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Journal ArticleDOI

A Free Will: Origins of the Notion in Ancient Thought

18 Sep 2014-The European Legacy (Routledge)-Vol. 19, Iss: 6, pp 797-798
TL;DR: The origin of free will in Western thought has been investigated in this paper, where the authors offer a radically new answer to the much discussed question of the origin of the free will.
Abstract: This short but wide-ranging book has an ambitious project: it offers a radically new answer to the much discussed question of the origin of the idea of free will in Western thought. The book is bas...
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DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Theological significance of the relation of freedom and time in the SCIENCES and human beings is discussed in this paper. But the focus of this paper is on the relationship between freedom, freedom, and time.
Abstract: THE THEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RELATIONS OF FREEDOM AND TIME IN THE SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES: AN EVALUATION OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF DAVID BOHM AND PAULI PYLKKÖ by Michael F. Younker Adviser: Martin Hanna ABSTRACT OF GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCHOF GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH

172 citations

BookDOI
23 Feb 2016
TL;DR: Sellars as discussed by the authors discusses the role of Stoicism in the Renaissance and the Reformation of the Italian Renaissance and discusses the influence of the Stoic Themes in Modern English Literature.
Abstract: Introduction John Sellars Part 1: Antiquity and the Middle Ages 1. Stoicism in Rome Gretchen Reydams-Schils 2. Stoicism in Early Christianity Troels Engberg-Pedersen 3. Plotinus and the Platonic Response to Stoicism Lloyd Gerson 4. Augustine's Debt to Stoicism in the Confessions Sarah Byers 5. Boethius and Stoicism Matthew Walz 6. Stoic Themes in Peter Abelard and John of Salisbury Kevin Guilfoy 7. Stoic Influences in the Later Middle Ages Mary Beth Ingham Part 2: Renaissance and Reformation 8. The Recovery of Stoicism in the Renaissance Ada Palmer 9. Stoicism in the Philosophy of the Italian Renaissance Jill Kraye 10. Erasmus, Calvin, and the Faces of Stoicism in Renaissance and Reformation Thought Barbara Pitkin 11. Justus Lipsius and Neostoicism Jacqueline Lagree 12. Shakespeare and Early Modern English Literature Andrew Shifflett Part 3: Early Modern Europe 13. Medicine of the Mind in Early Modern Philosophy Guido Giglioni 14. Stoic Themes in Early Modern French Thought Michael Moriarty 15. Spinoza and Stoicism Jon Miller 16. Leibniz and the Stoics: Fate, Freedom, and Providence David Forman 17. The Epicurean Stoicism of the French Enlightenment Edward Andrew 18. Stoicism and the Scottish Enlightenment Christian Maurer 19. Kant and Stoic Ethics Jose Torralba and Daniel Doyle Part 4: The Modern World 20. Stoicism in Nineteenth Century German Philosophy Michael Ure 21. Stoicism and Romantic Literature Simon Swift 22. Stoicism in Victorian Culture Heather Ellis 23. Stoicism in America Kenneth Sacks 24. Stoic Themes in Contemporary Anglo-American Ethics Christopher Gill 25. Stoicism and Twentieth Century French Philosophy Thomas Benatouil 26. The Stoic Influence on Modern Psychotherapy Donald Robertson. Index

123 citations


Cites background from "A Free Will: Origins of the Notion ..."

  • ...Rather, we have control in the sense that “it depends on you, on the kind of person you are, whether you give assent” (Frede 2011: 81)....

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  • ...Strictly speaking, in Stoicism will is not a separate faculty (Frede 2011)....

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Jens Høyrup1
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce a notion of the "price of production" which is mathematically equivalent to what Marx had developed on the foundation of the labour value theory in volume III of Das Kapital (published only in 1894 by Engels) when confronting the problem of real market prices.
Abstract: claims with real quantified laws). In order to solve this problem, one has to introduce a notion of the “price of production”, for which it holds true that producers will continue to supply the market with such goods that can be produced in unlimited quantity as long as the price they anticipate exceeds their price of production. Such a notion was introduced by Alfred Marshall in 1890 in his Principles of Economics [Marshall 1949]. As it turns out, Marshall’s determination of this price is mathematically equivalent to what Marx had developed on the foundation of the labour value theory in volume III of Das Kapital (published only in 1894 by Engels) when confronting the problem of real market prices (more precisely, the equilibrium prices toward around which real prices fluctuate – Marx’s thinking was dynamic, that of Marshall static). Ideology and political whitewashing were thus no longer the only determinants of the content and results of theory. Marshall’s general aim was still to prove that the prevailing economic system was optimal. He did so by combining arguments from mathematical curves with verbal exposition (shifting to the latter when the outcome of his mathematics threatened to make conflicts with his intended conclusion too glaring. But even Marshall was not the end point of the marginalist development. In 1933, Marshall’s most brilliant student Joan Robinson showed in her Economics of Imperfect competition (second edition [J. Robinson 1969]) that his methods and arguments when taken seriously lead to a conclusion that diverges strongly from what Marshall had believed. As she shows, an economy where each sector is dominated by a small number of agents (since decades the actual situation in the capitalist economy) will 1662 In one such case, Marshall [1949: 380 n.1] claims that “abstract reasonings [...] are apt to be misleading, not only in detail, but even in their general effect [...]. Some [...] follow their mathematics boldly, but apparently without noticing that their premises lead inevitably to the conclusion that, whatever firm first gets a good start will obtain a monopoly of the whole business of its trade in its district”. What made Marshall reject this conclusion was not that it was contradicted by empirical evidence; monopolization was indeed the unmistakeable trend since decades when Marshall wrote. The problem was that this “inevitable” conclusion following from “bold” use of Marshall’s mathematics not only contradicted his ideal picture but also eliminated the basis for many of his arguments. A brief postlude 1243 never operate optimally on global terms if each agent optimizes his behaviour according to his private interests. Beyond providing monopolists with conceptual tools that allow them to determine better than by instinct alone what their private interests ask for, Joan Robinson’s theory thus showed that the “invisible hand” is less beneficial than proclaimed by Jevons and Marshall. Though no full theory of the economic crisis that had broken out, Joan Robinson provided part of the explanation. The optimistic aspect of the moral is thus that even a mediocre contribution which gains undeserved prestige may, if only further work is done seriously and critically – that is, in agreement with the general norms for decent scientific work – become fruitful in the longer run. Done seriously and critically, scientific practice may then provide both functioning technical knowledge and such insights as can serve enlightenment purposes. (The pessimistic aspect is of course that may does not entail must.) One may like or dislike the uses to which the technical knowledge is put, but we must recognize that the production of applicable knowledge has been seen since the 17th century as one of the properties that characterizes valid science. Whoever does not welcome insights that can serve enlightenment purposes does not deserve the name of an intellectual.

92 citations

Book
05 Oct 2017
TL;DR: In this article, a collection of essays dealing with perceptions of wisdom, femaleness, and their interconnections in a wide range of ancient sources, including papyri, Nag Hammadi documents, heresiological accounts and monastic literature is presented.
Abstract: Women and Knowledge in Early Christianity offers a collection of essays that deal with perceptions of wisdom, femaleness, and their interconnections in a wide range of ancient sources, including papyri, Nag Hammadi documents, heresiological accounts and monastic literature.

85 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2021-Temenos
TL;DR: In this paper, the disappearance of Fate from the prevailing world was seminal in the birth of a new technology of the self, which is related to the scholarship of Peter Brown and Michel Foucault.
Abstract: Weaving and femininity are historically intimately connected with the concept of Fate. In antiquity Fate was portrayed as a powerful female principle controlling the cosmic system humans inhabited. However, as the antique religious world gave way to a new era, the role of Fate subsided under Christian dominance. This article examines how this change played out, and how the worldview that won prominence as Christianity prevailed gradually lost touch with the presence of powerful female cosmic principles. It shows that thedisappearance of Fate from the prevailing world was seminal in the birth of a new ‘technology of the self’. In conclusion, the article places the disappearance of Fate in the context of a discussion of how the view of the self changed in the aftermath of Christianity, which had become dominant. This discussion is related to the scholarship of Peter Brown, among others, as well as a newly published posthumous work by Michel Foucault (2018). (Less)

9 citations

01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: A renewed theology of personal agency in the face of theological fatalism and scientific determinism was developed in this paper by drawing upon the work of Origen of Alexandria, the second-third century Father of the Church, offering a number of insights which are very pertinent in our contemporary context; in an age where individuality and self-realization are considered fundamental to the human experience.
Abstract: In our own contemporary context, there seems to be nothing more important than for a person to be able to speak about their achievements as being specifically their own. Yet it seems that due to two trends found in theology and science, it is increasingly difficult to talk about individual agency. The first trend which undercuts human agency is found in theological fatalism.1 We will look at the case of theological fatalism found in Islamic thought in the idea of qadar, the power of God by which everything is commanded.2 The second trend comes to us on account of science where there is an ideological claim3 being made called scientism. This ideology asserts that “science is the only way of knowing”4 and results in the rejection of all non-material categories; human actions are seen to be brought about (determined) simply as functions of their antecedent conditions in the material world and thusly become “incompatible with human freedom.”5 In this paper, I seek to develop a renewed theology of personal agency in the face of theological fatalism and scientific determinism by drawing upon the work of Origen of Alexandria. This second-third century Father of the Church, offers a number of insights which are very pertinent in our contemporary context; in an age where individuality and self-realization are considered fundamental to the human experience. His assertions on human agency found in the first chapter of the third book of his De Principiis, summons its hearers “to live a good life and by every means avoid sin, for it assumes that they acknowledge that deeds worthy of praise or blame lie within our own power.”6 We will also draw on the vast work of St. Thomas Aquinas who helps situate a philosophical anthropology and an understanding of causality where humans are free in a world where God exists and is operative. He will assert and uphold the Catholic principle of cooperation between the human will and the divine will in defense of human freedom. To this end Aquinas states “that nothing which involves contradiction falls under the omnipotence of God.”7

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the Stoics put forward a unified notion of cause: a cause is a bodily because-of-which (δι’ ὅ), which is a pull apart of causes and principles.
Abstract: Abstract Contrary to their predecessors, the Stoics put forward a unified notion of cause: a cause is a bodily because-of-which (δι’ ὅ). Against the backdrop of Plato’s and Aristotle’s influential views, this is an original proposal. It involves the rejection of an earlier trend, according to which causes and explanations are closely associated. It also involves a pulling apart of causes and principles. And it comes with a charge against Plato and Aristotle, namely that they introduce a swarm of causes, a turba causarum.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the notion of free will has been debated in philosophy and theology for at least 2000 years, recent advances in neuroscience and psychology have added new facets to the debate.
Abstract: Although the notion of free will has been debated in philosophy and theology for at least 2000 years (Frede & Long, 2011), recent advances in neuroscience and psychology have added new facets to th...

4 citations