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Journal ArticleDOI

A high-resolution, absolute-dated deglacial speleothem record of Indian Ocean climate from Socotra Island, Yemen

TL;DR: Stalagmite M1-5 from Socotra Island, Yemen in the northwest Indian Ocean provides a robust, high-resolution paleoclimate record from ∼ 27.4-11.1 years.
About: This article is published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters.The article was published on 2007-07-30 and is currently open access. It has received 166 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Younger Dryas & Glacial period.

Summary (3 min read)

1. Introduction

  • Socotra Island is in the ration of the ITCZ over the island in early summer and again in fall.
  • While the relatively coarse resolution of most records has precluded detailed investigations into this subject, a growing body of well-dated, high-resolution records is being obtained through ice cores, varved sediments, and more recently speleothems.
  • Furthermore, differences in the expression of rapid climate changes around the planet may allow pinpointing the ‘epicenter’ of these abrupt events, which would ultimately provide insights into themechanisms responsible for them (Rodbell, 2000).

2. Location and modern climate

  • The annual migration of the ITCZ in the Indian Ocean results in a bimodal distribution of rainfall on Socotra (Webster et al., 1998; Mies and Beyhl, 1996), delivering precipitation as it passes over the island inMay–June and again fromSeptember–December (Fig. 2) (Fleitmann et al., 2007; Mies and Beyhl, 1996).
  • Little to no rain falls on Socotra during the and monsoons; rather, the Arabian Sea region is dominated by the dry southwest and northeast tradewinds (Webster et al., 1998; Fleitmann et al., 2007).
  • Aceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data y the white star.

3.1. Fieldwork and sample preparation

  • M1-5was found standing nearly 1 km from the cave entrance; stalagmite M1-2 for reference, which was previously reported on by Burns et al. (2003), was collected ∼200 m from the entrance.
  • M1-5 was slabbed longitudinally along its growth axis and the interior surfaces were polished to make the internal stratigraphy more visible.
  • The sample was investigated for signs of recrystallization and significant unconformities.
  • A composite photograph was then taken of the speleothem (Fig. 4).

3.2. 230Th dating

  • A drill corer was used to take a total of 28 230Th samples from M1-5 (Fig. 4), which were analyzed at the Isotope Geology Laboratory, University of Bern.
  • Details of the chemical separation procedures and mass spectrometric measurements are given in Fleitmann et al. (2007).

3.3. Stable isotopes

  • Samples for stable isotope analysis were drilled along the growth axis using a 0.5 mm carbide dental burr.
  • The speleothem slab was mounted on the stage of a Sherline micromill equipped with a digital tachometer (with 0.01 mm precision) to ensure accurate measurement of the sampling interval.
  • Ethanol was used to clean the speleothem surface and drill bit prior to sampling and they were brushed clean between samples.
  • The stable isotope samples were run on a Finnegan Delta XL ratio mass spectrometer coupled to an automated carbonate preparation system at the University of Massachusetts Stable Isotope Laboratory.
  • Repeated analyses of an in-house standard indicate a within-run (40 samples plus 4 standards) reproducibility of 0.11 for δ18O and 0.07 for δ13C.

4.1. Chronology

  • These features suggest a hiatus in deposition duringmost of the Holocene.
  • Therefore, the uppermost age was not used in constructing the agemodel, and only isotopic data below the second date of 11.09 ka are discussed.
  • M1-5 appears to have been deposited under two different but fairly stable growth regimes.
  • The mean growth rate over the length of the speleothem was 132 μm/yr.

4.2. Stable isotopes

  • Temporal sampling resolution of stable isotopes decreases nearly linearly from ∼80 years at 27 ka to 10– 20 years from 15–11 ka.
  • Oxygen isotopes then decrease irregularly until they reach their minimum of roughly −3.5‰ at approximately 14 ka.
  • Thereafter, δ18O increases steadily by ∼2‰ until rapidly decreasing back to ∼−3‰ at the end of the record at∼11.4 ka.
  • The authors unfortunately have no modern calcite fromMoomi Cave, but this predicted value of −4.3‰ compares quite favorably with a late Holocene speleothem record from Dimarshim Cave on the western side of Socotra Island (Fleitmann et al., 2007).

5.1. Equilibrium deposition?

  • A common concern in speleothem studies is whether calcite stable isotopes are a direct reflection of groundwater isotopes (Hendy, 1971; Harmon et al., 2004).
  • First, supersaturation of calcite in drip waters could be driven by evaporation, which occurs when cave humidity is less than 100% and fractionates oxygen isotopes by preferentially removing 16O over 18O (Hendy, 1971).
  • Sample M1-5 was recovered, however, from the interior of Moomi Cave, nearly 1 km from the only known entrance, where evaporation should be minimal because of poor ventilation and thus high humidity values (Harmon et al., 2004).
  • Researchers often compare oxygen and carbon isotopes along the length of the speleothem growth axis to test for this kinetic effect as it fractionates both sets of isotopes in the same direction (i.e., toward heavier values) and thus causes them to covary.
  • The fairly high correlation coefficient between carbon and oxygen isotopes over the entire length of the M1-5 record (r2=0.66) and the similar structure of their decade to century-scale fluctuations prior to 16 ka suggest kinetic fractionation may have occurred.

5.2. δ18O interpretation

  • Before the M1-5 oxygen isotope record can be accurately interpreted in terms of climate, the various signals integrated in the δ18O record must be separated.
  • Temperature changes of this magnitude would decrease speleothem δ18O by ∼0.44–0.77‰ due to calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation (Harmon et al., 2004), explaining ∼20% of the isotopic variability in M1-5.
  • Various lines of evidence support this interpretation.
  • Numerous studies investigating isotopes in precipitation have found that rainfall amount and δ18O are inversely correlated in the tropics due to an amount effect, with little or no observable correlation between temperature and precipitation isotopes (Dansgaard, 1964; Rozanski et al., 1993; Araguas-Araguas et al., 2000).
  • There are two ways in which this system could affect the δ18O of precipitation falling on Socotra.

5.3. Comparison with other records

  • (Burns et al., 2003) found a relationship between Greenland and Socotra climate over Dansgaard/ Oeschger (D/O) cycles 10–13 from 53–40 ka based on stalagmite M1-2, also from Moomi Cave, with a drier Indian Ocean associated with North Atlantic stadials .
  • Centennial-scale events seen in the ice cores and the Cariaco Basin grayscale record (Hughen et al., 1996) during the B–A, such as the Intra-Bølling cold period, Older Dryas, and Intra-Allerød cold period, as well as the Preboreal Oscillation at ∼11.2 ka, may have counterparts in M1-5 (Fig. 8), but this is difficult to evaluate with any certainty.
  • During the previous several thousand years δ13C had been quite stable, raising the possibility that this event was exaggerated in M1-5 by isotopic disequilibrium effects.
  • Moreover, modeling studies indicate anomalous meridional tropical SST gradients are essential to translating high latitude cooling into ITCZ displacement.
  • Interestingly, ice core records indicate atmospheric methane concentrations changed rather abruptly during the Bølling and YD transitions (Fig. 8), more like North Atlantic climate than Asian monsoon strength.

6. Conclusions

  • Stalagmite M1-5 from Socotra Island provides the first high-resolution, absolute dated climate record over the last deglaciation from the western end of the Asian monsoon sector.
  • Peak glacial dryness was reached at ∼23 ka and followed by a gradual increase in moisture until an abrupt drying event at ∼16.4 ka, which may correlate with Heinrich event 1.
  • Rainfall increased abruptly at 14.51 ka synchronous with Bøllingwarming in Greenland.
  • M1-5 is very well correlated with the Dongge Cave, China (Dykoski et al., 2005) record over the Bølling– Allerød and Younger Dryas, indicating these deglacial climate changes affected a wide area of the Indian Ocean monsoon region in the same manner.
  • The differing structures of these climate events around the Northern Hemisphere suggest they originated in the Atlantic.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a process-based summary of the multiple controls on speleothem oxygen-isotope values (d 18 O) in the atmosphere, soil, epikarst, and calcite, illustrated with case studies is presented.

615 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the evolution of the climate and precipitation δ18O for the last 21,000 years in models and observations, and proposed an interpretation of the Chinese ǫ18O record that reconciles its representativeness of the East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) and its driving mechanism of upstream depletion.

443 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A major effort by the paleoclimate research community to characterize changes through the development of well-dated, high-resolution records of the deep and intermediate ocean as well as surface climate indicates that the superposition of two modes explains much of the variability in regional and global climate during the last deglaciation.
Abstract: Deciphering the evolution of global climate from the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 19 ka to the early Holocene 11 ka presents an outstanding opportunity for understanding the transient response of Earth’s climate system to external and internal forcings. During this interval of global warming, the decay of ice sheets caused global mean sea level to rise by approximately 80 m; terrestrial and marine ecosystems experienced large disturbances and range shifts; perturbations to the carbon cycle resulted in a net release of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere; and changes in atmosphere and ocean circulation affected the global distribution and fluxes of water and heat. Here we summarize a major effort by the paleoclimate research community to characterize these changes through the development of well-dated, high-resolution records of the deep and intermediate ocean as well as surface climate. Our synthesis indicates that the superposition of two modes explains much of the variability in regional and global climate during the last deglaciation, with a strong association between the first mode and variations in greenhouse gases, and between the second mode and variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

439 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive synthesis of globally-distributed speleothem δ18O records from the Asian and South American monsoon regions is presented, highlighting three aspects of the GPM that are comparable to the modern GM: (1) the intensity swings on different timescales; (2) their global extent; and (3) an anti-phased inter-hemispheric relationship between the ASP and SPM on a wide range of timecales.
Abstract: The regional monsoons of the world have long been viewed as seasonal atmospheric circulation reversal—analogous to a thermally-driven land-sea breeze on a continental scale. This conventional view of monsoons is now being integrated at a global scale and accordingly, a new paradigm has emerged which considers regional monsoons to be manifestations of global-scale seasonal changes in response to overturning of atmospheric circulation in the tropics and subtropics, and henceforth, interactive components of a singular Global Monsoon (GM) system. The paleoclimate community, however, tends to view ‘paleomonsoon’ (PM), largely in terms of regional circulation phenomena. In the past decade, many high-quality speleothem oxygen isotope (δ18O) records have been established from the Asian Monsoon and the South American Monsoon regions that primarily reflect changes in the integrated intensities of monsoons on orbital-to-decadal timescales. With the emergence of these high-resolution and absolute-dated records from both sides of the Equator, it is now possible to test a concept of the ‘Global-Paleo-Monsoon’ (GPM) on a wide-range of timescales. Here we present a comprehensive synthesis of globally-distributed speleothem δ18O records and highlight three aspects of the GPM that are comparable to the modern GM: (1) the GPM intensity swings on different timescales; (2) their global extent; and (3) an anti-phased inter-hemispheric relationship between the Asian and South American monsoon systems on a wide range of timescales.

305 citations


Cites background or result from "A high-resolution, absolute-dated d..."

  • ...…generally been interpreted to primarily indicate variations in local rainfall amount (e.g., Burns et al. 1998, 2001, 2003; Sinha et al. 2005, 2011; Shakun et al. 2007) and this interpretation is supported by recent climate modeling studies (e.g., Vuille and Werner 2005; LeGrande and Schmidt 2009;…...

    [...]

  • ...…in the Arabian Peninsula (Fleitmann et al. 2003, 2007, 2011); Moomi and Dimarshim Caves in Socotra Island (Burns et al. 2003; Fleitmann et al. 2007; Shakun et al. 2007); Timta Cave in northwestern India (Sinha et al. 2005); Xiaobailong Cave in Southwestern China (Cai et al. 2011) and Tianmen Cave…...

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  • ...The millennial events in ASM records (e.g., Wang et al. 2001, 2008; Burns et al. 2003; Cheng et al. 2006; Cai et al. 2006; Shakun et al. 2007) exhibit negative correlation with d18O records from the SASM region including both equatorial and subtropical areas (Cruz et al. 2005, 2009a, b; Wang et al.…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jianbao Liu1, Jianhui Chen1, Xiaojian Zhang1, Yu Li1, Zhiguo Rao1, Fahu Chen1 
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors evaluated the evolution of the EASM during the Holocene and compared it with all of the published stalagmite δ 18 O records from the Asian monsoon region in order to explore the potential mechanism(s) controlling the Chinese stalagmites.

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References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1964-Tellus A
TL;DR: In this paper, the isotopic fractionation of water in simple condensation-evaporation processes is considered quantitatively on the basis of the fractionation factors given in section 1.2.
Abstract: In chapter 2 the isotopic fractionation of water in some simple condensation-evaporation processes are considered quantitatively on the basis of the fractionation factors given in section 1.2. The condensation temperature is an important parameter, which has got some glaciological applications. The temperature effect (the δ's decreasing with temperature) together with varying evaporation and exchange appear in the “amount effect” as high δ's in sparse rain. The relative deuterium-oxygen-18 fractionation is not quite simple. If the relative deviations from the standard water (S.M.O.W.) are called δ D and δ 18 , the best linear approximation is δ D = 8 δ 18 . Chapter 3 gives some qualitative considerations on non-equilibrium (fast) processes. Kinetic effects have heavy bearings upon the effective fractionation factors. Such effects have only been demonstrated clearly in evaporation processes, but may also influence condensation processes. The quantity d = δ D −8 δ 18 is used as an index for non-equilibrium conditions. The stable isotope data from the world wide I.A.E.A.-W.M.O. precipitation survey are discussed in chapter 4. The unweighted mean annual composition of rain at tropical island stations fits the line δ D = 4.6 δ 18 indicating a first stage equilibrium condensation from vapour evaporated in a non-equilibrium process. Regional characteristics appear in the weighted means. The Northern hemisphere continental stations, except African and Near East, fit the line δ D = 8.0 δ 18 + 10 as far as the weighted means are concerned (δ D = 8.1 δ 18 + 11 for the unweighted) corresponding to an equilibrium Rayleigh condensation from vapour, evaporated in a non-equilibrium process from S.M.O.W. The departure from equilibrium vapour seems even higher in the rest of the investigated part of the world. At most stations the δ D and varies linearily with δ 18 with a slope close to 8, only at two stations higher than 8, at several lower than 8 (mainly connected with relatively dry climates). Considerable variations in the isotopic composition of monthly precipitation occur at most stations. At low latitudes the amount effect accounts for the variations, whereas seasonal variation at high latitudes is ascribed to the temperature effect. Tokyo is an example of a mid latitude station influenced by both effects. Some possible hydrological applications are outlined in chapter 5. DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1964.tb00181.x

7,081 citations


"A high-resolution, absolute-dated d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…isotopes in precipitation have found that rainfall amount and δ18O are inversely correlated in the tropics due to an amount effect, with little or no observable correlation between temperature and precipitation isotopes (Dansgaard, 1964; Rozanski et al., 1993; Araguas-Araguas et al., 2000)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Dec 2001-Science
TL;DR: The record links North Atlantic climate with the meridional transport of heat and moisture from the warmest part of the ocean where the summer East Asian Monsoon originates and generally agrees with the timing of temperature changes from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2).
Abstract: Oxygen isotope records of five stalagmites from Hulu Cave near Nanjing bear a remarkable resemblance to oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores, suggesting that East Asian Monsoon intensity changed in concert with Greenland temperature between 11,000 and 75,000 years before the present (yr. B.P.). Between 11,000 and 30,000 yr. B.P., the timing of changes in the monsoon, as established with 230Th dates, generally agrees with the timing of temperature changes from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2) core, which supports GISP2's chronology in this interval. Our record links North Atlantic climate with the meridional transport of heat and moisture from the warmest part of the ocean where the summer East Asian Monsoon originates.

2,759 citations


"A high-resolution, absolute-dated d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...... persisted through the end of the glacial period as demonstrated by theclosecorrespondencebetweentheM1-5recordandthe Greenland ice cores (Fig. 7). Maximum aridity in Socotra occurs at ∼23–24 ka, synchronous with peak LGM conditionsin Greenland;anexpression of H1 may be seen at ∼16.4 ka as an abrupt drying and gradual wetting, similar to the structure of this event in the Hulu Cave East Asian monsoon record in eastern China ( Wang et al., ......

    [...]

  • ...methane concentrations (Blunier and Brook, 2001); Greenland ice core δ18 O( Rasmussen et al., 2006); Lake Ammersee, Germany δ18 O( von Grafenstein et al., 1999); Chauvet Cave, France δ18 O( Genty et al., 2006); Cariaco basin, Venezuala sediment grayscale values (Hughen et al., 1996); Hulu Cave, China δ18 O( Wang et al., 2001 ); Dongge Cave, China δ18 O( Dykoski et al., 2005); M1-5, Socotra Island δ18O (this study)....

    [...]

  • ...However, the annually to decadally resolved records discussed above, which cover the northern low, middle, andhighlatitudes, donot support such aninterpretation,at least on millennial time scales, because the start of major Northern Hemisphere warming, the Bolling transition, is synchronouswithinerrorinallofthemat ∼14.6ka(Fig.8) ( Wang et al., 2001; Lea et al., 2003; Zhao et al., 2003)....

    [...]

  • ...Whatever the mechanism, it is worth mentioning that similar plateaus in tropical climate (Schulz et al., 1998; Altabet et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2001; Cai et al., 2006) and atmospheric methanerecords(Brooketal.,2000)areseenduringsome, but not all, earlier interstadials, even though Greenland immediately began cooling following every D/O event....

    [...]

  • ...Asian speleothems and Arabian Sea cores uniformly indicate the monsoon was weaker during cold intervals such as Heinrich event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD), and stronger during the warming of the Bolling–Allerod (B–A) (Schulz et al., 1998; Altabet et al., 2002; Ivanochko et al., 2005; Sinha et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2001; Dykoski et al., 2005; Sirocko et al., 1996)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a thorough description of observed monsoon variability and the physical processes that are thought to be important is presented, and some strategies that may help achieve improvement are discussed.
Abstract: The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program sought to determine the predictability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS) program seeks to explore predictability of the global climate system through investigation of the major planetary heat sources and sinks, and interactions between them. The Asian-Australian monsoon system, which undergoes aperiodic and high amplitude variations on intraseasonal, annual, biennial and interannual timescales is a major focus of GOALS. Empirical seasonal forecasts of the monsoon have been made with moderate success for over 100 years. More recent modeling efforts have not been successful. Even simulation of the mean structure of the Asian monsoon has proven elusive and the observed ENSO-monsoon relationships has been difficult to replicate. Divergence in simulation skill occurs between integrations by different models or between members of ensembles of the same model. This degree of spread is surprising given the relative success of empirical forecast techniques. Two possible explanations are presented: difficulty in modeling the monsoon regions and nonlinear error growth due to regional hydrodynamical instabilities. It is argued that the reconciliation of these explanations is imperative for prediction of the monsoon to be improved. To this end, a thorough description of observed monsoon variability and the physical processes that are thought to be important is presented. Prospects of improving prediction and some strategies that may help achieve improvement are discussed.

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"A high-resolution, absolute-dated d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Themonsoon system has been viewed as both a large, seasonal scale land–sea breeze driven by ocean– continent thermal (and hence pressure) contrasts (Webster et al., 1998) and a manifestation of the annual migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) into and out of southern Asia (Gadgil, 2003)....

    [...]

  • ...A possible explanation as to why these climate shifts proceeded more slowly in the Indian Ocean–Asia region than in the North Atlantic is that the monsoon is largely driven by temperature contrasts between the Asian landmass and the southern Indian Ocean (Webster et al., 1998)....

    [...]

  • ...The annual migration of the ITCZ in the Indian Ocean results in a bimodal distribution of rainfall on Socotra (Webster et al., 1998; Mies and Beyhl, 1996), delivering precipitation as it passes over the island inMay–June and again fromSeptember–December (Fig....

    [...]

  • ...Little to no rain falls on Socotra during the summer and winter monsoons; rather, the Arabian Sea region is dominated by the dry southwest (summer) and northeast (winter) tradewinds (Webster et al., 1998; Fleitmann et al., 2007)....

    [...]

Book ChapterDOI
02 Apr 2013
TL;DR: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), has been conducting a world-wide survey of hydrogen (H/'H) and oxygen (O/O) isotope composition of monthly precipitation since 1961.
Abstract: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), has been conducting a world-wide survey of hydrogen (H/'H) and oxygen (O/O) isotope composition of monthly precipitation since 1961 At present, 72 IAEA/WMO network stations are in operation Another 82 stations belonging to national organizations continue to send their results to the IAEA for publication The paper focuses on basic features of spatial and temporal distribution of deuterium and O in global precipitation, as derived from the IAEA/WMO isotope database The internal structure and basic characteristics of this database are discussed in some detail The existing phenomenological relationships between observed stable isotope composition of precipitation and various climate-related parameters such as local surface air temperature and amount of precipitation are reviewed and critically assessed Attempts are presented towards revealing interannual fluctuations in the accumulated isotope records and relating them to changes of precipitation amount and the surface air temperature over the past 30 years

2,229 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 May 2005-Science
TL;DR: A 5-year-resolution absolute-dated oxygen isotope record from Dongge Cave, southern China, provides a continuous history of the Asian monsoon over the past 9000 years, and shows that some, but not all, of the monsoon variability at these frequencies results from changes in solar output.
Abstract: A 5-year-resolution absolute-dated oxygen isotope record from Dongge Cave, southern China, provides a continuous history of the Asian monsoon over the past 9000 years. Although the record broadly follows summer insolation, it is punctuated by eight weak monsoon events lasting approximately 1 to 5 centuries. One correlates with the "8200-year" event, another with the collapse of the Chinese Neolithic culture, and most with North Atlantic ice-rafting events. Cross-correlation of the decadal- to centennial-scale monsoon record with the atmospheric carbon-14 record shows that some, but not all, of the monsoon variability at these frequencies results from changes in solar output.

2,139 citations


"A high-resolution, absolute-dated d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Instead, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical Indian Ocean increased ∼2–3.5 °C from the LGM to theHolocene (Rostek et al., 1993; Emeis et al., 1995; Bard et al., 1997;Naidu andMalmgren, 2005), which is a reasonable estimate of changes in cave temperature during this interval due to the oceanic location of Socotra Island (Burns et al., 2003)....

    [...]

  • ...On decadal to centennial time scales, deglacial Asian monsoon intensity, as recorded by Chinese and Indian speleothems (Sinha et al., 2005; Dykoski et al., 2005), varied at frequencies similar to the HoloceneΔ14C record....

    [...]

  • ...Thereafter, M1-5 records a gradual and continuous drying through the Allerød and Younger Dryas before rainfall increased abruptly at the onset of the Holocene at 11.40 ka....

    [...]

  • ...This observation may imply there were regions more important than the Asian monsoon sector in controlling atmospheric methane during the last deglaciation, perhaps areas more directly affected by Atlantic climate such as tropical South America (Lea et al., 2003; Maslin and Burns, 2000; Cruz et al., 2005) as has been suggested for the mid-Holocene (Koutavas et al., 2002)....

    [...]

  • ...Also, the magnitudes of the transitions into the Bølling, the YD, and the Holocene are nearly identical in the speleothem records from these three caves, suggesting these climate events affected a large area of the monsoon region in the same way and to the same degree....

    [...]

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Q1. What are the contributions in "A high-resolution, absolute-dated deglacial speleothem record of indian ocean climate from socotra island, yemen" ?

Stalagmite M1-5 from Socotra Island, Yemen in the northwest Indian Ocean provides a robust, high-resolution paleoclimate record from ∼27. 5–11 ka, suggestingmuch of the IndianOceanmonsoon region responded similarly to themajor climate changes of the last deglaciation.