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A Method to Determine the Maximum Side Perspective of Satellite with the Constraints of Mapping Accuracy

16 Sep 2014-pp 13-22

TL;DR: A method to determine the maximum side perspective with map precision constraints, and set up a conversion relationship among satellite side view, DEM error and image point error is put forward.

AbstractIn order to shorten the revisit period, and improve the efficiency of imaging, currently, all the in orbit high resolution remote sensing satellites adopt side-view imaging technology. When satellites imaging with a side perspective, it would inevitably cause the degradation of image quality, like spatial resolution reduction, image deformation incensement, and the reduction of positioning accuracy. In addition, with the increase of the side perspective, the error of DEM data will be amplified in the process of ortho-rectification, which, thus, will bring bigger error for image mapping accuracy. To address this problem, embarked from the impact of side view and DEM precision on image point error, this paper used Quick bird image data of the same area but different side perspectives, and simulate the impacts of different DEM elevation error on different side view image. At last we put forward a method to determine the maximum side perspective with map precision constraints, and set up a conversion relationship among satellite side view, DEM error and image point error. Finally, the paper combines the errors of 1:50000 DEM, ASTERGDEM and the requirement of ortho-image drawing, discusses and gives the values of maximum side perspective in the mountains and plains.

Topics: Image quality (54%), Image map (54%), Image resolution (52%)

Summary (2 min read)

1 Introduction

  • Along with the continuous improvement of remote sensing satellites’ spatial resolution, it also brought adverse effects of the image width and image acquisition efficiency reduction.
  • As is well-known, when the satellites side-view imaging, the observation path is increased, the relative geometric relationship between satellite and ground objects is changed, which caused the degeneration of image quality [1] (such as the spatial resolution reduced, image deformation increase, etc.).
  • The error of satellite orbit and attitude is decided by the control accuracy of the satellite itself and the in-orbit state, which cannot be changed by the average user.
  • It can be seen from the above error analysis of ortho-rectification, in general case, the factors to be considered most by users are side perspective and DEM errors.
  • Many scholars have carried out some research work about the effects on image quality degradation and ortho-rectification precision caused by side perspective, and the effects on ortho-rectification precision caused by DEM errors.

2.1 Experimental DATA

  • The experimental area is the northern part of Beijing, including plain and mountain.
  • Experimental data are multispectral image collected by using high-resolution Quickbird satellite in 2002 to 2012.
  • With 2.44 m resolution, side perspective spanning from 5.6°to 43.7°ten different angles in total.
  • Image side perspective spanned broadly, evenly distributed, specifically details can be seen in the table below.

2.2 Experimental Methods

  • According to the principle of photogrammetry, the comparation between image point error caused by the side perspective and imaginary horizontal photograph as Figure 1(a) shows.
  • After two photograph overlapping along isocon line,the position of (m) in the horizontal photograph is m, obviously mm0 is the tilt error.
  • During the process of ortho-rectification, image points error will be affected by side perspective and relief at the same time.
  • In the existing research results, different influence factors are often analyzed independently, which ignores the mutual influence and internal relations of different factors and is not real and comprehensive enough to reflect the objective situation of data.
  • Input the satellite images and their corresponding parameters, original DEM data into RPC model, when the side perspective is given.

3 Results and Discussion

  • Figure 3 shows that using experimental data with different side perspectives, the paper calculated the influence law distribution on ortho-rectification accuracy caused by DEM error.
  • From the numerical distribution and the fitting results in figure 3, it can be seen that under the same side perspective, pixel positioning errors increase with the increasement of DEM elevation values;the larger the side perspective is, the greater the pixel positioning is.
  • From numerical distribution and fitting results in the figure 5, it can be seen that it is also a linear relationship between the side perspective and fitting line slope.
  • Therefore, the relationship between fitting line slope of DEM error and ortho-rectification and satellite side perspective can be considered linear.
  • 10000 topographic mapping requirements, the error of image calibration is no more than 5m on plains and hilly lands,7.5m on mountainous and alpine areas, also known as Corresponding 1.

5 Conclusions

  • This paper established the quantitative conversion relationship among satellite side perspective, DEM error,ortho-rectification,and image rectification, proposed a method to determine the maximum imaging side perspective with map precision constraints, and provided guidance on data selection and processing.
  • When known DEM data accuracy and the accuracy that ortho-rectification expected to achieve, the maximum side perspective of the satellite can be calculated to meet those conditions.
  • On the other hand, when the existing satellite data side perspective is known, the minimum accuracy of DEM data can be calculated to achieve the expected orthorectification precision.
  • Because the model in this article is obtained by the analysis of real data, thus, the authenticity of the results is guaranteed, and the conclusion is also in line with the actual situation.
  • In addition, the ideas and methods adopted by this paper are also applicable to the analysis and study of other sensors with the same kind.

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Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution| 4.0 International License
A Method to Determine the Maximum Side Perspective
of Satellite with the Constraints of Mapping Accuracy
Jihong Yang, Haiwei Li, Yin Zhan, Liangshu Shi, Jinqiang Wang, Zhengchao
Chen
To cite this version:
Jihong Yang, Haiwei Li, Yin Zhan, Liangshu Shi, Jinqiang Wang, et al.. A Method to Determine the
Maximum Side Perspective of Satellite with the Constraints of Mapping Accuracy. 8th International
Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture (CCTA), Sep 2014, Beijing,
China. pp.13-22, �10.1007/978-3-319-19620-6_2�. �hal-01420238�

A Method to Determine the Maximum Side
Perspective of Satellite with the Constraints of
Mapping accuracy
Jihong Yang
1
, Haiwei Li
2,4
, Yin Zhan&Liangshu Shi
1
, Jinqiang Wang
3
,
Zhengchao Chen
4*
1 Chinese Land Surveying and Planning Institute, Beijing 100035, China;
2 School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha
410083, China; 3 Surveying and Mapping Bureau of Yunnan Province, Kunming
650034, Yunnan, China; 4 Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
Corresponding author: Z.C.CHEN e-mail: zcchen@ceode.ac.cn
ABSTRACT: In order to shorten the revisit period, and improve the efficiency
of imaging, currently, all the in orbit high resolution remote sensing satellites
adopt side-view imaging technology. When satellites imaging with a side
perspective, it would inevitably cause the degradation of image quality, like
spatial resolution reduction, image deformation incensement, and the reduction
of positioning accuracy. In addition, with the increase of the side perspective,
the error of DEM data will be amplified in the process of ortho-rectification,
which, thus, will bring bigger error for image mapping accuracy. To address
this problem, embarked from the impact of side view and DEM precision on
image point error, this paper used Quick bird image data of the same area but
different side perspectives, and simulate the impacts of different DEM elevation
error on different side view image. At last we put forward a method to
determine the maximum side perspective with map precision constraints, and
set up a conversion relationship among satellite side view, DEM error and
image point error. Finally, the paper combines the errors of 1:50000 DEM,
ASTERGDEM and the requirement of ortho-image drawing, discusses and
gives the values of maximum side perspective in the mountains and plains.
Keywords: DEM accuracy, satellite side perspective, ortho-rectification,
geolocation accuracy
1 Introduction
Along with the continuous improvement of remote sensing satellites’ spatial
resolution, it also brought adverse effects of the image width and image acquisition
efficiency reduction. In order to shorten the return cycle and to improve the efficiency
of imaging, currently, on-orbit high resolution remote sensing satellites use the side-
view imaging technology to improve the flexibility towards observation objects and
image acquisition efficiency. As is well-known, when the satellites side-view imaging,

the observation path is increased, the relative geometric relationship between satellite
and ground objects is changed, which caused the degeneration of image quality
[1]
(such as the spatial resolution reduced, image deformation increase, etc.) According
to the principle of projection, from a point in space (viewpoint) observing the surface,
each point on the surface along with topographic relief will generate geometric
distortion on the image. The specific performance on the optical remote sensing
imageries is as follows: the ground point, which is away from the viewpoint and with
higher elevation, will fall to the opposite side of the viewpoint
[2]
. Ortho-rectification
is to make use of terrain elevation model (DEM) to perform terrain distortion
correction for each pixel in image, and make the image meet the orthographic
projection, thus eliminating this distortion.
According to the error analysis of satellite imagery ortho-rectification model, the
main factors affect the accuracy of ortho-rectification are as follows: ortho-
rectification model error, satellite orbital attitude error, control point accuracy, DEM
error, etc
[3]
. In which the ortho-rectification model commonly used strict physical
model and rational polynomial model (RPC). Strict physical model are considered to
be theoretically rigorous, thus, It can be considered without error;The RPC model is a
simulation of strict physical model, the model conversion error is generally less than
1m (Liu Shijie, 2008); The error of satellite orbit and attitude is decided by the control
accuracy of the satellite itself and the in-orbit state, which cannot be changed by the
average user. The precision of control points can be controlled through field
measurement, currently using GPS can get higher precision. DEM data are input
parameters of ortho-rectification, which generally directly adopt national fundamental
geographic information data, the precision of is slightly different in the mountains and
plains. In addition, when the satellites side-view imaging, their orbit and attitude
control precision and measurement accuracy will decrease because of satellites or
remote sensors’ side swing
[4]
; Furthermore, according to the theory of projection, the
increase of side perspective will definitely magnify the effects caused by DEM error.
Therefore, the satellite side perspective is also one of the main error sources of
satellite images ortho-rectification.
It can be seen from the above error analysis of ortho-rectification, in general case, the
factors to be considered most by users are side perspective and DEM errors. Many
scholars have carried out some research work about the effects on image quality
degradation and ortho-rectification precision caused by side perspective, and the
effects on ortho-rectification precision caused by DEM errors. Such as Han Wenli,
Yuan Xiuxiao, and Wang Xuejun, etc. Han Wenli(2010) quantitatively analyzed
the impact on ortho-rectification precision caused by side perspective in theory, and
proved the validity of its conclusions through experiments. The conclusions indicate
that with increment of the side perspective, the image ortho-rectification accuracy will
gradually decline, and the decrease amplitude is quite obvious
[3]
. Taking into account
changes of the side perspective, Yuan Xiuxiao et al., 2009, established the geometry
model of high-resolution satellite remote sensing image processing, which improved
the image positioning accuracy on the ground targets. It concluded that the change of

the side perspective is a factor that cannot be neglected in the high-resolution satellite
remote sensing image geometry processing model
[5]
. Wang Xuejun et al., 2008,
selecting different DEM scales, conducted ortho-rectification to the data with
different side perspectives acquired by SPOT5. It certified that when SPOT5 imaging,
the side perspective is the key factor leading layer-over phenomenon of SPOT5
orthophoto products, with the premise of ensuring the accuracy of ground control
points. It also certified that in the calibration process the improvement of DEM
accuracy cannot effectively eliminate layer-over phenomenon of the mountains with
complex terrain and large elevation drop. About the impact on image correcting
accuracy caused by DEM data, Shi Yuhua (2007) , using two different DEM data,
calibrated the same scene image. The results show that the ortho-rectification
accuracy is higher with small basic grid and high-precision DEM data
[6]
.
However, these studies only consider the impact of unilateral side perspective or
DEM error on ortho-rectification precision, and failed to combine both. Actually it is
a coupling effect between side perspective and DEM error: DEM error will be
amplified with the increase of side perspective; Errors caused by side perspective will
change along with the change DEM data. As the input conditions of ortho-
rectification the accuracy of DEM data are often unable to change. Therefore, in
practice, it is more significant to study how to determine the maximum satellite
observation side perspective in the premise that there is some error in DEM data, as
well as guarantee certain accuracy of ortho-rectification and mapping. Aiming at this
problem, this paper adopted Quickbird image data with different side perspectives in
Beijing, proposed a method to determine the maximum satellite imaging side
perspective with certain constraints of mapping accuracy by simulating different
influence law on the accuracy of image ortho-rectification caused by DEM elevation
error, and established a quantitative conversion relationship among satellite side
perspective, DEM error, and the error of ortho-rectification image points.
2 Experiments and Methods
2.1 Experimental DATA
The experimental area is the northern part of Beijing, including plain and mountain.
Experimental data are multispectral image collected by using high-resolution
Quickbird satellite in 2002 to 2012. With 2.44 m resolution, side perspective spanning
from 5.6°to 43.7°ten different angles in total. Image side perspective spanned
broadly, evenly distributed, specifically details can be seen in the table below.
Table 1 Test data tables side perspective Statistics
Satellite Name
Side perspective °

QuickBird
5.6
10.4
14.4
16.3
22.1
28.2
31.8
34.3
43.7
2.2 Experimental Methods
According to the principle of photogrammetry, the comparation between image point
error caused by the side perspective and imaginary horizontal photograph as Figure
1(a) shows.
P is the tilted photograph and P0 is the imaginary horizontal photograph with the
same observation conditions. They intersect at isocon line hc. Imagine that ground
point M is
m
on tilted photograph P and
m
0
on horizontal photograph P
0
,
respectively. After two photograph overlapping along isocon linethe position of (m)
in the horizontal photograph is m, obviously mm
0
is the tilt error. With the increase of
side perspective, the tilt error will become bigger. Image point error caused by the
relief is shown as follows(right). To facilitate discussion, assume that photograph is
horizontal, and the height difference between ground point A and the datum is h. The
image point of ground piont A is point a on the photograph; the projection of A on
the datum is A
0
, whose image point is a
0
. aa
0
is the displacement of image points
caused by the relief. As can be seen, the displacement of image points will increase
with the increasement of height difference h
[7-9]
.
(a) (b)
Figure 1 the error of displacement of image points caused by side perspective and
relief((a): side perspective; (b): relief)
During the process of ortho-rectification, image points error will be affected by
side perspective and relief at the same time. In the existing research results, different
influence factors are often analyzed independently, which ignores the mutual
influence and internal relations of different factors and is not real and comprehensive
enough to reflect the objective situation of data. Because the strict physical model to
calibrate the satellite image contains quantities of trigonometric functions and
complex variables. If directly use strict physical model to deduce the error model of
ortho-rectification, it will be very complicated. It is also why many scholars assume
that the variables are independent in the derivation of the law of ortho-rectification
error
[10][11]
. In addition, RPC model is an approximate mathematical simulation of the
physical model. RPC model without satellite orbit and attitude parameters, there is no
way to establish the error model of ortho-rectification, DEM and orbit attitude
parameters. Based on these considerations, this paper used the real images with

Citations
More filters

01 Jan 2009
Abstract: Using the high resolution Quick Bird image and DEM data of different terrain area,applying physical model and rational function model methods for ortho-rectification,this paper studied the accuracy of Quick Bird image ortho-rectification under different terrain condition through the experimental research on multi-scene image.It provided reference for the application of Quick Bird image in large scale topographical map updating.

1 citations


References
More filters

Journal Article
Abstract: The correcting precision may be affected by the incidence angle during correction of satellite images.This article clarifies the reason why this influence occur and the extent it may achieve.Meanwhile,we make a fundamental proof of the connection between the incidence angle and the height precision,as well as the extent that the incidence angle may affect the correcting precision.Moreover,through an experimental approach,the vality of our conclusion was confirmed.It is supposed that,with this analysing method used in manufacture,resources can be arranged properly,and reasonable judgement can be made for quality of the products.

2 citations


"A Method to Determine the Maximum S..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...According to the error analysis of satellite imagery ortho-rectification model, the main factors affect the accuracy of ortho-rectification are as follows: orthorectification model error, satellite orbital attitude error, control point accuracy, DEM error, etc[3]....

    [...]

  • ...The conclusions indicate that with increment of the side perspective, the image ortho-rectification accuracy will gradually decline, and the decrease amplitude is quite obvious[3]....

    [...]


Journal Article
Abstract: This paper introduces some technique of Quickbird,that includes Layer Stack,Resolution Merge,Radiometric Enhancement,Nature Color's Transformation and so on.It primary expounds the method of Quickbird's Orthocorrection,precision analysis,application to updating technique of relief map and spatial data.

2 citations


"A Method to Determine the Maximum S..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The results show that the ortho-rectification accuracy is higher with small basic grid and high-precision DEM data[6]....

    [...]


Journal Article
Abstract: Based on the principle of Ortho-Rectification,a theoretical estimation formula of Ortho-Rectification with no GCPs is presentedWith this formula,the precision of the Ortho-Rectification image with the SRTM DEM data is estimatedThe result shows that Ortho-Rectification Images produced by HRG image with the support of SRTM DEM have high accuracyUsing this method the DOM of Hangzhou,Chongqing and Daqing region are produced,and their accuracy are evaluated with 1∶ 10 000 topographic mapsThe results prove that the theoretical estimation formula is correct and the precision of the ortho-rectification images meets 1∶ 50 000 mapping accuracy

2 citations


"A Method to Determine the Maximum S..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It is also why many scholars assume that the variables are independent in the derivation of the law of ortho-rectification error[10][11]....

    [...]


01 Jan 2009
Abstract: Using the high resolution Quick Bird image and DEM data of different terrain area,applying physical model and rational function model methods for ortho-rectification,this paper studied the accuracy of Quick Bird image ortho-rectification under different terrain condition through the experimental research on multi-scene image.It provided reference for the application of Quick Bird image in large scale topographical map updating.

1 citations


"A Method to Determine the Maximum S..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It is also why many scholars assume that the variables are independent in the derivation of the law of ortho-rectification error[10][11]....

    [...]


Yao Na1
01 Jan 2009
Abstract: According to the mechanism of the side watch angle uniform variety during the imaging procedure using CCD line-scanner, the rigorous geometric model based on affine transformation for high-resolution satellite imagery is modified in this paper. Both the forward and backward formulas between object-space and image-space are presented. A stereo pair of SPOT-5 imagery acquired in across-track mode is selected and used. The empirical results have shown that the proposed geometric model, compared with the original model which considers the CCD line-scanner side watch angle as a constant, can improve the x-coordinate accuracy of image points, and can also raise the height accuracy of object space coordinates significantly while maintain the same level of the planimetric accuracy. This has shown that the side watch angle variety of CCD line-scanner during the process of imaging is a non-negligible factor in the rigorous geometric model for processing high-resolution satellite imagery.

1 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...remote sensing image geometry processing model[5]....

    [...]