical report [24]....

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  • ...Thanks go to Bill Triggs and Gideon Stein for suggesting experiments on model imprecision, which can be found in the technical report [24]....

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  • ...The solution can be found in our technical report [24]....

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Book
05 Mar 2004
TL;DR: Bringing together all aspects of mobile robotics into one volume, Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots can serve as a textbook or a working tool for beginning practitioners.
Abstract: Mobile robots range from the Mars Pathfinder mission's teleoperated Sojourner to the cleaning robots in the Paris Metro. This text offers students and other interested readers an introduction to the fundamentals of mobile robotics, spanning the mechanical, motor, sensory, perceptual, and cognitive layers the field comprises. The text focuses on mobility itself, offering an overview of the mechanisms that allow a mobile robot to move through a real world environment to perform its tasks, including locomotion, sensing, localization, and motion planning. It synthesizes material from such fields as kinematics, control theory, signal analysis, computer vision, information theory, artificial intelligence, and probability theory. The book presents the techniques and technology that enable mobility in a series of interacting modules. Each chapter treats a different aspect of mobility, as the book moves from low-level to high-level details. It covers all aspects of mobile robotics, including software and hardware design considerations, related technologies, and algorithmic techniques.] This second edition has been revised and updated throughout, with 130 pages of new material on such topics as locomotion, perception, localization, and planning and navigation. Problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter. Bringing together all aspects of mobile robotics into one volume, Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots can serve as a textbook or a working tool for beginning practitioners.

2,276 citations


Cites methods from "A flexible new technique for camera..."

  • ...For further discussion of calibration and to download and use a standard calibration program, see [158]....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1983

34,706 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Roger Y. Tsai1
01 Aug 1987
Abstract: A new technique for three-dimensional (3D) camera calibration for machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses is described. The two-stage technique is aimed at efficient computation of camera external position and orientation relative to object reference coordinate system as well as the effective focal length, radial lens distortion, and image scanning parameters. The two-stage technique has advantage in terms of accuracy, speed, and versatility over existing state of the art. A critical review of the state of the art is given in the beginning. A theoretical framework is established, supported by comprehensive proof in five appendixes, and may pave the way for future research on 3D robotics vision. Test results using real data are described. Both accuracy and speed are reported. The experimental results are analyzed and compared with theoretical prediction. Recent effort indicates that with slight modification, the two-stage calibration can be done in real time.

5,771 citations


Book
03 Jan 1992
TL;DR: A new technique for three-dimensional camera calibration for machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses using two-stage technique has advantage in terms of accuracy, speed, and versatility over existing state of the art.
Abstract: A new technique for three-dimensional (3D) camera calibration for machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses is described. The two-stage technique is aimed at efficient computation of camera external position and orientation relative to object reference coordinate system as well as the effective focal length, radial lens distortion, and image scanning parameters. The two-stage technique has advantage in terms of accuracy, speed, and versatility over existing state of the art. A critical review of the state of the art is given in the beginning. A theoretical framework is established, supported by comprehensive proof in five appendixes, and may pave the way for future research on 3D robotics vision. Test results using real data are described. Both accuracy and speed are reported. The experimental results are analyzed and compared with theoretical prediction. Recent effort indicates that with slight modification, the two-stage calibration can be done in real time.

5,697 citations


"A flexible new technique for camera..." refers background in this paper

  • ...See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/3193178...

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1978

3,794 citations


Proceedings Article
31 Dec 1993
TL;DR: Results from constrained optimization some results from algebraic geometry differential geometry are shown.
Abstract: Projective geometry modelling and calibrating cameras edge detection representing geometric primitives and their uncertainty stereo vision determining discrete motion from points and lines tracking tokens over time motion fields of curves interpolating and approximating three-dimensional data recognizing and locating objects and places answers to problems. Appendices: constrained optimization some results from algebraic geometry differential geometry.

2,742 citations