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Proceedings ArticleDOI

A Lightweight Authentication and Communication Protocol in Vehicular Cloud Computing

TL;DR: A lightweight protocol for authentication and secure communication in the VCC is proposed with hash operations, XORs, concatenations, etc., to ensure security and performance analysis reveals that the protocol outperforms well in different scenarios like communication cost, storage overhead, computation time, and energy consumption.
Abstract: With the increased number of vehicles, the traditional VANETs (Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks) experiencing new face transitions. One such concept is Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC), where the data exchanges between vehicles or any entities, in traffic condition or in an emergency situation can be easily done. Establishing authentication and secure communication in VCC is a major problem because of the highly dynamic nature of vehicles. False messages may mislead the drivers which may cause serious issues. In this paper, we propose a lightweight protocol for authentication and secure communication in the VCC. More specifically, we design a lightweight protocol with hash operations, XORs, concatenations, etc., to ensure security. In-depth security analysis is done to check various attacks in the VCC system. In addition to that, we have done hardware implementation on a desktop computer, on a small single board computer-Raspberry Pi and verified the execution time needed. The performance analysis reveals that our protocol outperforms well in different scenarios like communication cost, storage overhead, computation time, and energy consumption.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A lightweight mutual authentication protocol in an IoV scenario using cryptographic operations that enables a device and a server to establish a secret key, which can be used for secure communication, while minimizing the computational cost associated with the process.
Abstract: Recently, the concept of Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) conquered the automotive industry, academia, research fields, vehicle manufacturers, etc., where vehicles are ‘intelligent ones’ capable of providing a wide variety of applications, such as traveller/driver safety, infotainment, traffic efficiency, reduced congestion, less pollution, etc. Ensuring proper authentication and secure communication are the major challenges of an IoV scenario. However, only limited works are available for authentication and communication, among them the ‘lightweight property’ is missing. Hence, in this paper, we design a lightweight mutual authentication protocol in an IoV scenario using cryptographic operations. The proposed protocol also enables a device and a server to establish a secret key, which can be used for secure communication, while minimizing the computational cost associated with the process. The protocol is implemented on two types of communication models, such as two Raspberry Pi’s connected via an intermediate desktop computer acting as the Trusted Authority (TA) and two Raspberry Pi’s connected via the cloud (here, Vehicle Server). The performance analysis results based on computation and communication cost show that the proposed protocol performs better than existing systems.

66 citations


Cites background from "A Lightweight Authentication and Co..."

  • ...ing research works and understood that only limited works have been done which analyse the importance of authentication/communication [4]–[6] and lightweight property [7]–[10] in an IoV scenario....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a taxonomy of data dissemination techniques for Internet of Vehicles (IoV) based on four new classes: networking-based, intelligent-based class, traditional-based and hybrid class is presented.
Abstract: Internet of vehicles (IoV) is rapidly growing as key enablers of new applications related to Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), including: autonomous driving, teleoperation, cooperative manoeuvre and perception, etc. The design of such new applications relies mainly on the performance of data dissemination techniques, which enable vehicles to exchange data with their surroundings. In fact, these new applications are coming with new requirements such as ultra-low latency, high bandwidth and communication reliability. This limits also the use of data dissemination techniques designed for traditional vehicular network, especially with the increasing number of connected vehicles on roads. In this paper, we review a taxonomy of data dissemination techniques for IoV based on four new classes: networking-based class, intelligent-based class, traditional-based class, and hybrid class. Furthermore, the paper not only reviews some recent contributions addressing data dissemination in IoV, but also emphasis their enabling technologies, services, architectures, their used simulation tools, and open challenges.

2 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 May 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a secure and publicly verifiable communication scheme for VANET which achieves source authentication, message authentication, non repudiation, integrity and public verifiability.
Abstract: To ensure traffic safety and proper operation of vehicular networks, safety messages or beacons are periodically broadcasted in Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANETs) to neighboring nodes and road side units (RSU). Thus, authenticity and integrity of received messages along with the trust in source nodes is crucial and highly required in applications where a failure can result in life-threatening situations. Several digital signature based approaches have been described in literature to achieve the authenticity of these messages. In these schemes, scenarios having high level of vehicle density are handled by RSU where aggregated signature verification is done. However, most of these schemes are centralized and PKI based where our goal is to develop a decentralized dynamic system. Along with authenticity and integrity, trust management plays an important role in VANETs which enables ways for secure and verified communication. A number of trust management models have been proposed but it is still an ongoing matter of interest, similarly authentication which is a vital security service to have during communication is not mostly present in the literature work related to trust management systems. This paper proposes a secure and publicly verifiable communication scheme for VANET which achieves source authentication, message authentication, non repudiation, integrity and public verifiability. All of these are achieved through digital signatures, Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) technique and logging mechanism which is aided by blockchain technology.

1 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Feb 2023
TL;DR: In this article , a ro-bust vehicular networking management system (VNMS) is presented by the work for controlling traffic-utilizing Polynomial Kernel-Based Deep Convolutional Neural Network (PK-DCNN).
Abstract: For implementing a myriad of applications associated with vehicles, vehicle traffic, drivers, passengers, along with pedestrians, vehicular networking acts as the most imperative enabling technology that is needed. The main concern is handling vehicular networking for evading traffic congestion (TC). A ro-bust vehicular networking management system (VNMS) is presented by the work for controlling traffic-utilizing Polynomial Kernel-Based Deep Convolutional Neural Network (PK-DCNN). Utilizing Modified Adler 32 (M-Adler32), the work has initially established a vehicle authentication process where the user identity along with vehicle data is encrypted. Secure data transmission against internal along with external attacks is offered by vehicle authentication. Then, the cloud downtime is checked. The optimal cloud server availability is searched utilizing the Polynomial Distribution based BAT algorithm (PD-BAT) algorithm if the cloud downtime is high otherwise, attribute selection is executed. Lastly, centered on attribute extraction, the PK-DCNN classification categorizes whether there is traffic or not. Rerouting is conducted utilizing Linear Scaling Based Sparrow Search Algorithm(LSSA) with a low response time if the outcome attains high traffic. Robust traffic detection is attained by the proposed work via attaining 95.27% detection accuracy, 95.94% recall as indicated by the result. A low response time of 7811ms is obtained for recommending rerouting of the vehicles and stays ro-bust as analogized to the existent top-notch methods.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
John Kenney1
16 Jun 2011
TL;DR: The content and status of the DSRC standards being developed for deployment in the United States are explained, including insights into why specific technical solutions are being adopted, and key challenges remaining for successful DSRC deployment.
Abstract: Wireless vehicular communication has the potential to enable a host of new applications, the most important of which are a class of safety applications that can prevent collisions and save thousands of lives. The automotive industry is working to develop the dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) technology, for use in vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communication. The effectiveness of this technology is highly dependent on cooperative standards for interoperability. This paper explains the content and status of the DSRC standards being developed for deployment in the United States. Included in the discussion are the IEEE 802.11p amendment for wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE), the IEEE 1609.2, 1609.3, and 1609.4 standards for Security, Network Services and Multi-Channel Operation, the SAE J2735 Message Set Dictionary, and the emerging SAE J2945.1 Communication Minimum Performance Requirements standard. The paper shows how these standards fit together to provide a comprehensive solution for DSRC. Most of the key standards are either recently published or expected to be completed in the coming year. A reader will gain a thorough understanding of DSRC technology for vehicular communication, including insights into why specific technical solutions are being adopted, and key challenges remaining for successful DSRC deployment. The U.S. Department of Transportation is planning to decide in 2013 whether to require DSRC equipment in new vehicles.

1,866 citations


"A Lightweight Authentication and Co..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...It is done through Dedicated Short-Range Communication protocol (DSRC) standard [2], is the IEEE 802....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present aspects related to this field to help researchers and developers to understand and distinguish the main features surrounding VANET in one solid document, without the need to go through other relevant papers and articles.

1,216 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work identifies and analyzes a number of security challenges that are specific to VCs, e.g., challenges of authentication of high-mobility vehicles, scalability and single interface, tangled identities and locations, and the complexity of establishing trust relationships among multiple players caused by intermittent short-range communications.
Abstract: In a series of recent papers, Prof. Olariu and his co-workers have promoted the vision of vehicular clouds (VCs), a nontrivial extension, along several dimensions, of conventional cloud computing. In a VC, underutilized vehicular resources including computing power, storage, and Internet connectivity can be shared between drivers or rented out over the Internet to various customers. Clearly, if the VC concept is to see a wide adoption and to have significant societal impact, security and privacy issues need to be addressed. The main contribution of this work is to identify and analyze a number of security challenges and potential privacy threats in VCs. Although security issues have received attention in cloud computing and vehicular networks, we identify security challenges that are specific to VCs, e.g., challenges of authentication of high-mobility vehicles, scalability and single interface, tangled identities and locations, and the complexity of establishing trust relationships among multiple players caused by intermittent short-range communications. Additionally, we provide a security scheme that addresses several of the challenges discussed.

247 citations


"A Lightweight Authentication and Co..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[3] have done the analysis of different security challenges and...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes a novel framework with preservation and repudiation (ACPN) for VANETs, and introduces the public-key cryptography to the pseudonym generation, which ensures legitimate third parties to achieve the non-repudiation of vehicles by obtaining vehicles' real IDs.
Abstract: In Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs), authentication is a crucial security service for both inter-vehicle and vehicle-roadside communications. On the other hand, vehicles have to be protected from the misuse of their private data and the attacks on their privacy, as well as to be capable of being investigated for accidents or liabilities from non-repudiation. In this paper, we investigate the authentication issues with privacy preservation and non-repudiation in VANETs. We propose a novel framework with preservation and repudiation (ACPN) for VANETs. In ACPN, we introduce the public-key cryptography (PKC) to the pseudonym generation, which ensures legitimate third parties to achieve the non-repudiation of vehicles by obtaining vehicles’ real IDs. The self-generated PKC-based pseudonyms are also used as identifiers instead of vehicle IDs for the privacy-preserving authentication, while the update of the pseudonyms depends on vehicular demands. The existing ID-based signature (IBS) scheme and the ID-based online/offline signature (IBOOS) scheme are used, for the authentication between the road side units (RSUs) and vehicles, and the authentication among vehicles, respectively. Authentication, privacy preservation, non-repudiation and other objectives of ACPN have been analyzed for VANETs. Typical performance evaluation has been conducted using efficient IBS and IBOOS schemes. We show that the proposed ACPN is feasible and adequate to be used efficiently in the VANET environment.

245 citations


"A Lightweight Authentication and Co..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Our scheme requires 170 bytes (RSU hit) and 210 bytes (RSU miss) for storing parameters, whereas the schemes TEAM[6], ACPN[7], 2FLIP[8], MADAR[9], and PPDAS[10] requires 384, 768, 492, 256, and 282 bytes respectively (see Table II)....

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  • ...The proposed lightweight scheme uses only hash functions and maintains better security than previous schemes, TEAM[6], ACPN[7], 2FLIP[8], MADAR[9], and PPDAS[10]....

    [...]

  • ...TEAM[6], ACPN[7], 2FLIP [8], MADAR[9], and PPDAS[10] requires 1152, 1393, 172, 2436, and 1730 bytes respectively....

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  • ...In 2015, Li et al.[7] designed an authentication framework with conditional privacy-preservation and nonrepudiation (ACPN) in VANETs....

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  • ...TEAM[6] 18Eh() 6Eh() ACPN[7] 10EID +7ETS +7EPE +4EMG +7ESI 5EPE + EPD 2FLIP[8] EMG + ETS + Eh() 13EID + 10EPE + 10ESI +...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes a decentralized lightweight authentication scheme called trust-extended authentication mechanism (TEAM) for vehicle-to-vehicle communication networks that adopts the concept of transitive trust relationships to improve the performance of the authentication procedure and only needs a few storage spaces.
Abstract: The security of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has been receiving a significant amount of attention in the field of wireless mobile networking because VANETs are vulnerable to malicious attacks. A number of secure authentication schemes based on asymmetric cryptography have been proposed to prevent such attacks. However, these schemes are not suitable for highly dynamic environments such as VANETs, because they cannot efficiently cope with the authentication procedure. Hence, this still calls for an efficient authentication scheme for VANETs. In this paper, we propose a decentralized lightweight authentication scheme called trust-extended authentication mechanism (TEAM) for vehicle-to-vehicle communication networks. TEAM adopts the concept of transitive trust relationships to improve the performance of the authentication procedure and only needs a few storage spaces. Moreover, TEAM satisfies the following security requirements: anonymity, location privacy, mutual authentication, forgery attack resistance, modification attack resistance, replay attack resistance, no clock synchronization problem, no verification table, fast error detection, perfect forward secrecy, man-in-the-middle attack resistance, and session key agreement.

193 citations


"A Lightweight Authentication and Co..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Chuang et al.[6] proposed a lightweight mechanism called TEAM (Trust-Extended Authentication Mechanism) for V2V communication in VANETs....

    [...]

  • ...Our scheme requires 170 bytes (RSU hit) and 210 bytes (RSU miss) for storing parameters, whereas the schemes TEAM[6], ACPN[7], 2FLIP[8], MADAR[9], and PPDAS[10] requires 384, 768, 492, 256, and 282 bytes respectively (see Table II)....

    [...]

  • ...The proposed lightweight scheme uses only hash functions and maintains better security than previous schemes, TEAM[6], ACPN[7], 2FLIP[8], MADAR[9], and PPDAS[10]....

    [...]

  • ...TEAM[6], ACPN[7], 2FLIP [8], MADAR[9], and PPDAS[10] requires 1152, 1393, 172, 2436, and 1730 bytes respectively....

    [...]

  • ...TEAM[6] 18Eh() 6Eh() ACPN[7] 10EID +7ETS +7EPE +4EMG +7ESI 5EPE + EPD 2FLIP[8] EMG + ETS + Eh() 13EID + 10EPE + 10ESI +...

    [...]