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Journal ArticleDOI

A meta-analytic review of personality traits and their associations with mental health treatment outcomes.

01 Jun 2019-Clinical Psychology Review (Clin Psychol Rev)-Vol. 70, pp 51-63
TL;DR: Overall results suggest that personality assessment can aid with case conceptualization by suggesting potential strengths as well as barriers to treatment, and personality traits related to various outcomes differently based on moderators.
About: This article is published in Clinical Psychology Review.The article was published on 2019-06-01. It has received 81 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Big Five personality traits & Conscientiousness.
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Journal Article
01 Jan 2008-JAMA
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of LTPP, especially in complex mental disorders, was examined by performing a meta-analysis, which showed that LTPP showed significantly higher outcomes in overall effectiveness, target problems, general psychiatric symptoms, personality functioning, and social functioning than shorter forms of psychotherapy.
Abstract: Context The place of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) within psychiatry is controversial. Convincing outcome research for LTPP has been lacking. Objective To examine the effects of LTPP, especially in complex mental disorders, ie, patients with personality disorders, chronic mental disorders, multiple mental disorders, and complex depressive and anxiety disorders (ie, associated with chronic course and/or multiple mental disorders), by performing a meta-analysis. Data Sources Studies of LTPP published between January 1, 1960, and May 31, 2008, were identified by a computerized search using MEDLINE, PsyclNFO, and Current Contents, supplemented by contact with experts in the field. Study Selection Only studies that used individual psychodynamic psychotherapy lasting for at least a year, or 50 sessions; had a prospective design; and reported reliable outcome measures were included. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were considered. Twenty-three studies involving a total of 1053 patients were included (11 RCTs and 12 observational studies). Data Extraction Information on study characteristics and treatment outcome was extracted by 2 independent raters. Effect sizes were calculated for overall effectiveness, target problems, general psychiatric symptoms, personality functioning, and social functioning. To examine the stability of outcome, effect sizes were calculated separately for end-of-therapy and follow-up assessment. Results According to comparative analyses of controlled trials, LTPP showed significantly higher outcomes in overall effectiveness, target problems, and personality functioning than shorter forms of psychotherapy. With regard to overall effectiveness, a between-group effect size of1.8 (95% confidence interval [Cl], 0.7-3.4) indicated that after treatment with LTPP patients with complex mental disorders on average were better off than 96% of the patients in the comparison groups (P= .002). According to subgroup analyses, LTPP yielded significant, large, and stable within-group effect sizes across various and particularly complex mental disorders (range, 0.78-1.98). Conclusions There is evidence that LTPP is an effective treatment for complex mental disorders. Further research should address the outcome of LTPP in specific mental disorders and should include cost-effectiveness analyses.

550 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Both the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders and the chapter on personality disorders (PD) in the recent version of ICD-11 embody a shift from a categorical to a dimensional paradigm for the classification of PD.
Abstract: Both the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) and the chapter on personality disorders (PD) in the recent version of ICD-11 embody a shift from a categorical to a dimensional paradigm for the classification of PD. We describe these new models, summarize available measures, and provide a comprehensive review of research on the AMPD. A total of 237 publications on severity (criterion A) and maladaptive traits (criterion B) of the AMPD indicate (a) acceptable interrater reliability, (b) largely consistent latent structures, (c) substantial convergence with a range of theoretically and clinically relevant external measures, and (d) some evidence for incremental validity when controlling for categorical PD diagnoses. However, measures of criterion A and B are highly correlated, which poses conceptual challenges. The AMPD has stimulated extensive research with promising findings. We highlight open questions and provide recommendations for future research.

145 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the effects of a 3-mo digital personality change intervention using a randomized controlled trial and the smartphone application PEACH (PErsonality coACH).
Abstract: Personality traits predict important life outcomes, such as success in love and work life, well-being, health, and longevity. Given these positive relations to important outcomes, economists, policy makers, and scientists have proposed intervening to change personality traits to promote positive life outcomes. However, nonclinical interventions to change personality traits are lacking so far in large-scale naturalistic populations. This study (n = 1,523) examined the effects of a 3-mo digital personality change intervention using a randomized controlled trial and the smartphone application PEACH (PErsonality coACH). Participants who received the intervention showed greater self-reported changes compared to participants in the waitlist control group who had to wait 1 mo before receiving the intervention. Self-reported changes aligned with intended goals for change and were significant for those desiring to increase on a trait (d = 0.52) and for those desiring to decrease on a trait (d = -0.58). Observers such as friends, family members, or intimate partners also detected significant personality changes in the desired direction for those desiring to increase on a trait (d = 0.35). Observer-reported changes for those desiring to decrease on a trait were not significant (d = -0.22). Moreover, self- and observer-reported changes persisted until 3 mo after the end of the intervention. This work provides the strongest evidence to date that normal personality traits can be changed through intervention in nonclinical samples.

73 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Dimensional models in general, and the five-factor model in particular, received more positive clinical utility ratings than categorical PD models in the majority of clinical utility domains.
Abstract: Increasing dissatisfaction with categorical personality disorder (PD) diagnoses has led to the development of dimensional PD frameworks, which have gained influence in recent years. Although most studies contrasting the dimensional and categorical frameworks focus on issues related to construct validity, there is a burgeoning literature evaluating the clinical utility of these two approaches, with studies typically contrasting clinicians' ratings of various dimensions of clinical utility in the 2 frameworks using case vignettes or actual patients. This study used meta-analytic techniques to synthesize extant findings in this area, integrating data from 11 studies (103 total effect sizes, N of raters = 2,033) wherein clinical utility ratings of categorical and dimensional PD frameworks were compared. Dimensional models in general, and the five-factor model in particular, received more positive clinical utility ratings than categorical PD models in the majority of clinical utility domains. Stronger results were obtained for ratings of actual patients than ratings derived from case vignettes. Implications of these findings for the conceptualization and diagnosis of personality pathology are discussed, and suggestions for future research in this area are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

38 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Mar 2021-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined how personality traits were associated with adjustment to the COVID pandemic in college students and found that mood and wellness indices generally declined during the period, although stress levels actually decreased.
Abstract: Personality traits have been found to be related to a variety of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine how personality traits were associated with adjustment to the COVID pandemic in college students. The sample included 484 first-year university students (76% female) attending a northeastern university who completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality assessment at the beginning of a semester that was disrupted by the COVID pandemic. Using a phone-based app, students completed daily ratings of mood, perceived stress levels, and engagement in a number of health promotion activities (exercise, mindfulness, adequate sleep, etc.) throughout the semester both before and after the onset of the pandemic (e.g., a within-person longitudinal design). Results, as expected, showed that mood and wellness indices generally declined during the COVID period, although stress levels actually decreased. Further, irrespective of COVID, improved mood, less perceived stress and greater participation in health promotion activities were significantly associated with a number of personality traits including neuroticism (lower), extraversion (higher), agreeableness (higher), and conscientiousness (higher). Of primary interest, mixed-effects models were used to test how major personality traits interacted with any changes in daily ratings from the pre-COVID to COVID period. Significant interactions terms were found suggesting differential impacts of the COVID epidemic for students with low versus high levels of particular traits. Higher levels of extraversion, for example, were found to be related to decreases in mood as the pandemic progressed in contrast to those with lower extraversion, for whom there was a slight increase in mood over time. These data support the conclusion that personality traits are related to mental health and can play a role in a person's ability to cope with major stressful events. Different traits may also be more adaptive to different types of stressors.

30 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An issue concerning the criteria for tic disorders is highlighted, and how this might affect classification of dyskinesias in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Abstract: Given the recent attention to movement abnormalities in psychosis spectrum disorders (e.g., prodromal/high-risk syndromes, schizophrenia) (Mittal et al., 2008; Pappa and Dazzan, 2009), and an ongoing discussion pertaining to revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) for the upcoming 5th edition, we would like to take this opportunity to highlight an issue concerning the criteria for tic disorders, and how this might affect classification of dyskinesias in psychotic spectrum disorders. Rapid, non-rhythmic, abnormal movements can appear in psychosis spectrum disorders, as well as in a host of commonly co-occurring conditions, including Tourette’s Syndrome and Transient Tic Disorder (Kerbeshian et al., 2009). Confusion can arise when it becomes necessary to determine whether an observed movement (e.g., a sudden head jerk) represents a spontaneous dyskinesia (i.e., spontaneous transient chorea, athetosis, dystonia, ballismus involving muscle groups of the arms, legs, trunk, face, and/or neck) or a tic (i.e., stereotypic or patterned movements defined by the relationship to voluntary movement, acute and chronic time course, and sensory urges). Indeed, dyskinetic movements such as dystonia (i.e., sustained muscle contractions, usually producing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures or positions) closely resemble tics in a patterned appearance, and may only be visually discernable by attending to timing differences (Gilbert, 2006). When turning to the current DSM-IV TR for clarification, the description reads: “Tic Disorders must be distinguished from other types of abnormal movements that may accompany general medical conditions (e.g., Huntington’s disease, stroke, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Wilson’s disease, Sydenham’s chorea, multiple sclerosis, postviral encephalitis, head injury) and from abnormal movements that are due to the direct effects of a substance (e.g., a neuroleptic medication)”. However, as it is written, it is unclear if psychosis falls under one such exclusionary medical disorder. The “direct effects of a substance” criteria, referencing neuroleptic medications, further contributes to the uncertainty around this issue. As a result, ruling-out or differentiating tics in psychosis spectrum disorders is at best, a murky endeavor. Historically, the advent of antipsychotic medication in the 1950s has contributed to the confusion about movement signs in psychiatric populations. Because neuroleptic medications produce characteristic movement disorder in some patients (i.e. extrapyramidal side effects), drug-induced movement disturbances have been the focus of research attention in psychotic disorders. However, accumulating data have documented that spontaneous dyskinesias, including choreoathetodic movements, can occur in medication naive adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Pappa and Dazzan, 2009), as well as healthy first-degree relatives of chronically ill schizophrenia patients (McCreadie et al., 2003). Taken together, this suggests that movement abnormalities may reflect pathogenic processes underlying some psychotic disorders (Mittal et al., 2008; Pappa and Dazzan, 2009). More specifically, because spontaneous hyperkinetic movements are believed to reflect abnormal striatal dopamine activity (DeLong and Wichmann, 2007), and dysfunction in this same circuit is also proposed to contribute to psychosis, it is possible that spontaneous dyskinesias serve as an outward manifestation of circuit dysfunction underlying some schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms (Walker, 1994). Further, because these movements precede the clinical onset of psychotic symptoms, sometimes occurring in early childhood (Walker, 1994), and may steadily increase during adolescence among populations at high-risk for schizophrenia (Mittal et al., 2008), observable dyskinesias could reflect a susceptibility that later interacts with environmental and neurodevelopmental factors, in the genesis of psychosis. In adolescents who meet criteria for a prodromal syndrome (i.e., the period preceding formal onset of psychotic disorders characterized by subtle attenuated positive symptoms coupled with a decline in functioning), there is sometimes a history of childhood conditions which are also characterized by suppressible tics or tic like movements (Niendam et al., 2009). On the other hand, differentiating between tics and dyskinesias has also complicated research on childhood disorders such as Tourette syndrome (Kompoliti and Goetz, 1998; Gilbert, 2006). We propose consideration of more explicit and operationalized criteria for differentiating tics and dyskinesias, based on empirically derived understanding of neural mechanisms. Further, revisions of the DSM should allow for the possibility that movement abnormalities might reflect neuropathologic processes underlying the etiology of psychosis for a subgroup of patients. Psychotic disorders might also be included among the medical disorders that are considered a rule-out for tics. Related to this, the reliability of movement assessment needs to be improved, and this may require more training for mental health professionals in movement symptoms. Although standardized assessment of movement and neurological abnormalities is common in research settings, it has been proposed that an examination of neuromotor signs should figure in the assessment of any patient, and be as much a part of the patient assessment as the mental state examination (Picchioni and Dazzan, 2009). To this end it is important for researchers and clinicians to be aware of differentiating characteristics for these two classes of abnormal movement. For example, tics tend to be more complex than myoclonic twitches, and less flowing than choreoathetodic movements (Kompoliti and Goetz, 1998). Patients with tics often describe a sensory premonition or urge to perform a tic, and the ability to postpone tics at the cost of rising inner tension (Gilbert, 2006). For example, one study showed that patients with tic disorders could accurately distinguish tics from other movement abnormalities based on the subjective experience of some voluntary control of tics (Lang, 1991). Another differentiating factor derives from the relationship of the movement in question to other voluntary movements. Tics in one body area rarely occur during purposeful and voluntary movements in that same body area whereas dyskinesia are often exacerbated by voluntary movement (Gilbert, 2006). Finally, it is noteworthy that tics wax and wane in frequency and intensity and migrate in location over time, often becoming more complex and peaking between the ages of 9 and 14 years (Gilbert, 2006). In the case of dyskinesias among youth at-risk for psychosis, there is evidence that the movements tend to increase in severity and frequency as the individual approaches the mean age of conversion to schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Mittal et al., 2008). As revisions to the DSM are currently underway in preparation for the new edition (DSM V), we encourage greater attention to the important, though often subtle, distinctions among subtypes of movement abnormalities and their association with psychiatric syndromes.

67,017 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jacob Cohen1
TL;DR: A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is providedHere the sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests.
Abstract: One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.

38,291 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition and suggests a simple noniterative procedure for characterizing the distribution of treatment effects in a series of studies.

33,234 citations


"A meta-analytic review of personali..." refers result in this paper

  • ...The finding related to comorbidity is congruent with other reviews investigating predictors of treatment outcomes that have found comorbid depression is related to poorer treatment outcomes (Amati, Banks, Greenfield, & Green, 2017; Eskildsen, Hougaard, & Rosenberg, 2010). An additional review by Vall and Wade (2015) found that lower motivation significantly related to dropout (r= .23) and fewer familial problems related to a more favorable overall outcome (r= .36). Past studies have also investigated PDs associations with various treatment outcomes. Messina, Wish, Hoffman, and Nemes (2002) examined antisocial PD and substance use treatments and found it was unrelated to treatment completion; rather treatment completion was the most important predictor. Yet, Dreessen and Arntz (1998) examined the anxiety disorder treatment literature and found that the presence of PDs did negatively affect treatment outcomes for various anxiety disorders. A systematic review by Newton-Howes, Foulds, Guy, Boden, and Mulder (2017) also found some inconsistencies across the relationship between PDs and alcohol treatment outcomes, noting that some found the presence of a PD was associated with short time to relapse, greater alcohol consumption, and dropout, while others found no differences....

    [...]

  • ...The finding related to comorbidity is congruent with other reviews investigating predictors of treatment outcomes that have found comorbid depression is related to poorer treatment outcomes (Amati, Banks, Greenfield, & Green, 2017; Eskildsen, Hougaard, & Rosenberg, 2010). An additional review by Vall and Wade (2015) found that lower motivation significantly related to dropout (r= .23) and fewer familial problems related to a more favorable overall outcome (r= .36). Past studies have also investigated PDs associations with various treatment outcomes. Messina, Wish, Hoffman, and Nemes (2002) examined antisocial PD and substance use treatments and found it was unrelated to treatment completion; rather treatment completion was the most important predictor....

    [...]

  • ...The finding related to comorbidity is congruent with other reviews investigating predictors of treatment outcomes that have found comorbid depression is related to poorer treatment outcomes (Amati, Banks, Greenfield, & Green, 2017; Eskildsen, Hougaard, & Rosenberg, 2010)....

    [...]

  • ...The finding related to comorbidity is congruent with other reviews investigating predictors of treatment outcomes that have found comorbid depression is related to poorer treatment outcomes (Amati, Banks, Greenfield, & Green, 2017; Eskildsen, Hougaard, & Rosenberg, 2010). An additional review by Vall and Wade (2015) found that lower motivation significantly related to dropout (r= ....

    [...]

  • ...The finding related to comorbidity is congruent with other reviews investigating predictors of treatment outcomes that have found comorbid depression is related to poorer treatment outcomes (Amati, Banks, Greenfield, & Green, 2017; Eskildsen, Hougaard, & Rosenberg, 2010). An additional review by Vall and Wade (2015) found that lower motivation significantly related to dropout (r= .23) and fewer familial problems related to a more favorable overall outcome (r= .36). Past studies have also investigated PDs associations with various treatment outcomes. Messina, Wish, Hoffman, and Nemes (2002) examined antisocial PD and substance use treatments and found it was unrelated to treatment completion; rather treatment completion was the most important predictor. Yet, Dreessen and Arntz (1998) examined the anxiety disorder treatment literature and found that the presence of PDs did negatively affect treatment outcomes for various anxiety disorders....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1925
TL;DR: The prime object of as discussed by the authors is to put into the hands of research workers, and especially of biologists, the means of applying statistical tests accurately to numerical data accumulated in their own laboratories or available in the literature.
Abstract: The prime object of this book is to put into the hands of research workers, and especially of biologists, the means of applying statistical tests accurately to numerical data accumulated in their own laboratories or available in the literature.

11,308 citations

Related Papers (5)
Trending Questions (3)
Personality traits and the working alliance in psychotherapy trainees: an organizing role forthe five factor model?

The answer to the query is not present in the provided paper. The paper is about the association between personality traits and therapeutic outcomes, but it does not specifically discuss the working alliance in psychotherapy trainees.

How does personality traits and mental health related?

Personality traits are associated with various therapeutic outcomes in mental health treatment, with lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness being linked to more favorable outcomes.

Which personality traits are most related to mental health outcomes?

The paper states that lower levels of neuroticism and higher levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness are associated with more favorable mental health treatment outcomes.