A new Hazardous Waste Index.
31 May 1999-Journal of Hazardous Materials (Elsevier)-Vol. 67, Iss: 1, pp 1-7
TL;DR: A new Hazardous Waste Index (HWI) is proposed in this paper, which measures hazards related to flammability, reactivity, toxicity and corrosivity as well as the pH value for a hazardous waste.
Abstract: Hazardous wastes, once generated, have to be stored, transported, treated, disposed off, recycled, depending upon the situation. With laws being tightened, all of the above operations have to be done safely without causing harm to people and environment. Before any operation is carried out, it is vital to know the hazardous characteristics of the waste to be handled. Because waste, generally, is a mixture instead of a pure compound, its hazardous characteristics are difficult to determine and generalize because each waste is specific. A new Hazardous Waste Index (HWI) is proposed in this paper. The index measures hazards related to flammability, reactivity, toxicity and corrosivity as well as the pH value for a hazardous waste. Two examples are given for its use. The index can be modified to include radioactive or mixed waste.
TL;DR: The vulnerability arising out of an industrial unit has been evaluated using HP values of the unit and the population residing within its impact area and the hazard potency (HP) is introduced in this study in order to address this problem.
Abstract: This study proposes a methodology that would measure the hazardous characteristics of industrial waste based on its physical and chemical properties. A composite hazardous waste index (HWI) is framed using a new aggregation operator proposed in this study. However, HWI alone cannot be used to compare the hazardous characteristics of different wastes. The concept of hazard potency (HP) is introduced in this study in order to address this problem. HP can be calculated not only for a single waste stream but also for multiple industrial processes in an industry. Thus the hazardous wastes generated from two industries can be directly compared using this methodology. The vulnerability arising out of an industrial unit has been evaluated using HP values of the unit and the population residing within its impact area. The industries in a region are prioritized based on the vulnerability of the adjoining population using the non-dominated sorting algorithm. Solutions are ordered into various levels of domination depending on their HP and population values. A case study of Kolkata Metropolitan Area is provided to substantiate the methodology.
TL;DR: An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measureorganic compounds to measure organic compounds.
Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and vegetable oil). The protocol is submitted to French and European normalization bodies (AFNOR and CEN) and further improvements are awaited.
...Simplified waste index are then proposed as surrogate of full composition and classification (i.e. Gupta and Babu 1999)....
TL;DR: Overall rating value (ORV) calculates and quantifies the waste as regular, non-regular or hazardous waste in an "hourglass" scale to ease the works of decision makers in managing the wastes.
Abstract: Although hazardous waste lists and their classification methodologies are nearly the same in most of the countries, there are some gaps and subjectiveness in determining the waste as hazardous waste. A rating system for the determination of waste as a hazardous waste is presented in this study which aims to overcome the problems resulted from the existing methodologies. Overall rating value (ORV) calculates and quantifies the waste as regular, non-regular or hazardous waste in an “hourglass” scale. “ORV” as a cumulative-linear formulation in proposed model consists of components such as ecological effects of the waste (Ee) in terms of four main hazard criteria: ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity and toxicity; combined potential risk (CPR) including carcinogenic effect, toxic, infectious and persistence characteristics; existing lists and their methodology ( L ) and decision factor ( D ) to separate regular and non-regular waste. Physical form ( f ) and quantity ( Q ) of the waste are considered as factors of these components. Seventeen waste samples from different sources are evaluated to demonstrate the simulation of the proposed model by using “hourglass” scale. The major benefit of the presented rating system is to ease the works of decision makers in managing the wastes.
TL;DR: The Sukari Gold Mine (SGM) is located in the south of Eastern Desert in Egypt and is considered as the largest and modernized gold mine in the country as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Mining industry is generally classified as the most hazardous industrial sector. Mining activities usually emit physical and chemical hazards in the workplaces and impose negative effects on the workers' health. Sukari Gold Mine (SGM) is located in the south of Eastern Desert in Egypt and is considered as the largest and modernized gold mine in the country. Occupational exposure and health risk assessment were evaluated in SGM by measuring the hazardous substances in different workplaces of the project. Noise, Particulate Matters (PM 10 ), harmful gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and ammonia (NH3) were measured in workplaces and ambient environment. Maximum noise levels were 112 dBA and 103.5 dBA in the two power generators. Values of PM10 in the most working sites were less than the permissible levels (3 mg/m3) except in underground access, which recorded 4.9 mg/m3. Measurements of chemical gases in the workplaces showed that most of the concentrations are less than the permissible limits except hydrogen cyanide. HCN recorded high levels in Carbon In Leach Tanks with a value of 10 ppm. Risk assessment of occupational health hazards of the SGM was applied in this study using Hazard Index and a simple modified model. The two methods enhanced each other and gave same results that two workplaces have High Risk, five cases have Moderate Risk and the rest places are Low Risk on the workers' Health. The study concluded that the modern mining and extraction methods applied in SGM have reduced the severity of occupational exposure to physical and chemical hazards in workplaces.
TL;DR: In this paper , a new risk assessment approach based on Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is presented, enriched with selected semantics and components of the MITRE ATT&CK framework, in order to utilize the encoded common knowledge and facilitate the expression of attacks.
Abstract: Autonomous transport is receiving increasing attention, with research and development activities already providing prototype implementations. In this article we focus on Autonomous Passenger Ships (APS), which are being considered as a solution for passenger transport across urban waterways. The ambition of the authors has been to examine the safety and security implications of such a Cyber Physical System (CPS), particularly focusing on threats that endanger the passengers and the operational environment of the APS. Accordingly, the article presents a new risk assessment approach based on a Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) that is enriched with selected semantics and components of the MITRE ATT&CK framework, in order to utilize the encoded common knowledge and facilitate the expression of attacks. Then, the proposed approach is demonstrated through conducting a risk assessment for a communication architecture tailored to the requirements of APSs that were proposed in earlier work. Moreover, we propose a group of graph theory-based metrics for estimating the impact of the identified risks. The use of this method has resulted in the identification of risks and their corresponding countermeasures, in addition to identifying risks with limited existing mitigation mechanisms. The benefits of the proposed approach are the comprehensive, atomic, and descriptive nature of the identified threats, which reduce the need for expert judgment, and the granular impact estimation metrics that reduce the impact of bias. All these features are provided in a semi-automated approach to reduce the required effort and collectively are argued to enrich the design-level risk assessment processes with an updatable industry threat model standard, namely ATT&CK.
Related Papers (5)
01 Jan 2010