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Journal ArticleDOI

A model of human decisionmaking in fault diagnosis tasks that include feedback and redundancy.

01 Apr 1979-IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers Inc)-
About: This article is published in IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics.The article was published on 1979-04-01. It has received 40 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Redundancy (engineering) & Fault (power engineering).
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review paper addresses some of the semantic issues associated with the nature of cognitive style, identifies some most often cited dimensions of cognitive styles, examines ways in which these styles can be classified and considers the implications of the cognitive style for management practice.
Abstract: SUMMARY This review paper addresses some of the semantic issues associated with the nature of cognitive style, identifies some of the most often cited dimensions of cognitive style, examines ways in which these styles can be classified and considers the implications of cognitive style for management practice.

276 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The experiments involve a population of students who know LISP reasonably well in that their errors are best classified as slips, and it is observed that students' ability to judge whether or not the line is correct and their ability to correct an error are not substantially affected by the strategy used to locate the line.
Abstract: This article presents a series of four experiments investigating students' debugging of LISP programs. The experiments involve a population of students who know LISP reasonably well in that their errors are best classified as slips (Brown & Van Lehn, 1980). That is, students are unlikely to repeat the same errors either within their program or across programs (Experiment 1). The students' understanding of LISP is also reflected in their debugging behavior: They can usually fix a bug once they locate it. Students' difficulties are in locating the erroneous line of code. We observe that students use a variety of bug-location strategies during debugging (Experiment 2) and that the choice of strategy differs depending on whether students are debugging their own programs or other students' programs (Experiment 3). In addition, we observe that although the different bug-location strategies affect which lines of a program are searched, once students decide on a line, their ability to judge whether or not the line is correct and their ability to correct an error are not substantially affected by the strategy used to locate the line (Experiment 4). Finally, we argue that our results have implications not only for debugging in other computer languages, but for the general processes involved in troubleshooting as well.

174 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review examines some of the ground-breaking theoretical work done in the cognitive modeling of device knowledge that has laid the needed foundations for effective instruction in reasoning about devices, and reviews a collection of five studies, the effectiveness of which turned on the teaching of device knowl­ edge.
Abstract: ion hierarchies, contextual specificity used to determine knowledge application, and tacit assumptions underlying device explanations. For purposes of this review, the questions of interest regarding the role of device or system knowledge in practical problem solving are these: 1. How is system knowledge modeled for use as instructional content? 2. What pedagogical methods have been successfully used to impart sys­ tem knowledge in practical skills training? 3. Have knowledge-based training interventions actually resulted in the effective teaching of nondeterministic problem-solving tasks and thus overcome the limitations of rigidity and directiveness that are associated with procedures-based training? Because much of the research in this area has been conducted in the domain of complex system operation and maintenance, we will concentrate our dis­ cussions of these questions in that domain. We first examine some of the ground-breaking theoretical work done in the cognitive modeling of device knowledge that has laid the needed foundations for effective instruction in reasoning about devices. Following that, we review a collection of five train­ ing studies, the effectiveness of which turned on the teaching of device knowl­ edge. The Modeling of System (Device) Knowledge The role of system (or device) knowledge in practical problem solving has been carefully studied in the field of medical diagnosis, where, of course, the system in question is the human system. Relatively recently in that domain, Clancey (1986) proposed a "new model of diagnostic thinking" in which knowledge is separated from the procedures that use it. Such a view decou­ ples declarative domain knowledge from the general methods that focus and apply it. Rule-based representations where declarative knowledge melds with general methods (as seen in the LISP tutor) are in effect decomposed. Instead, in order to better capture the nondeterministic problem solving associated with ill-structured tasks, Clancey's diagnostic model describes reasoning in an abstracted, domain-independent way that emphasizes how problem solvers use their general (system) knowledge to construct situation-specific solutions. Accordingly, this scheme is represented by three problem-solving compo­ nents. A general model contains knowledge about the world and a situationspecific model contains information specific to the problem at hand, as drawn from the general model by an inference procedure. The job of the inference procedure is to interpret information in the general model to produce the sit­ uation-specific solution or diagnosis (Figure 5). In medicine, the general model would include knowledge about stereotypic patients, diseases, and treatment plans. The inference procedure would be a collection of diagnostic 122 Review of Research In Education, 15 FIGURE 5 A Problem-Solving Model for Diagnostic Thinking

169 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Models of human performance in avariety of tasks associated with the control of dynamic systems are reviewed, and the problem of allocating tasks between human and computer considered.
Abstract: Modes of human-computer interaction in the control of dynamic systems are discussed, and the problem of allocating tasks between human and computer considered. Models of human performance in a variety of tasks associated with the control of dynamic systems are reviewed. These models are evaluated in the context of a design example involving human-computer interaction in aircraft operations. Other examples include power plants, chemical plants, and ships.

155 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of the human operator as a problem solver in man-machine systems such as vehicles, process plants, transportation networks, etc. is considered and specifications for an overall model outlined.

148 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1978
TL;DR: It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they are asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution.
Abstract: It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they will be asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution. The design of visual displays for problem solving in such situations is considered, and the results of two experimental investigations of human problem solving performance in the diagnosis of faults in graphically displayed network problems are discussed. The effects of problem size, forced-pacing, computer aiding, and training are considered. Results indicate that human performance deviates from optimality as problem size increases. Forced-pacing appears to cause the human to adopt fairly brute force strategies, as compared to those adopted in self-paced situations. Computer aiding substantially lessens the number of mistaken diagnoses by performing the bookkeeping portions of the task.

101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1978
TL;DR: A model is presented of human decisionmaking in the task of troubleshooting graphically displayed networks using fuzzy sets as well as several nonfuzzy heuristics to represent human decision making as a function of network size, forced-pacing, and computer aiding.
Abstract: Utilizing elementary concepts from the theory of fuzzy sets as well as several nonfuzzy heuristics, a model is presented of human decisionmaking in the task of troubleshooting graphically displayed networks. The performance of the model is compared to the results of two previously reported experimental studies. The ability of the model to represent human decisionmaking as a function of network size, forced-pacing, and computer aiding is considered.

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that performance degraded as network size increased, improved with the use of computer aiding, and that skills developed with computer aiding were transferred to the unaided situation.
Abstract: Forty trainees in an FAA certificate program participated in an experimental study of trouble-shooting of graphically displayed networks. The effects of network size, computer aiding, and training ...

52 citations