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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13030814

A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

02 Mar 2021-Nutrients (MDPI AG)-Vol. 13, Iss: 3, pp 814
Abstract: Ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are popular among young, healthy, normal-weight individuals for various reasons. We aimed to investigate the effect of a ketogenic LCHF diet on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (primary outcome), LDL cholesterol subfractions and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in the blood of healthy, young, and normal-weight women. The study was a randomized, controlled, feeding trial with crossover design. Twenty-four women were assigned to a 4 week ketogenic LCHF diet (4% carbohydrates; 77% fat; 19% protein) followed by a 4 week National Food Agency recommended control diet (44% carbohydrates; 33% fat; 19% protein), or the reverse sequence due to the crossover design. Treatment periods were separated by a 15 week washout period. Seventeen women completed the study and treatment effects were evaluated using mixed models. The LCHF diet increased LDL cholesterol in every woman with a treatment effect of 1.82 mM (p < 0.001). In addition, Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB), small, dense LDL cholesterol as well as large, buoyant LDL cholesterol increased (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). The data suggest that feeding healthy, young, normal-weight women a ketogenic LCHF diet induces a deleterious blood lipid profile. The elevated LDL cholesterol should be a cause for concern in young, healthy, normal-weight women following this kind of LCHF diet.

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Topics: Blood lipids (55%), Cholesterol (53%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ACN3.51423
Abstract: OBJECTIVE Thousands of years after dietary therapy was proposed to treat seizures, how alterations in metabolism relates to epilepsy remains unclear, and metabolism-based therapies are not always effective. METHODS We consider the state of the science in metabolism-based therapies for epilepsy across the research lifecycle from basic to translational to clinical studies. RESULTS This analysis creates a conceptual framework for creative, rigorous, and transparent research to benefit people with epilepsy through the understanding and modification of metabolism. INTERPRETATION Despite intensive past efforts to evaluate metabolism-based therapies for epilepsy, distinct ways of framing a problem offer the chance to engage different mindsets and new (or newly applied) technologies. A comprehensive, creative, and inclusive problem-directed research agenda is needed, with a renewed and stringent adherence to rigor and transparency across all levels of investigation.

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1 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13072127
22 Jun 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Reply to ravnskov, u. Is high cholesterol deleterious? an alternative point of view. comment on “buren et al. a ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat diet increases ldl cholesterol in healthy, young, normal-weight women: A randomized controlled feeding trial. nutrients 2021, 13, 814”

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Topics: High cholesterol (56%), Cholesterol (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13124229
25 Nov 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Ketogenic diets (KDs) may be a helpful complement in the prevention of and therapy for several diseases. Apart from their non-cariogenic properties, it is still unclear how KDs affect oral parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a KD on clinical periodontal parameters. Twenty generally healthy volunteers with an average age of 36.6 years underwent a KD for 6 weeks. Their compliance was monitored by measuring their urinary ketones daily and by keeping 7-day food records. Clinical oral parameters included plaque (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), a complete periodontal status (probing depths, bleeding on probing), and general physical and serologic parameters at baseline and after 6 weeks. The results showed a trend towards lower plaque values, but with no significant changes from baseline to the end of the study with regard to the clinical periodontal parameters. However, their body weight and BMI measurements showed a significant decrease. The regression analyses showed that the fat mass and the BMI were significantly positively correlated to periodontal inflammation, while HDL, fiber, and protein intake were negatively correlated to periodontal inflammation. The KD change did not lead to clinical changes in periodontal parameters in healthy participants under continued oral hygiene, but it did lead to a significant weight loss.

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Topics: Gingivitis (57%), Bleeding on probing (55%), Weight loss (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12944-021-01501-0
Erik Froyen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one contributor to death in the United States and worldwide. A risk factor for CVD is high serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations; however, LDL particles exist in a variety of sizes that may differentially affect the progression of CVD. The small, dense LDL particles, compared to the large, buoyant LDL subclass, are considered to be more atherogenic. It has been suggested that replacing saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk for CVD. However, certain studies are not in agreement with this recommendation, as saturated fatty acid intake did not increase the risk for CVD, cardiovascular events, and/or mortality. Furthermore, consumption of saturated fat has been demonstrated to increase large, buoyant LDL particles, which may explain, in part, for the differing outcomes regarding fat consumption on CVD risk. Therefore, the objective was to review intervention trials that explored the effects of fat consumption on LDL particle size in healthy individuals. PubMed and Web of Science were utilized during the search process for journal articles. The results of this review provided evidence that fat consumption increases large, buoyant LDL and/or decreases small, dense LDL particles, and therefore, influences CVD risk.

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Topics: Saturated fat (62%), Saturated fatty acid (59%), Low-density lipoprotein particle (58%) ... read more

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49 results found


Open access
01 Jan 2006-

9,430 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHS092
Massimo Piepoli1, Arno W. Hoes, Stefan Agewall2, Christian Albus  +22 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: ABI : ankle–brachial index ACCORD : Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ADVANCE : Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation AGREE : Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation AHA : American Heart Association apoA1 : apolipoprotein A1 apoB : apolipoprotein B CABG : coronary artery bypass graft surgery CARDS : Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study CCNAP : Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions CHARISMA : Clopidogrel for High Athero-thrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilisation, Management, and Avoidance CHD : coronary heart disease CKD : chronic kidney disease COMMIT : Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial CRP : C-reactive protein CURE : Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events CVD : cardiovascular disease DALYs : disability-adjusted life years DBP : diastolic blood pressure DCCT : Diabetes Control and Complications Trial ED : erectile dysfunction eGFR : estimated glomerular filtration rate EHN : European Heart Network EPIC : European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EUROASPIRE : European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events GFR : glomerular filtration rate GOSPEL : Global Secondary Prevention Strategies to Limit Event Recurrence After MI GRADE : Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation HbA1c : glycated haemoglobin HDL : high-density lipoprotein HF-ACTION : Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing HOT : Hypertension Optimal Treatment Study HPS : Heart Protection Study HR : hazard ratio hsCRP : high-sensitivity C-reactive protein HYVET : Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial ICD : International Classification of Diseases IMT : intima-media thickness INVEST : International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril JTF : Joint Task Force LDL : low-density lipoprotein Lp(a) : lipoprotein(a) LpPLA2 : lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy MATCH : Management of Atherothrombosis with Clopidogrel in High-risk Patients with Recent Transient Ischaemic Attack or Ischaemic Stroke MDRD : Modification of Diet in Renal Disease MET : metabolic equivalent MONICA : Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease NICE : National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence NRT : nicotine replacement therapy NSTEMI : non-ST elevation myocardial infarction ONTARGET : Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial OSA : obstructive sleep apnoea PAD : peripheral artery disease PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PROactive : Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events PWV : pulse wave velocity QOF : Quality and Outcomes Framework RCT : randomized clinical trial RR : relative risk SBP : systolic blood pressure SCORE : Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project SEARCH : Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and SHEP : Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program STEMI : ST-elevation myocardial infarction SU.FOL.OM3 : SUpplementation with FOlate, vitamin B6 and B12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids Syst-Eur : Systolic Hypertension in Europe TNT : Treating to New Targets UKPDS : United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study VADT : Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial VALUE : Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use VITATOPS : VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke VLDL : very low-density lipoprotein WHO : World Health Organization ### 1.1 Introduction Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a chronic disorder developing insidiously throughout life and usually progressing to an advanced stage by the time symptoms occur. It remains the major cause of premature death in Europe, even though CVD mortality has …

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6,913 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE12820
23 Jan 2014-Nature
Abstract: Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.

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Topics: Microbiome (58%), Enterotype (55%), Gastrointestinal Microbiome (53%) ... read more

5,438 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61350-5
13 Nov 2010-The Lancet
Abstract: BackgroundLowering of LDL cholesterol with standard statin regimens reduces the risk of occlusive vascular events in a wide range of individuals. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of more ...

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Topics: Alirocumab (62%), Bococizumab (58%), Statin (54%) ... read more

4,223 Citations