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A Mother's Attitude Towards her Infant and Child Behaviour Five Years Later:

TL;DR: The results suggest that maternal negative attitude towards the infant at 6 months is an independent predictor of child behaviour problems at 5 years, and remained significant for boys’ externalizing behaviours and girls’ internalizing behaviours.
Abstract: Objective: The relationship between maternal attitude to the infant at 6 months of age and behavioural outcomes at 5 years is explored, controlling for numerous demographic, child and psychosocial family factors. Method: Data was used from the Mater-University Study of Pregnancy, an Australian longitudinal study of over 7000 mothers and children followed from pregnancy to when the children were 5 years. Measures ranging from the key variables of maternal attitude and child behaviour as well as numerous confounders were dichotomised. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between maternal negative attitude toward the infant and clinically significant levels of child behaviour problems and other infant risks, early social risks, and concurrent social risks. Results: The results suggest that maternal negative attitude towards the infant at 6 months is an independent predictor of child behaviour problems at 5 years. This association remained significant for boys’ externalizing behaviours and girls’ internalizing behaviours. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the concept of a sensitive period in early infancy; the need for a broad perspective in the assessment of the mother-infant relationship and the need for early intervention with dysfunctional mother-infant dyads.

Summary (1 min read)

Jump to: [Sampling and procedure][Measures][Results] and [Conclusion]

Sampling and procedure

  • Briefly, the pregnant women were enrolled in the study on average at 18 weeks gestation, then reinterviewed 3–5 days after the birth of their child, then again when the child was 6 months and 5 years of age.
  • There were extensive efforts to achieve high levels of follow-up.
  • The children who were included in this study represented approximately 63% (4856 of 7661) of the participants who were born into the cohort.

Measures

  • Risk variables assessed in this study were dichotomised to reflect high-risk status versus not.
  • As well the authors assessed the relationship between maternal attitude at 6 months and harsh parenting at 5 years to establish whether there was significant continuity between the postnatal and preschool periods.
  • Subjects were classified as high risk on this variable if their mothers reported heavy levels of smoking during pregnancy (7.7% of subjects).
  • In the current study, the 7-item depression subscale had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.82 (6-month follow-up).
  • Child behaviour problems were measured at the 5-year follow-up using items selected from the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) [24], a 118-item checklist with established validity and reliability.

Results

  • Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relation-ship between maternal negative attitude toward the infant and clinically significant levels of child behaviour problems.
  • Additional logistic regression analyses examined the relative predictive effect of maternal negative attitude on these child outcomes, in comparison with other infant risks, early social risks, and concurrent social risks.
  • All analyses were performed separately for male and female participants.
  • For boys, maternal negative attitude was significantly related to externalizing and internalizing problems even when other infant risks, early contextual risks, and concurrent risks were controlled (see Tables 3,4).
  • The authors calculated cumulative early social risks as the sum of income, maternal age, marital dissatisfaction, maternal stress, and maternal depression risks.

Conclusion

  • This is especially the case for externalizing behaviours in boys.
  • This remained the case for internalizing behaviours except at the 5-year phase where concurrent maternal depression was a more powerful predictor than maternal attitude.
  • For girls the picture was somewhat different.
  • Negative attitude still remained an independent predictor in girls.
  • In all three phases the relationship remained for internalizing behaviours and in two of the three phases the relationship remained for externalizing behaviours.

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Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2003; 37 (6):748–755. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2003.01272.x
A Mothers Attitude Towards Her Infant and
Child Behaviour Five Years Later
William Bor
1
, Patricia A. Brennan
2
, Gail M. Williams
3
, Jake M. Najman
4
,
Michael OCallaghan
1
1
Mater Child and Youth Mental Health Service, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, 4101.
2
Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta; Georgia US.
3
Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland,
Australia
4
Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre, (QADREC), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland,
Australia
Abstract
Objective: The relationship between maternal attitude to the infant at 6 months of age and
behavioural outcomes at 5 years is explored, controlling for numerous demographic, child and
psychosocial family factors.
Method: Data was used from the Mater-University Study of Pregnancy, an Australian
longitudinal study of over 7000 mothers and children followed from pregnancy to when the
children were 5 years. Measures ranging from the key variables of maternal attitude and child
behaviour as well as numerous confounders were dichotomised. Logistic regression analyses
were performed to examine the relationship between maternal negative attitude toward the
infant and clinically significant levels of child behaviour problems and other infant risks, early
social risks, and concurrent social risks.
Results: The results suggest that maternal negative attitude towards the infant at 6 months is an
independent predictor of child behaviour problems at 5 years. This association remained
significant for boys externalizing behaviours and girls internalizing behaviours.
Conclusions: The findings lend support to the concept of a sensitive period in early infancy; the
need for a broad perspective in the assessment of the mother-infant relationship and the need for
early intervention with dysfunctional mother-infant dyads.
Keywords: child behaviour, early experience, postnatal maternal attitude.
There is debate over the capacity of early experiences (i.e. the period including fetal life, infancy and
the pre-school years) to shape later child developmental and behavioural outcomes [1]. In particular
research into maternal mental states during pregnancy and the post-natal period have found long-
term effects on child behaviour and cognition [2–6]. For example Hay
et al. [5] followed up a
community cohort of women diagnosed with postnatal depression at 3 months. At 11 years, children
of the affected women had greater frequency of lower intellectual scores as well as attentional and
other learning problems. This finding remained robust after controlling for confounders, including
chronic mental health problems. Further evidence of the adverse effect of postnatal depression on
young children emerges from a study by Sinclair and Murray [7]. A prospective longitudinal study of
a community sample of children of mothers depressed at
2–3 months postnatally was assessed by
teachers 1 month after the child’s school entry. Compared to a control group, the effect of postnatal
depression, after controlling for the influence of later episodes of maternal depression, had most
impact on boys from lower social class who experienced higher levels of disturbed behaviour.
Research beyond the early postnatal period has been shaped by the constructs of maternal sensitivity
(maternal response to infant needs) and infant attachment style [7–9]. Maternal sensitivity has been
found to be predictive of attachment style, which in turn has been found to influence later child
outcomes. However a meta-analysis of parental antecedents of infant attachment [10] found only a
moderately strong association between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment. Longitudinal
research has underscored the variability in the capacity of attachment relationships to explain later
development [9,11].

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2003; 37 (6):748–755. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2003.01272.x
Many authors have noted the equal importance of other parenting constructs such as synchrony,
mutuality, support, positive attitude and stimulation [10,12,13]. These constructs can be conceptualized
as located within the paradigm of ‘the maternal care-giving system’ [14]. This paradigm has similar
characteristics to Bowlby’s infant attachment system [7]. Research endeavours into components of ‘the
maternal care-giving system’ have for example focused on maternal cognition within the context of
fetus/infant development [15]. In addition there has been interest in mothers’ mental representation of
the fetus, women’s childhood attachments and the subsequent link with infant attachment and later out-
comes. At the broadest level, the conceptualization of maternal representations include ‘inferences,
attitudes, goals, plans, feelings and defences that organize and regulate the smooth functioning of
behavioural systems’ [16]. It is from this domain that attention to maternal attitude to the infant has
emerged.
Attitudes can be distinguished from values and beliefs. Values are important outcomes that parents
aspire to for their children, for example independence; while beliefs are ideas that are considered to be
true [17]. An attitude can be defined as ‘a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a
particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour’ [18]. One of the key features of attitudes is
their subjective quality.
The present study extends research on early maternal influences on child development by exploring
the independent effect of maternal positive attitude towards the infant. For the purposes of this study,
an attitude is defined as in the previous paragraph. Central to the investigation of independent effects of
positive attitude is the controlling of numerous contextual risk factors that can be grouped into broad
categories of infant and child factors, parental psychopathology, and family/social risk factors [19]. This
component of the study took place 20 years ago. The maternal attitude to the baby in part reflects
extended contact between the dyad by 93.8% of the mothers. This does not reflect contemporary
infantcare patterns. A recent Australian Bureau of Statistics survey found nearly 40% of mothers with
infants had alternative care for their infants [20]. It is hypothesized that low levels of maternal positive
attitude or negative attitude toward the 6 month-old infant would be an independent predictor of poor
child mental health.
Method
Sampling and procedure
The data for this study were taken from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy
(MUSP), a longitudinal study of 7661 women and their children born at one of two major obstetric
hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Procedural details are provided elsewhere [21]. Briefly, the pregnant
women were enrolled in the study on average at 18 weeks gestation, then reinterviewed 3–5 days after
the birth of their child, then again when the child was 6 months and 5 years of age. There were
extensive efforts to achieve high levels of follow-up. Over 69% of mothers who gave birth were
successfully located and participated in the 5 year follow-up. Data contained in the current study are
taken from self-reports of mothers at each phase of the study.
The 4856 participants included in this study are those children in the cohort who were followed up
through the age of 5 years and had complete data for the required analyses. Of these children, 2549
(52%) were male and 2307 (48%) were female. The majority (92%) was of Caucasian ethnicity.
Mothers’ mean age at the time of birth was 25.4 years (SD = 5.0), and mean birth order of the target
child was 2.0 (SD = 1.1). Mothers’ education was reported at a mean of 4.28 (SD = 1.09) on the
following scale: 1 = opportunity school; 2 = primary school; 3 = started secondary school; 4 =
completed grade 10; 5 = completed grade 12; 6 = completed business, nursing, secretarial college; and
7 = completed university.
The children who were included in this study represented approximately 63% (4856 of 7661) of the
participants who were born into the cohort. Those children lost to follow-up differed significantly from
the retained participants in terms of mothers’ age (lost mean = 24.4, retained mean = 25.4; t = 7.88, p <
0.001); birth order (lost mean = 2.2, retained mean = 2.0; t = 3.75, p < 0.001); and mothers’ education
(lost mean = 4.12, retained mean = 4.28; t = 6.14, p < 0.001). Compared to those who remained in the
study, mothers lost to follow-up also had a significantly lower score on maternal positive attitude (lost
mean = 39.6, retained mean = 40.0; t = 2.28, p < 0.05). Due to this pattern of attrition, the results of this
study may provide a conservative estimate of the true association between maternal attitude and child
outcomes.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2003; 37 (6):748–755. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2003.01272.x
Measures
Risk variables assessed in this study were dichotomised to reflect high-risk status versus not. This
dichotomization allows for the ready interpretation of odds ratios across risks, as well as a count of
cumulative risk factors. Child behaviour problems at 5 years were examined as the outcome variable of
interest. Maternal negative attitude toward the infant was the primary risk factor examined. We also
examined the relative effects of: (i) other infant risks (prematurity, low birthweight, neonatal intensive
care, infant temperament/behavioural problems, maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol use); (ii) early
social risks (the presence during infancy of low family income, a teenage mother, parental marital
dissatisfaction, maternal stress, maternal depression); and (iii) concurrent social risks (the presence at 5
years of low family income, parental marital dissatisfaction, maternal depression and harsh parenting)
on behaviour outcomes at 5 years of age. As well we assessed the relationship between maternal
attitude at 6 months and harsh parenting at 5 years to establish whether there was significant continuity
between the postnatal and preschool periods.
Maternal attitude: When the infants were six months old, the mothers were asked about the degree to
which they agreed with statements about their subjective feelings towards care of the infant. Table 1
presents these statements or items that we combined to create our maternal ‘attitude scale’. This scale
was constructed by reversal of items 1 and 4 with higher scores representing a more positive attitude;
the scale produced a reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha) of 0.75. Mothers who scored in the lowest
tenth percentile on this score were operationalized as having a negative attitude toward their infant.
Short gestation: The gestation in weeks was recorded and then dichotomised into infants born
between 21 and 36 weeks (4%) and the rest between 37 and 44 weeks.
Low birthweight infants: Infants whose birthweight was below 2500 g (4%), were considered to be
at-risk infants in this study.
Neonatal intensive care: 7.0% of the infants were placed in neonatal intensive care, and such
placement was considered to be a risk factor in our analyses.
Infant behaviour problems: The mothers were asked at 6 months if the infant had experienced a range
of behaviours that can be taken as a measure of infant behavioural problems (colic, sleeplessness,
feeding problems, and overactivity). A scale was created that measured the number of behaviours
reported by the mother. The reliability coefficient for the items in this scale was 0.63. Infants whose
mothers endorsed three or more items on this scale (9.3% of sample) were considered to fall into the
category of infant behavioural risk.
Maternal prenatal cigarette smoking: Smoking was assessed at the first clinic interview. Subjects
were asked how many cigarettes they smoked per day. This was multiplied by the number of days per
week on which subjects said they typically smoked. Subjects were classified as high risk on this
variable if their mothers reported heavy levels of smoking during pregnancy (7.7% of subjects).
Table 1. Maternal attitude scale items
Caring for my baby is very satisfying.
Feel so angry that sometimes I could smack my baby.
My baby makes me too tired.
My baby is so good I hardly know he/she is there.
Sometimes feel like hitting my baby.
I feel fed up looking after my baby all day.
Item response scale: Strongly Agree/Agree/Neutral/Disagree/ Strongly Disagree.
Maternal prenatal alcohol use: A scale of alcohol use during the prenatal period was constructed
from measures inquiring into the frequency and amount of consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
Subjects were placed into the risk category of this variable if theirmothers reported drinking several
times a week or more while they were pregnant (3.7% of the sample).
Poverty/social class: Rather than utilize a complex measure of socio-economic disadvantage (e.g.
parental education, housing, occupation and income), a decision was made to use a dichotomised
measure of low family income to assess the presence or absence of familiar ‘adversity’ or

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2003; 37 (6):748–755. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2003.01272.x
‘disadvantage’ during the infancy and childhood periods. Based upon these considerations, the 25th
percentile for each phase (infancy and age 5 years) was selected as the cut-off below which one’s gross
family income was defined as ‘low family income’.
Maternal age: Mothers who gave birth as teenagers were considered to represent a high-risk group in
this study. They comprised 10.3% of our sample.
Maternal subjective stress: In the prenatal assessment phase, mothers were asked to rate how they
had been feeling recently on the following items: 1. ‘In general, I am usually tense and nervous’; 2.
‘There is great nervous strain connected to activities/always under pressure’; 3. ‘At the end of the day
I’m completely exhausted mentally and physically’; 4. ‘Daily activities extremely trying and stressful’.
Infants whose mother endorsed all four items of subjective stress (9.3% of sample) were considered to
have evidenced this early social risk-factor.
Maternal depressive symptoms: These were assessed at each phase using the depression subscale
from the Delusions Symptoms-States Inventory (DSSI) of Bedford and Foulds (1978) [22]. It is
intended to detect signs and symptoms of mental illness that limit a person’s ability to function and
maintain relationships. In the current study, the 7-item depression subscale had reliability coefficients
ranging from 0.77 (prenatal) to 0.82 (6-month follow-up). At each phase, a yes/no symptom count
(‘yes’ = all the time + most of the time + some of the time) was utilized to dichotomise the sample into
depressed and non-depressed groups, with the presence of four or more symptoms classifying a subject
as ‘depressed.’ Mothers who had scored as depressed either in the prenatal, birth, or 6-month phases
(9.8% of the sample) where considered to have this risk factor during their child’s early development.
Mothers who scored as depressed during the 5 year of age follow-up were considered to have a
concurrent risk factor of maternal depression (6.3% of the sample).
Marital dissatisfaction: Maternal dyadic satisfaction and adjustment was assessed at each phase using
the Dyadic Satisfaction items from the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) [23].
Reliability coefficients on this scale ranged from 0.82 (postnatal) to 0.86 (6-month and 5-year follow-
up). To assess early social risk, we calculated the lowest score obtained on these DAS items across the
prenatal, birth, and 6-month phases of assessment. Individuals whose lowest DAS score indicated
marital dissatisfaction were categorized as at-risk on this variable (5.6% of sample). DAS scores that
indicated marital dissatisfaction at the 5-year follow-up were considered to represent concurrent social
risk on this variable (2.9%).
Low affection/harsh parenting: Mothers were asked about their displays of affection and their
discipline practices toward their 5-yearold child. Mothers who reported both a low level of affectionate
behaviours (i.e. at times too busy to comfort the child and not wanting to cuddle the child), as well as a
tendency to use physical punishment to discipline the child were operationalized as having a ‘harsh
parenting’ style (10% of the sample).
Child behaviour problems: Child behaviour problems were measured at the 5-year follow-up using
items selected from the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) [24], a 118-item checklist with established
validity and reliability. Due to resource constraints a 33-item shortened version of the CBCL was
utilized in the current design. The more commonly occurring behaviour problems were included in the
shortened form of the scales. Following Achenbach [24], subscales utilized in the current study
included: (i) externalizing behaviour (comprising aggressive behaviours); and (ii) internalizing
behaviour (consisting of items tapping withdrawn behaviour, somatic complaints, and
anxious/depressive behaviour). Using a selected subsample of 76 parents of 5-year-old children the
following correlations were obtained between the long and our short forms of the CBCL: externalizing
scale r = 0.94; internalizing scale r = 0.89; total behaviour problems r = 0.98. In the shortened version
of the CBCL utilized in the current design, internal reliability was calculated as Cronbach’s alpha = 83
for externalizing behaviour problems, and Cronbach’s alpha = 76 for internalizing behaviour problems.
Cases of behaviour problems have been selected using cut-offs consistent with the percentage of cases
for each syndrome identified in a community sample by Achenbach [24]. This constitutes
approximately 10% of children in the current design defined as reaching clinical significance within
each sub–scale/ syndrome.
Results
Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relation-ship between maternal negative
attitude toward the infant and clinically significant levels of child behaviour problems. Additional
logistic regression analyses examined the relative predictive effect of maternal negative attitude on
these child outcomes, in comparison with other infant risks, early social risks, and concurrent social

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2003; 37 (6):748–755. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2003.01272.x
risks. Finally, maternal negative attitude was tested as a potential moderator in the relationship between
cumulative infant, early, and concurrent risk factors and child outcomes. All analyses were performed
separately for male and female participants. Alpha levels were set at 0.05.
Table 2. Logistic regression models of the relationship between maternal negative attitude
during infancy and child behaviour problems in boys and girls at age five
Maternal negative attitude toward the infant was found to be significantly related to externalizing and
internalizing problems for both male and female participants (see Table 2).
For boys, maternal negative attitude was significantly related to externalizing and internalizing
problems even when other infant risks, early contextual risks, and concurrent risks were controlled (see
Tables 3,4). Odds ratios suggest that maternal negative attitude is a relatively strong predictor of child
behaviour problems, particularly externalizing problems, for boys. No other early contextual risk vari-
able had an OR higher than the ones obtained for maternal negative attitude in the prediction of
externalizing behaviour problems. Concur-rent maternal depression and concurrent marital
dissatisfaction evidenced higher ORs than maternal negative attitude in the prediction of internalizing
problems for boys. In examining concurrent social risks, maternal attitude and concurrent maternal
depression were significantly related to externalizing behaviour problems in boys.
Maternal negative attitude toward the infant is still significantly related to internalizing problems for
girls when other risk factors were controlled; however, ORs for early and concurrent maternal
depression and maternal age were higher than those noted for maternal negative attitude (see Tables
3,4). In addition, the control of early social risk factors rendered the maternal negative attitude and
child behaviour problem relationship non-significant for externalizing problems in girls (see Table 4).
Maternal prenatal smoking, infant behavioural problems, maternal prenatal stress, family income and
concurrent maternal depressive symptoms were all positively related to externalizing problems in girls.
Interestingly, neonatal intensive care significantly decreased the risk for externalizing behaviour
problems in girls.
Next we completed logistic regression analyses to test for the inter-action between maternal negative
attitude and cumulative infant, early contextual, or concurrent contextual risks in the prediction of child
behaviour problems. We calculated cumulative infant risks as the sum of low birth-weight, short
gestation, neonatal care, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol in pregnancy, and infant behavioural risks. We
calculated cumulative early social risks as the sum of income, maternal age, marital dissatisfaction,
maternal stress, and maternal depression risks. Cumulative concurrent social risks were calculated as
the sum of income, marital dissatisfaction, and maternal depression risks present at the 5-year follow-
up. In the first block of analyses assessing for interaction effects, we entered the separate variables of
cumulative risks and maternal negative attitude. Next we tested whether the interaction term produced
by combining these two variables produced a significant change in the χ
2
in the prediction of the child
behavioural outcome. None of the interaction terms were significant; suggesting that maternal negative
attitude was not a moderator of cumulative infant or social risks in this sample.
Separate analyses of the relationship between maternal negative attitude toward the infant and harsh
parenting style at age 5 years were significantly, but not strongly correlated (r =0.06). In addition,
maternal harsh parenting style did not significantly mediate or moderate the effect of maternal negative
attitude toward the infant on either boys’ or girls’ internalizing or externalizing behaviour problem
outcomes.

Citations
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TL;DR: Rejection was strongly associated with unwanted pregnancy and lack of interaction with the foetus, and various degrees of pathological anger, which was severe in 8.3% of mothers referred to services.
Abstract: We assessed the frequency of severe disorders of the mother–infant relationship in over 200 mothers referred to services in Birmingham and Christchurch, all of whom were interviewed using the Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health. 10.6% had established rejection and 14.6% threatened rejection of their infants. 28.6% had various degrees of pathological anger, which was severe in 8.3%. Rejection was strongly associated with unwanted pregnancy and lack of interaction with the foetus.

118 citations


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  • ...They predict cognitive deficits in the children (Murray et al, 1996), and independently predict behaviour problems in 5-year olds (Bor et al, 2003)....

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TL;DR: There are critical developmental windows during which the genetically determined microcircuitry of key limbic-hypothalamic-midbrain structures are susceptible to early environmental influences and that these influences powerfully shape an individuals responsivity to psychosocial stressors and their resiliency or vulnerability to various forms of human psychopathology later in life.

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TL;DR: Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes, and suggest perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage.

66 citations

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TL;DR: Results suggest that adolescents who experience high stress during and after pregnancy are at increased risk for difficult maternal adjustment and high postpartum emotional distress, and support the need for health services targeting this subgroup of adolescent mothers.
Abstract: Objectives: Identifying adolescents who are at increased risk for a particularly difficult pregnancy and adjustment into parenthood is important, as the physical and psychological development of their infants rest in the well-being of these new mothers. This study aims to examine the effects of prenatal stress and parenting stress and the association with: (1) adolescent maternal adjustment; and (2) postpartum emotional distress. Methods: In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 154 pregnant adolescents (age 14–19) from 10 public clinics were interviewed four times from the third trimester of pregnancy to 16 months postpartum. Planned comparisons of four stress groups were used to compare mean scores for measures of feelings about motherhood, infant care, parenting competency, and emotional distress. Results: Adolescent mothers who experienced high prenatal stress and high parenting stress had lower maternal adjustment (i.e., fewer positive feelings about motherhood, less infant care, and low parenting competency) and high postpartum emotional distress. Even when compared to adolescent mothers who experienced prenatal or parenting stress only, these adolescents were still at a greater disadvantage. Conclusions: Results suggest that adolescents who experience high stress during and after pregnancy are at increased risk for difficult maternal adjustment and high postpartum emotional distress. Findings support the need for health services targeting this subgroup of adolescent mothers, including both prenatal and parenting support. Early intervention to increase maternal adjustment and decrease emotional distress should remain a priority in facilitating the most optimal maternal and child health outcomes.

63 citations


Cites background from "A Mother's Attitude Towards her Inf..."

  • ...Maternal attitude has been linked as an independent predictor of child behavior [23], and thus is an important marker for suboptimal maternal adjustment and child behavior....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the association between maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 5 years and child attention problems at 5 and 14 years and found that children with chronically anxious mothers are 5.67 times more likely to have persistent attention problems.
Abstract: Objective: This study examines the association between maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 5 years and child attention problems at 5 and 14 years. Method: Birth cohort of 3,982 individuals born in Brisbane between 1981 and 1983 are assessed. Self-reported measures of maternal anxiety are assessed at four time points. Maternal reports of child attention problems using Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist are assessed at 5 and 14 years. Results: Children of mothers experiencing anxiety during or after pregnancy are at greater risk of experiencing attention problems at 5 and 14 years. After adjusting for maternal age and child’s gender, antenatal anxiety is strongly associated with persistent attention problems (OR = 3.65, 95% CI = 2.19, 6.07). Children with chronically anxious mothers are 5.67 (95% CI = 3.56, 9.03) times more likely to have persistent attention problems. These associations remain consistent after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: Maternal anxiety appears to increase the rate of child attention problems and identifies a need for treatment programs to have a dual focus—the mother and her child. (J. of Att. Dis. 2009; XX(X) 1-XX)

62 citations

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"A Mother's Attitude Towards her Inf..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Cases of behaviour problems have been selected using cut-offs consistent with the percentage of cases for each syndrome identified in a community sample by Achenbach [24]....

    [...]

  • ...Due to resource constraints a 33-item shortened version of the CBCL was utilized in the current design....

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  • ...Using a selected subsample of 76 parents of 5-year-old children the following correlations were obtained between the long and our short forms of the CBCL: externalizing scale r = 0.94; internalizing scale r = 0.89; total behaviour problems r = 0.98....

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the importance of biology for human development and the role of the human brain in the development of human cognition and behavior, and propose a model of human development based on the Bioecological Model of Human Development.
Abstract: VOLUME 1. 1. Developmental Science, Developmental Systems, and Contemporary Theories of Human Development (Richard M. Lerner). 2. Developmental Psychology: Philosophy, Concepts, Methodology (Willis F. Overton). 3. The Making of Developmental Psychology (Robert B. Cairns and Beverley D. Cairns). 4. Developmental Epistemology and Implications for Methodology (Jaan Valsiner). 5. The Significance of Biology for Human Development: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems Views (Gilbert Gottlieb, Douglas Wahlsten and Robert Lickliter). 6. Dynamic Systems Theories (Esther Thelen and Linda B. Smith). 7. Dynamic Development of Action and Thought (Kurt W Fischer and Thomas R. Bidell). 8. The Person in Context: A Holistic-Interactionistic Approach (David Magnusson and Hakan Stattin). 9. The Developing Person: An Experiential Perspective (Kevin Rathunde and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi). 10. Action Perspectives on Human Development (J. Brandstadter). 11. Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology (Paul B. Baltes, Ulman Lindenberger and Ursula M. Staudinger). 12. The Life Course and Human Development (Glen H. Elder and Michael J. Shanahan). 13. The Cultural Psychology of Development: One Mind, Many Mentalities (Richard A. Shweder, Jacqueline J. Goodnow, Giyoo Hatano, Robert A. Levine, Hazel R. Markus and Peggy J. Miller). 14. The Bioecological Model of Human Development (Urie Bronfenbrenner and Pamela A. Morris). 15. Phenomenologitcal and Ecological Systems Theory: Development of Diverse Groups (Margaret Beale Spencer). 16. Positive Youth Development: Theory, Research, and Applications (Peter L. Benson, Peter C. Scales, Stephen F. Hamilton and Arturo Sesma). 17. Religious and Spiritual Development Throughout the Life Span (Fritz K. Oser, W. George Scarlett and Anton Bucher). Author Index. Subject Index. VOLUME 2. SECTION ONE: FOUNDATIONS. 1. Neural Bases of Cognitive Development (Charles A. Nelson, Kathleen M. Thomas and Michelle de Haan). 2. The Infant's Auditory World: Hearing, Speech, and the Beginnings of Language (Jenny R. Saffran, Janet F. Werker and Lynne A. Werner). 3. Infant Visual Perception (Philip J. Kellman and Martha E. Arterberry). 4. Motor Development (Karen E. Adolph and& Sarah E. Berger). 5. Infant Cognition (Leslie B. Cohen and Cara H. Cashon). SECTION TWO: COGNITION AND COMMUNICATION 6. Acquiring Linguistic Constructions (Michael Tomasello). 7. Early Word Learning (Sandra R. Waxman and Jeffrey L. Lidz). 8. Nonverbal Communication: The Hand's Role in Talking and Thinking (Susan Goldin-Meadow). SECTION THREE: COGNITIVE PROCESSES. 9. Event Memory (Patricia J. Bauer). 10. Information Processing Approaches to Development (Yuko Munakata). 11. Microgenetic Analysis of Learning (Robert S. Siegler). 12. Cognitive Strategies Michael Pressley and Katherine Hilden). 13. Reasoning and Problem Solving (Graeme S. Halford and Glenda Andrews). 14. Cognitive Science and Cognitive Development (Frank Keil). 15. Culture and Cognitive Development in Phylogenetic, Historical, and Ontogenetic Perspective (Michael Cole). SECTION FOUR: CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING AND ACHIEVMENTS. 16. Conceptual Development (Susan A. Gelman and Charles W. Kalish). 17. Development of Spatial Cognition (Nora S. Newcombe and Janellen Huttenlocher). 18. Development of Mathematical Understanding (David C. Geary). 19. Social Cognition (Paul L. Harris). 20. Development in the Arts: Drawing and Music (Ellen Winner). 21. Extraordinary Achievements: A Developmental and Systems Analysis (Seana Moran and Howard Gardner). SECTION FIVE: THE PERSPECTIVE BEYOND CHILDHOOD. 22. The Second Decade: What Develops (and how) (Deanna Kuhn and Sam Franklin). Author Index. Subject Index. VOLUME 3. 1. Introduction (Nancy Eisenberg). 2. The Development of the Person: Social Understanding, Relationships, Conscience, Self (Rosa A. Thompson). 3. Temperament (Mary K. Rothbart and John E. Bates). 4. Biology, Culture, and Temperamental Biases (Jerome Kagan and Nathan A. Fox). 5. Emotional Development: Action, Communication, and Understanding (Carolyn Saarni, Joseph J. Campos, Linda A. Camras and David Witherington). 6. Personality Development (Avshalom Caspi) and Rebecca L. Shiner. 7. Socialization Processes (Daphne Blunt Bugental and Joan E. Grusec). 8. Socialization in the Family: Etnnic and Ecological Perspectives (Ross D. Parke and Raymond Buriel). 9. The Self (Susan Harter). 10. Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups (Kenneth H. Rubin, William M. Bulkowski and Jeffrey G. Parker). 11. Prosocial Development (Nany Eisenberg, Richard A. Fabes and Tracy L. Spinrad). 12. Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Youth (Kenneth A. Dodge, John D. Coie and Donald Lynam). 13. The Development of Morality (Elliot Turiel). 14. Gender Development (Diane N. Ruble, Carol Lynn martin and Sheri A. Berebaum). 15. Development of Achievement Motivation (Allan Wigfield, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Ulrich Schiefele, Robert W. Rosser and Pamela Davis-Kean). 16. Adolescent Development in Interpersonal Context (W. Andrew Collins and Laurence Steinberg). Author Index. Subject Index. VOLUME 4. PART I: INTRODUCTION. Applying Research to Practice (K. Renninger & I. Sigel). PART II: RESEARCH ADVANCED AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE IN EDUCATION. 1. Early Childhood Development and Education (M. Hyson, et al.). 2. Assessments of Early Reading (S. Paris & A. Paris). 3. Becoming Bilingual, Biliterate, and Bicultural (C. Snow & J. Kang). 4. Mathematical Thinking and Learning (E. De Corte & L. Verschaffel). 5. Scientific Thinking and Science Literacy (R. Lehrer & L. Schauble). 6. Character Education (D. Lapsley & D. Narvaez). 7. Learning Environments (P. Blumenfeld, et al.). PART III: RESEARCH ADVANCED AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL APPLICATIONS. 8. Self-REgulations and Effort Investment (M. Boekaerts). 9. Risk and Prevention (R. Selman & A. Dray). 10. Learning Disabilities (V. Berninger). 11. Mental Retardation (R. Hodapp & E. Dykens). 12. Developmental Psychopathology and Preventive Intervention (D. Cicchetti & S. Toth). 13. Families and Early Childhood Interventions (D. Powell). 14. School-based Social and Emotional Learning Programs (J. Kress & M. Elias). PART IV: RESEARCH ADVANCED AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL POLICY AND SOCIAL ACTION. 15. Cultural Pathways Through Human Development (P. Greenfield, et al.). 16. Children and War Trauma (A. Klingman). 17. The Child and them Law (M. Bruck, et al.). 18. Media and Popular Culture (G. Comstock & E. Scharrer). 19. Children's Health and Education (C. Ramey, et al.). 20. Parenting Science and Practice (M. Bornstein). 21. Nonparental Child Care (M. Lamb & L. Ahnert). 22. Research to Practice Redefined (I. Sigel). Afterword.

9,880 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Dyadic Adjustment Scale as discussed by the authors is a measure for assessing the quality of marriage and other similar dyads, which is designed for use with either married or unmarried cohabiting couples.
Abstract: This study reports on the development of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, a new measure for assessing the quality of marriage and other similar dyads. The 32-item scale is designed for use with either married or unmarried cohabiting couples. Despite widespread criticisms of the concept of adjustment, the study proceeds from the pragmatic position that a new measure, which is theoretically grounded, relevant, valid, and highly reliable, is necessary since marital and dyadic adjustment continue to be researched. This factor analytic study tests a conceptual definition set forth in eariler work and suggests the existence of four empirically verified components of dyadic adjustment which can be used as subscales [dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, dyadic consensus and affectional expression]. Evidence is presented suggesting content, criterion-related, and construct validity. High scale reliability is reported. The possibility of item weighting is considered and endorsed as a potential measurement technique, but it not adopted for the present Dyadic Adjustment Scale. It is concluded that the Dyadic Adjustment Scale represents a significant improvement over other measures of marital adjustment, but a number of troublesome methodological issues remain for future research.

6,899 citations


"A Mother's Attitude Towards her Inf..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Marital dissatisfaction: Maternal dyadic satisfaction and adjustment was assessed at each phase using the Dyadic Satisfaction items from the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) [23]....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1985

3,479 citations

Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "A mother’s attitude towards her infant and child behaviour five years later" ?

Method: Data was used from the Mater-University Study of Pregnancy, an Australian longitudinal study of over 7000 mothers and children followed from pregnancy to when the children were 5 years. The results suggest that maternal negative attitude towards the infant at 6 months is an independent predictor of child behaviour problems at 5 years.