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Journal ArticleDOI

A Free Will: Origins of the Notion in Ancient Thought

18 Sep 2014-The European Legacy (Routledge)-Vol. 19, Iss: 6, pp 797-798
TL;DR: The origin of free will in Western thought has been investigated in this paper, where the authors offer a radically new answer to the much discussed question of the origin of the free will.
Abstract: This short but wide-ranging book has an ambitious project: it offers a radically new answer to the much discussed question of the origin of the idea of free will in Western thought. The book is bas...
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DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Theological significance of the relation of freedom and time in the SCIENCES and human beings is discussed in this paper. But the focus of this paper is on the relationship between freedom, freedom, and time.
Abstract: THE THEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RELATIONS OF FREEDOM AND TIME IN THE SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES: AN EVALUATION OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF DAVID BOHM AND PAULI PYLKKÖ by Michael F. Younker Adviser: Martin Hanna ABSTRACT OF GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCHOF GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH

172 citations

BookDOI
23 Feb 2016
TL;DR: Sellars as discussed by the authors discusses the role of Stoicism in the Renaissance and the Reformation of the Italian Renaissance and discusses the influence of the Stoic Themes in Modern English Literature.
Abstract: Introduction John Sellars Part 1: Antiquity and the Middle Ages 1. Stoicism in Rome Gretchen Reydams-Schils 2. Stoicism in Early Christianity Troels Engberg-Pedersen 3. Plotinus and the Platonic Response to Stoicism Lloyd Gerson 4. Augustine's Debt to Stoicism in the Confessions Sarah Byers 5. Boethius and Stoicism Matthew Walz 6. Stoic Themes in Peter Abelard and John of Salisbury Kevin Guilfoy 7. Stoic Influences in the Later Middle Ages Mary Beth Ingham Part 2: Renaissance and Reformation 8. The Recovery of Stoicism in the Renaissance Ada Palmer 9. Stoicism in the Philosophy of the Italian Renaissance Jill Kraye 10. Erasmus, Calvin, and the Faces of Stoicism in Renaissance and Reformation Thought Barbara Pitkin 11. Justus Lipsius and Neostoicism Jacqueline Lagree 12. Shakespeare and Early Modern English Literature Andrew Shifflett Part 3: Early Modern Europe 13. Medicine of the Mind in Early Modern Philosophy Guido Giglioni 14. Stoic Themes in Early Modern French Thought Michael Moriarty 15. Spinoza and Stoicism Jon Miller 16. Leibniz and the Stoics: Fate, Freedom, and Providence David Forman 17. The Epicurean Stoicism of the French Enlightenment Edward Andrew 18. Stoicism and the Scottish Enlightenment Christian Maurer 19. Kant and Stoic Ethics Jose Torralba and Daniel Doyle Part 4: The Modern World 20. Stoicism in Nineteenth Century German Philosophy Michael Ure 21. Stoicism and Romantic Literature Simon Swift 22. Stoicism in Victorian Culture Heather Ellis 23. Stoicism in America Kenneth Sacks 24. Stoic Themes in Contemporary Anglo-American Ethics Christopher Gill 25. Stoicism and Twentieth Century French Philosophy Thomas Benatouil 26. The Stoic Influence on Modern Psychotherapy Donald Robertson. Index

123 citations


Cites background from "A Free Will: Origins of the Notion ..."

  • ...Rather, we have control in the sense that “it depends on you, on the kind of person you are, whether you give assent” (Frede 2011: 81)....

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  • ...Strictly speaking, in Stoicism will is not a separate faculty (Frede 2011)....

    [...]

Jens Høyrup1
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce a notion of the "price of production" which is mathematically equivalent to what Marx had developed on the foundation of the labour value theory in volume III of Das Kapital (published only in 1894 by Engels) when confronting the problem of real market prices.
Abstract: claims with real quantified laws). In order to solve this problem, one has to introduce a notion of the “price of production”, for which it holds true that producers will continue to supply the market with such goods that can be produced in unlimited quantity as long as the price they anticipate exceeds their price of production. Such a notion was introduced by Alfred Marshall in 1890 in his Principles of Economics [Marshall 1949]. As it turns out, Marshall’s determination of this price is mathematically equivalent to what Marx had developed on the foundation of the labour value theory in volume III of Das Kapital (published only in 1894 by Engels) when confronting the problem of real market prices (more precisely, the equilibrium prices toward around which real prices fluctuate – Marx’s thinking was dynamic, that of Marshall static). Ideology and political whitewashing were thus no longer the only determinants of the content and results of theory. Marshall’s general aim was still to prove that the prevailing economic system was optimal. He did so by combining arguments from mathematical curves with verbal exposition (shifting to the latter when the outcome of his mathematics threatened to make conflicts with his intended conclusion too glaring. But even Marshall was not the end point of the marginalist development. In 1933, Marshall’s most brilliant student Joan Robinson showed in her Economics of Imperfect competition (second edition [J. Robinson 1969]) that his methods and arguments when taken seriously lead to a conclusion that diverges strongly from what Marshall had believed. As she shows, an economy where each sector is dominated by a small number of agents (since decades the actual situation in the capitalist economy) will 1662 In one such case, Marshall [1949: 380 n.1] claims that “abstract reasonings [...] are apt to be misleading, not only in detail, but even in their general effect [...]. Some [...] follow their mathematics boldly, but apparently without noticing that their premises lead inevitably to the conclusion that, whatever firm first gets a good start will obtain a monopoly of the whole business of its trade in its district”. What made Marshall reject this conclusion was not that it was contradicted by empirical evidence; monopolization was indeed the unmistakeable trend since decades when Marshall wrote. The problem was that this “inevitable” conclusion following from “bold” use of Marshall’s mathematics not only contradicted his ideal picture but also eliminated the basis for many of his arguments. A brief postlude 1243 never operate optimally on global terms if each agent optimizes his behaviour according to his private interests. Beyond providing monopolists with conceptual tools that allow them to determine better than by instinct alone what their private interests ask for, Joan Robinson’s theory thus showed that the “invisible hand” is less beneficial than proclaimed by Jevons and Marshall. Though no full theory of the economic crisis that had broken out, Joan Robinson provided part of the explanation. The optimistic aspect of the moral is thus that even a mediocre contribution which gains undeserved prestige may, if only further work is done seriously and critically – that is, in agreement with the general norms for decent scientific work – become fruitful in the longer run. Done seriously and critically, scientific practice may then provide both functioning technical knowledge and such insights as can serve enlightenment purposes. (The pessimistic aspect is of course that may does not entail must.) One may like or dislike the uses to which the technical knowledge is put, but we must recognize that the production of applicable knowledge has been seen since the 17th century as one of the properties that characterizes valid science. Whoever does not welcome insights that can serve enlightenment purposes does not deserve the name of an intellectual.

92 citations

Book
05 Oct 2017
TL;DR: In this article, a collection of essays dealing with perceptions of wisdom, femaleness, and their interconnections in a wide range of ancient sources, including papyri, Nag Hammadi documents, heresiological accounts and monastic literature is presented.
Abstract: Women and Knowledge in Early Christianity offers a collection of essays that deal with perceptions of wisdom, femaleness, and their interconnections in a wide range of ancient sources, including papyri, Nag Hammadi documents, heresiological accounts and monastic literature.

85 citations

References
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Dissertation
24 Jul 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the New Testament, early Christianity, Apostle Paul, feminist theory, queer theory, historical theory, and history of women's sexual orientation are discussed. But the focus is on women's empowerment.
Abstract: slavery; New Testament; Early Christianity; Apostle Paul; feminist theory; queer theory; historiography

38 citations

Book
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: For example, Long as mentioned in this paper offers a wide-ranging study of Greek notions of mind and human selfhood from Homer through Plotinus through Epictetus, and anchors his discussion in questions of recurrent and universal interest What happens to us when we die? How is the mind or soul related to the body? Are we responsible for our own happiness? Can we achieve autonomy?
Abstract: This lively book offers a wide-ranging study of Greek notions of mind and human selfhood from Homer through Plotinus A A Long anchors his discussion in questions of recurrent and universal interest What happens to us when we die? How is the mind or soul related to the body? Are we responsible for our own happiness? Can we achieve autonomy? Long asks when and how these questions emerged in ancient Greece, and shows that Greek thinkers modeling of the mind gave us metaphors that we still live by, such as the rule of reason or enslavement to passion He also interrogates the less familiar Greek notion of the intellect s divinity, and asks what that might mean for usBecause Plato s dialogues articulate these themes more sharply and influentially than works by any other Greek thinker, Plato receives the most sustained treatment in this account But at the same time, Long asks whether Plato s explanation of the mind and human behavior is more convincing for modern readers than that contained in the older Homeric poems Turning to later ancient philosophy, especially Stoicism, Long concludes with an exploration of Epictetus s injunction to live life by making correct use of one s mental impressionsAn authoritative treatment of Greek modes of self-understanding, Greek Models of Mind and Self "demonstrates how ancient thinkers grappled with what is closest to us and yet still most mysterious our own essence as singular human selves and how the study of Greek thought can enlarge and enrich our experience"

31 citations

01 Jan 2016
Abstract: NO SYMPATHY FOR THE DEVIL: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DEMONS IN JOHN CHRYSOSTOM’S SOTERIOLOGY Samantha L. Miller, B.A., M.Div. Marquette University, 2016 This dissertation is a study of John Chrysostom’s demonology as it relates to his theological anthropology and soteriology. Demons run rampant in Chrysostom's thought, though few scholars have taken note of this. Studies of Chrysostom often focus on his exegetical practices, his asceticism, or his social vision and morality. Indeed, many scholars dismiss Chrysostom as unsophisticated and therefore of little value in the landscape of fourth-century theology. In analyzing Chrysostom’s demonology, we see that Chrysostom’s thought is complex and worth further consideration. One cannot treat demons in Chrysostom’s work without treating other theological topics as well. When Chrysostom discusses demons he does so for the sake of bringing his congregation to salvation. Drawing on Stoic categories for discussing “true” versus “apparent” harm, Chrysostom uses rhetoric about demons to highlight humanity’s freedom and self-determination. Each person has a προαίρεσις, which is free and is the locus of moral responsibility, a faculty demons cannot compel. The προαίρεσις is what enables a person to be virtuous. Chrysostom then argues that because each person is able to be virtuous, God expects each person to be virtuous, and this virtue is a necessary aspect of salvation. Though God reconciles humanity to God’s self in the incarnation, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, and though Christ continues to help a person be virtuous, the responsibility for virtue, and thus salvation, lies with the human being. In short, Chrysostom's demonology and account of self-determination exert a mutual influence on one another, self-determination is necessary for virtue, and virtue is integral to salvation. Therefore, in order to have a fully developed account of Chrysostom's theological anthropology and soteriology, one must also understand Chrysostom’s demonology. Chrysostom's soteriology is better understood when the role of demonology in his theology is taken into account because Chrysostom's engagements with demonology are an entrance to his soteriology and highlight the depth to which Chrysostom believes humans are responsible for their own salvation.

29 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors look at two interpretive puzzles associated with the thought of Avicenna that are still of intrinsic philosophical interest today, namely, to what extent, if at all, a prophet can be said to act freely.
Abstract: Abstract: In this study, we look at two interpretive puzzles associated with the thought of Avicenna that are still of intrinsic philosophical interest today. The first concerns to what extent, if at all, Avicenna’s deity can be said to act freely. The second concerns to what extent, if at all, humans within Avicenna’s philosophical system can be said to act freely. It is our contention that only through a careful analysis of Avicenna’s theory of action can one begin to assess his position concerning the status of the will and so provide a satisfactory response to these two interpretative issues. We hope to show that Avicenna can account for divine freedom and that, at least in the case of prophets and sages, humans too are capable of free action.

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a case study of the ways in which the public inscriptions of Greek poleis can serve as strong and revealing evidence for Greek ethical thinking as mentioned in this paper, including wider Greek debates about questions of central importance for Greece ethical philosophers.
Abstract: This article is a case study of the ways in which the public inscriptions of Greek poleis can serve as strong and revealing evidence for Greek ethical thinking and ideas, including wider Greek debates about questions of central importance for Greek ethical philosophers The article examines, and seeks to explain, the ethical rhetoric and ideas contained in honorary decrees passed by Hellenistic poleis for leading home citizens, one of the principal forms of public expression used by Hellenistic poleis It compares that rhetoric and those ideas with the ethical language and doctrines of different ancient philosophical schools Whereas some scholars have identified ethical views comparable to Stoic ideas in Hellenistic decrees, this article argues that there are more significant overlaps with mainstream fourth-century ethical philosophy, especially Aristotle’s, and its Hellenistic continuators As an institution, the honorary decree for a home citizen embodied principles central to Aristotle’s thought Moreover, in some of the particularly rhetorical long honorary decrees which emerged in the period after c 150 BC, drafters articulated traditional ideals about virtue and the polis in newly elaborate ways, using distinctive language and ideas similar to those of Plato and especially Aristotle and the Peripatetics The article also seeks to explain this ethical outlook of decrees, in terms of political, social and intellectual history Relevant honorific rhetoric can be interpreted as a product of bargaining between leading citizen benefactors and their fellow citizens, but also of collaborative development of a vision of just, sustainable civic order Decree-drafters had a wide intellectual and cultural range on which to draw in developing their rhetoric, probably including high philosophy The combined evidence of Hellenistic philosophy and epigraphy shows that, in the same way as the Greek polis continued to flourish after Chaironeia, critical reflection about the ethical foundations of civic life also remained vibrant, especially among Peripatetic philosophers and active citizens of poleis All ancient dates are BC, unless otherwise stated

17 citations