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Journal ArticleDOI

A Lightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for V2V Communication in Internet of Vehicles

TL;DR: A lightweight mutual authentication protocol in an IoV scenario using cryptographic operations that enables a device and a server to establish a secret key, which can be used for secure communication, while minimizing the computational cost associated with the process.
Abstract: Recently, the concept of Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) conquered the automotive industry, academia, research fields, vehicle manufacturers, etc., where vehicles are ‘intelligent ones’ capable of providing a wide variety of applications, such as traveller/driver safety, infotainment, traffic efficiency, reduced congestion, less pollution, etc. Ensuring proper authentication and secure communication are the major challenges of an IoV scenario. However, only limited works are available for authentication and communication, among them the ‘lightweight property’ is missing. Hence, in this paper, we design a lightweight mutual authentication protocol in an IoV scenario using cryptographic operations. The proposed protocol also enables a device and a server to establish a secret key, which can be used for secure communication, while minimizing the computational cost associated with the process. The protocol is implemented on two types of communication models, such as two Raspberry Pi’s connected via an intermediate desktop computer acting as the Trusted Authority (TA) and two Raspberry Pi’s connected via the cloud (here, Vehicle Server). The performance analysis results based on computation and communication cost show that the proposed protocol performs better than existing systems.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a new mutual authentication and key agreement protocol in an IoV-enabled Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) using both formal and informal security analysis, as well as formal security verification using an automated verification tool.
Abstract: Internet of Vehicles (IoV), a distributed network involving connected vehicles and Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs), allows connected vehicles to communicate with other Internet-connected entities in real time. The communications among these entities (e.g. vehicles, pedestrians, fleet management systems, and road-side infrastructure) generally take place via an open channel. In other words, such an open communication can be targeted by the adversary to eavesdrop, modify, insert fabricated (or malicious) messages, or delete any data-in-transit; thus, resulting in replay, impersonation, man-in-the-middle, privileged-insider, and other related attacks. In addition to security, anonymity and untraceability are two other important features that should be achieved in an authentication protocol. In this paper, we propose a new mutual authentication and key agreement protocol in an IoV-enabled Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Using both formal and informal security analysis, as well as formal security verification using an automated verification tool, we show that the proposed scheme is secure against several known attacks in an IoV-enabled ITS environment. Furthermore, a detailed comparative analysis shows that the proposed scheme has low communication and computational overheads, and offers better security and functionality attributes in comparison to seven other competing schemes. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme using NS2.

59 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Apr 2022
TL;DR: In this article , the authors proposed a lightweight secured framework for blockchain based Internet of Vehicles (IoV) that offers strong authentication and secure communication. But all the frameworks and architectures developed so far in IoV adopt the load of blockchain.
Abstract: The vision of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has acquired widespread acceptance as a result of the development of wireless technology. Its ability to provide drivers with various mobile services has made it an attractive application. Blockchain based security solution is considered good in various applications of IoV till now. But all the frameworks and architectures developed so far in IoV adopt the load of blockchain. So, it is generally deployed on or above edge computing devices, keeping lower structure of the frameworks traditional as managing blockchain with low computing devices on the physical layer is really a challenge. Securing communication in an IoV environment requires ensuring strong authentication and encryption. Although limited efforts are accessible for strong authentication and secure communication but, the lightweight characteristic is absent from this list. This article is proposing a lightweight secured framework for blockchain based IoV that offers strong authentication and secure communication. After securely authorization of the vehicle, it introduces the concept of branched blockchain taking into the consideration of most recently used block, so that the low powered devices can also adopt the security benefits of the blockchain. The existing mining systems are not designed to handle the needs of the IoV at the physical layer. Some of the key features of the proposed framework are lightweight blockchain for physical layer and above, load balancing, scalability, availability and decentralization. According to the relative research, which takes into account factors like computation and transmission costs, our suggested framework outperforms already implemented ones. This framework can act as base of new research verticals where anyone is looking forward for a lightweight blockchain variant applicable on physical layer of IoV.

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the era of Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things (IoT) performs the driving position analogous to the initial industrial metamorphosis as mentioned in this paper, which affords the potential to couple machine-to-machine inte...
Abstract: In the era of Industry 4.0, the Internet-of-Things (IoT) performs the driving position analogous to the initial industrial metamorphosis. IoT affords the potential to couple machine-to-machine inte...

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new shared data auditing scheme is proposed, which supports user revocation by combining the existing certificateless signcryption method with a fog architecture, and improves the efficiency of auditing and user revocation since it reduces many time-consuming operations.
Abstract: With the technology of data storage and shared services in the cloud, users can easily share data or revoke from their groups. To ensure the accuracy of the shared data, the key is used for group users to calculate the authenticators of the shared data and audit the data's integrity remotely. However, high-speed mobile terminals have posed challenges to key management in Vehicle Ad-hoc networks (VANETs). Besides, to maintain the integrity of the shared data, the computation and communication overheads must be increased in the revocation process when a vehicle user is removed from a group. For such, a new shared data auditing scheme is proposed in this paper, which supports user revocation by combining the existing certificateless signcryption method with a fog architecture. This scheme improves the efficiency of auditing and user revocation since it reduces many time-consuming operations, as well as features such as public auditing, mutual authentication, efficient and secure revocation are presented. Security analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is both correct and safe, has more comprehensive functions and better efficiency than other existing ones.

43 citations


Cites background from "A Lightweight Mutual Authentication..."

  • ...VANETs can effectively prevent traffic accidents, plan the best travel route, and realize fast communication with the characteristics of the internet [2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A lightweight protocol for dynamic properties of vehicles for regional segmentation management and overhead resolution and verifies formal security using the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) software tool and non-mathematical (informal) security analysis.
Abstract: Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) and Internet of Vehicle (IoV) technologies are particularly attracting attention from industrial communities because of the intelligent transportation systems of smart city technologies. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication of VANET can guarantee traffic system management and road safety. However, V2V communication cannot manage many vehicles as a whole, so it needs to be segmented and communicated by region. Therefore, considering locality, key agreement is made for V2V communication of the same or different regions. Moreover, traditional public key infrastructure (PKI) and Kerberos systems to be applied in a real environment incur computational overhead. Therefore, we proposed a lightweight protocol for dynamic properties of vehicles for regional segmentation management and overhead resolution. In addition, because vehicle information is transmitted through public channels, our protocol uses mutual authentication and honey_list technology to ensure security against a variety of attacks. It provides verification of safety through a detailed security analysis using the formal analysis using the widely-accepted Real-Or-Random (ROR) model, and verifies formal security using the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) software tool and non-mathematical (informal) security analysis. In addition, a detailed comparative study that the proposed scheme can be applied in the communication environment between actual vehicles as compared to other existing competing schemes.

31 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A user authentication protocol scheme with privacy protection for IIoT is proposed and the security of the proposed scheme is proved under a random oracle model, and other security discussions show that the proposed protocol is robust to various attacks.
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play an important role in the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and have been widely used in many industrial fields to gather data of monitoring area. However, due to the open nature of wireless channel and resource-constrained feature of sensor nodes, how to guarantee that the sensitive sensor data can only be accessed by a valid user becomes a key challenge in IIoT environment. Some user authentication protocols for WSNs have been proposed to address this issue. However, previous works more or less have their own weaknesses, such as not providing user anonymity and other ideal functions or being vulnerable to some attacks. To provide secure communication for IIoT, a user authentication protocol scheme with privacy protection for IIoT has been proposed. The security of the proposed scheme is proved under a random oracle model, and other security discussions show that the proposed protocol is robust to various attacks. Furthermore, the comparison results with other related protocols and the simulation by NS-3 show that the proposed protocol is secure and efficient for IIoT.

307 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Aug 2008
TL;DR: ViFi is developed, a protocol that opportunistically exploits basestation diversity to minimize disruptions and support interactive applications for mobile clients that doubles the number of successful short TCP transfers and doubles the length of disruption-free VoIP sessions compared to an existing WiFi-style handoff protocol.
Abstract: We ask if the ubiquity of WiFi can be leveraged to provide cheap connectivity from moving vehicles for common applications such as Web browsing and VoIP. Driven by this question, we conduct a study of connection quality available to vehicular WiFi clients based on measurements from testbeds in two different cities. We find that current WiFi handoff methods, in which clients communicate with one basestation at a time, lead to frequent disruptions in connectivity. We also find that clients can overcome many disruptions by communicating with multiple basestations simultaneously. These findings lead us to develop ViFi, a protocol that opportunistically exploits basestation diversity to minimize disruptions and support interactive applications for mobile clients. ViFi uses a decentralized and lightweight probabilistic algorithm for coordination between participating basestations. Our evaluation using a two-month long deployment and trace-driven simulations shows that its link-layer performance comes close to an ideal diversity-based protocol. Using two applications, VoIP and short TCP transfers, we show that the link layer performance improvement translates to better application performance. In our deployment, ViFi doubles the number of successful short TCP transfers and doubles the length of disruption-free VoIP sessions compared to an existing WiFi-style handoff protocol.

290 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This tutorial survey collates research across a number of topics in V2X, from historical developments to standardization activities and a high-level view of research in anumber of important fields to provide a useful reference for the state of V2x research and development for newcomers and veterans alike.
Abstract: As we edge closer to the broad implementation of intelligent transportation systems, the need to extend the perceptual bounds of sensor-equipped vehicles beyond the individual vehicle is more pressing than ever. Research and standardization efforts toward vehicle to everything (V2X), technology is intended to enable the communication of individual vehicles with both one another and supporting road infrastructure. The topic has drawn interest from a large number of stakeholders, from governmental authorities to automotive manufacturers and mobile network operators. With interest sourced from many disparate parties and a wealth of research on a large number of topics, trying to grasp the bigger picture of V2X development can be a daunting task. In this tutorial survey, to the best of our knowledge, we collate research across a number of topics in V2X, from historical developments to standardization activities and a high-level view of research in a number of important fields. In so doing, we hope to provide a useful reference for the state of V2X research and development for newcomers and veterans alike.

290 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...[3] and makes Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I), Vehicle-to-RSU (V2R), Vehicle-to-Pedestrians (V2P), Vehicle-to-Sensors (V2S), and Vehicle-to-Mobile Devices (V2M) communication....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A robust anonymous authentication protocol for health-care applications using WMSNs is proposed, which has strong security and computational efficiency and is more suitable for Health-Care applications usingWMSNs.
Abstract: With the fast development of wireless communication technologies and semiconductor technologies, the wireless sensor network (WSN) has been widely used in many applications As an application of the WSN, the wireless medical sensor network (WMSN) could improve health-care quality and has become important in the modern medical system In the WMSN, physiological data are collected by sensors deployed in the patient's body and sent to health professionals' mobile devices through wireless communication Then health professionals could get the status of the patient anywhere and anytime The data collected by sensors are very sensitive and important The leakage of them could compromise the patient's privacy and their malicious modification could harm the patient's health Therefore, both security and privacy are two important issues in WMSNs Recently, Kumar et al proposed an efficient authentication protocol for health-care applications using WMSNs and claimed that it could withstand various attacks However, we find that their protocol is vulnerable to the off-line password guessing attack and the privileged insider attack We also point out that their protocol cannot provide user anonymity In this paper, we will propose a robust anonymous authentication protocol for health-care applications using WMSNs Compared with Kumar et al's protocol, the proposed protocol has strong security and computational efficiency Therefore, it is more suitable for health-care applications using WMSNs

273 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper first uses a dynamic traffic simulator to generate flows in all links using available traffic information, estimated demand, and historical traffic data available from links equipped with sensors, and implements an optimization methodology to adjust the origin-to-destination matrices driving the simulator.
Abstract: Obtaining accurate information about current and near-term future traffic flows of all links in a traffic network has a wide range of applications, including traffic forecasting, vehicle navigation devices, vehicle routing, and congestion management. A major problem in getting traffic flow information in real time is that the vast majority of links is not equipped with traffic sensors. Another problem is that factors affecting traffic flows, such as accidents, public events, and road closures, are often unforeseen, suggesting that traffic flow forecasting is a challenging task. In this paper, we first use a dynamic traffic simulator to generate flows in all links using available traffic information, estimated demand, and historical traffic data available from links equipped with sensors. We implement an optimization methodology to adjust the origin-to-destination matrices driving the simulator. We then use the real-time and estimated traffic data to predict the traffic flows on each link up to 30 min ahead. The prediction algorithm is based on an autoregressive model that adapts itself to unpredictable events. As a case study, we predict the flows of a traffic network in San Francisco, CA, USA, using a macroscopic traffic flow simulator. We use Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate our methodology. Our simulations demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach. The traffic flow prediction errors vary from an average of 2% for 5-min prediction windows to 12% for 30-min windows even in the presence of unpredictable events.

261 citations