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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110152

A narrative review of highly processed food addiction across the lifespan.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110152
Abstract: Evidence is growing that highly processed (HP) foods (i.e., foods high in refined carbohydrates and fat) are highly effective in activating reward systems and may even be capable of triggering addictive processes. Unlike traditional drugs of abuse, exposure to HP foods is common very early in development. HP food addiction has been associated with negative outcomes, including higher body mass index (BMI), more frequent binge eating, greater failure in weight loss treatment trials, and poorer mental and physical health. Although most research on HP food addiction has been conducted using adult samples, research on this topic now spans across the life span beginning in utero and extending through older adulthood. HP food addiction and related reward-based changes are associated with negative outcomes at every life stage, which has important implications for developmentally tailored prevention and treatment efforts. Using a developmentally informed approach, the current study comprehensively reviews the existing research on HP food addiction across the lifespan and highlights important areas of future research.

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Topics: Food addiction (62%), Addiction (58%)

7 results found

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Infants as young as 7 months of age showed food patterns that have been observed in older children and adults. From 18% to 33% of infants and toddlers between ages 7 and 24 months consumed no discrete servings of vegetables, and 23% to 33% consumed no fruits.

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Topics: Food Patterns (50%)

309 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Over the past two decades, substantial research has been conducted to investigate the idea that alterations in short-term nutritional intake play a role in influencing cognitive behaviour and mood. A portion of this research has examined specifically the effect of meal intake on the performance of mental tasks and subjective feelings of mood. Results of this research indicate that a number of variables including the timing and nutritional composition of the meal, nutritional status, habitual patterns of feeding behaviour, beliefs about food, and the nature of the mental tasks, can influence the effects of meals on cognitive behaviour. For example, studies have demonstrated that breakfast intake generally is associated with an improvement in cognitive performance later in the morning, while lunch intake is associated with an impairment in mid-afternoon performance on mental tasks and more negative reports of mood. Intake of nutrients late in the afternoon appears to have a positive effect on subsequent performance on tasks involving sustained attention or memory. Although research has provided insights into the role of meal intake on cognitive behaviour and mood, there are a number of factors which remain to be studied. These include the interaction of age, gender, activity level, meal composition, personality factors, stress with the effects of meals on cognitive behaviour. Additionally, more work is needed on the time-course of short-term nutrient effects, and the effects of chronic changes in meal intake on behaviour.

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Topics: Mood (54%), Meal (51%)

4 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40337-021-00386-9
Abstract: As the understanding of food addiction increases, there is a need to explore the occurrence of this condition in different population groups. This exploratory study aimed to assess the occurrence of food addiction in a sample of respondents from India using a Hindi version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The Hindi language version of the scale was developed using the back-translation methodology. Subsequently, an online questionnaire-based study was conducted using convenience sampling which presented the Hindi version of YFAS. From 376 respondents (median age 19 years, 42.8% males), the rate of occurrence of food addiction was 13.3%. Persistent desire or repeated unsuccessful attempts to quit was the most common symptom domain endorsed. The weight (median 67 kg versus 60 kg) and BMI (median 25.89 kg/ m2versus 23.04 kg/ m2) were higher in the food addiction group as compared to the non-food addiction group. Despite the limitations of potential selection bias, this exploratory study suggests that food addiction may be present in a proportion of young aged Indians. The association of food addiction with higher weight and BMI suggests propensity to develop metabolic syndrome, and the need to evaluate interventions that could modify phenomenological expression of food addiction.

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Topics: Yale Food Addiction Scale (75%), Food addiction (65%), Addiction (61%) ... show more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40337-021-00471-Z
Abstract: Obesity prevalence has substantially increased in China over the past decade. In China, over 1 in 7 individuals meet the criteria for overall obesity, and 1 in 3 meet the criteria for abdominal obesity, obesity has become a significant problem. Studies have shown that food addiction and obesity are inextricably linked. The modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (mYFAS 2.0) is a brief measurement for assessing food addiction. This study aimed to explore the structure of the Chinese version of the mYFAS 2.0 and assess the occurrence of food addiction in a sample of college students in Northeast China. A cross-sectional design was conducted in a sample of 1099 undergraduate students in Northeast China. Participants completed the sociodemographic questionnaire, the Chinese version of the mYFAS 2.0, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-8), and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES) to test the hypothesis. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to examine the underlying factor structure of the mYFAS 2.0. Two weeks later, 62 students who participated in the first test were recruited to evaluate the test–retest reliability. The Chinese version of the mYFAS 2.0 demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good test–retest reliability and satisfactory construct validity. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis found that the Chinese version of the mYFAS 2.0 demonstrated a good fit to the two-factor solution identified by the exploratory factor analysis and showed superior fit indices compared to the one-factor model. The prevalence of food addiction in our sample was found to be in line with rates observed in other Asian and Western samples. The mYFAS 2.0 symptom count scores were correlated with BMI, the idea of dieting to lose weight, the desire to overeat, low self-esteem, and impulsivity. The results indicate that the Chinese version of the mYFAS 2.0 has good reliability and validity, and that it can be considered a tool to evaluate the addictive eating behaviours of undergraduate students. This study examines the construct validity of the Chinese version of the mYFAS 2.0 and explores the relationships between food addiction and self-esteem, impulsivity, and other clinical variables. The results show that the Chinese mYFAS 2.0 scale has a two-factor structural solution and has good psychometric characteristics. Of 1099 college students in Northeast China, the rate of food addiction was 6.7%. In addition, food addiction scores are associated with BMI, the idea of dieting to lose weight, the desire to overeat, self-esteem, and impulsivity.

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Topics: Yale Food Addiction Scale (71%), Food addiction (58%), Confirmatory factor analysis (56%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00126-7
Abstract: The intersection between eating behaviours and mental health has garnered substantial attention in recent years. For this Review, we systematically reviewed the available research to find out the prevalence of food addiction as measured by the Yale Food Addiction Scale, and to investigate its association with mental health-related outcomes in adolescents. Eight databases were searched using keywords from Jan 1, 2009, to Aug 5, 2020, to identify studies reporting a Yale Food Addiction Scale diagnosis or symptom score, or both. In total, 27 studies were included. The prevalence of a food addiction diagnosis ranged from 2·6% to 49·9% in non-clinical and clinical populations, and prevalence was higher in women and adolescents with a higher weight status. Food addiction was associated with disordered eating, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and a poorer quality of life and self-esteem. These associations have important implications for the assessment and management of eating behaviours and mental health in adolescents. Transdiagnostic prevention and management intervention strategies could be explored.

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Topics: Yale Food Addiction Scale (74%), Food addiction (65%), Disordered eating (60%) ... show more


168 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
16 Dec 2017-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m 2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m 2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m 2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m 2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m 2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Funding Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.

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Topics: Underweight (56%), Childhood obesity (53%), Overweight (53%) ... show more

2,881 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DR.2007.08.002
Laurence Steinberg1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between childhood and adolescence as a result of changes around the time of puberty in the brain’s socio-emotional system leading to increased reward-seeking, especially in the presence of peers, fueled mainly by a dramatic remodeling of the brain’s dopaminergic system. Risk-taking declines between adolescence and adulthood because of changes in the brain’s cognitive control system—changes which improve individuals’ capacity for self-regulation. These changes occur across adolescence and young adulthood and are seen in structural and functional changes within the prefrontal cortex and its connections to other brain regions. The differing timetables of these changes make mid-adolescence a time of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior.

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2,569 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4
Walter C. Willett1, Johan Rockström2, Johan Rockström3, Brent Loken2  +40 moreInstitutions (26)
02 Feb 2019-The Lancet
Abstract: 1. Unhealthy and unsustainably produced food poses a global risk to people and the planet. More than 820 million people have insufficient food and many more consume an unhealthy diet that contributes to premature death and morbidity. Moreover, global food production is the largest pressure caused by humans on Earth, threatening local ecosystems and the stability of the Earth system. 2. Current dietary trends, combined with projected population growth to about 10 billion by 2050, will exacerbate risks to people and planet. The global burden of non-communicable diseases is predicted to worsen and the effects of food production on greenhouse-gas emissions, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, biodiversity loss, and water and land use will reduce the stability of the Earth system. 3. Transformation to healthy diets from sustainable food systems is necessary to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, and scientific targets for healthy diets and sustainable food production are needed to guide a Great Food Transformation. 4. Healthy diets have an appropriate caloric intake and consist of a diversity of plant-based foods, low amounts of animal source foods, unsaturated rather than saturated fats, and small amounts of refined grains, highly processed foods, and added sugars. 5. Transformation to healthy diets by 2050 will require substantial dietary shifts, including a greater than 50% reduction in global consumption of unhealthy foods, such as red meat and sugar, and a greater than 100% increase in consumption of healthy foods, such as nuts, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. However, the changes needed differ greatly by region. 6. Dietary changes from current diets to healthy diets are likely to substantially benefit human health, averting about 10·8–11·6 million deaths per year, a reduction of 19·0–23·6%. 7. With food production causing major global environmental risks, sustainable food production needs to operate within the safe operating space for food systems at all scales on Earth. Therefore, sustainable food production for about 10 billion people should use no additional land, safeguard existing biodiversity, reduce consumptive water use and manage water responsibly, substantially reduce nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, produce zero carbon dioxide emissions, and cause no further increase in methane and nitrous oxide emissions. 8. Transformation to sustainable food production by 2050 will require at least a 75% reduction of yield gaps, global redistribution of nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser use, recycling of phosphorus, radical improvements in efficiency of fertiliser and water use, rapid implementation of agricultural mitigation options to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, adoption of land management practices that shift agriculture from a carbon source to sink, and a fundamental shift in production priorities. 9. The scientific targets for healthy diets from sustainable food systems are intertwined with all UN Sustainable Development Goals. For example, achieving these targets will depend on providing high-quality primary health care that integrates family planning and education on healthy diets. These targets and the Sustainable Development Goals on freshwater, climate, land, oceans, and biodiversity will be achieved through strong commitment to global partnerships and actions. 10. Achieving healthy diets from sustainable food systems for everyone will require substantial shifts towards healthy dietary patterns, large reductions in food losses and waste, and major improvements in food production practices. This universal goal for all humans is within reach but will require adoption of scientific targets by all sectors to stimulate a range of actions from individuals and organisations working in all sectors and at all scales.

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Topics: Food security (65%), Food systems (63%), Food processing (57%) ... show more

2,423 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62089-3
Rob Moodie1, David Stuckler2, Carlos Augusto Monteiro3, Nick Sheron4  +4 moreInstitutions (8)
23 Feb 2013-The Lancet
Abstract: The 2011 UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) called for multisectoral action including with the private sector and industry. However, through the sale and promotion of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink (unhealthy commodities), transnational corporations are major drivers of global epidemics of NCDs. What role then should these industries have in NCD prevention and control? We emphasise the rise in sales of these unhealthy commodities in low-income and middle-income countries, and consider the common strategies that the transnational corporations use to undermine NCD prevention and control. We assess the eff ectiveness of selfregulation, public–private partnerships, and public regulation models of interaction with these industries and conclude that unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD policy. Despite the common reliance on industry self-regulation and public–private partnerships, there is no evidence of their eff ectiveness or safety. Public regulation and market intervention are the only evidence-based mechanisms to prevent harm caused by the unhealthy commodity industries.

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Topics: Tobacco industry (53%)

1,158 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUBIOREV.2007.04.019
Abstract: [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity.

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Topics: Addiction (57%), Food addiction (55%), Neurochemical (53%) ... show more

1,089 Citations

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