A new Hazardous Waste Index.
31 May 1999-Journal of Hazardous Materials (Elsevier)-Vol. 67, Iss: 1, pp 1-7
TL;DR: A new Hazardous Waste Index (HWI) is proposed in this paper, which measures hazards related to flammability, reactivity, toxicity and corrosivity as well as the pH value for a hazardous waste.
Abstract: Hazardous wastes, once generated, have to be stored, transported, treated, disposed off, recycled, depending upon the situation. With laws being tightened, all of the above operations have to be done safely without causing harm to people and environment. Before any operation is carried out, it is vital to know the hazardous characteristics of the waste to be handled. Because waste, generally, is a mixture instead of a pure compound, its hazardous characteristics are difficult to determine and generalize because each waste is specific. A new Hazardous Waste Index (HWI) is proposed in this paper. The index measures hazards related to flammability, reactivity, toxicity and corrosivity as well as the pH value for a hazardous waste. Two examples are given for its use. The index can be modified to include radioactive or mixed waste.
TL;DR: In this paper, a gelatin-stabilized palladium (GPd) nanoparticles catalyzes the reduction of the azo group containing pollutant dye, acid orange 7 (AO7) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to 1-amino-2-napthol and sulfanilic acid.
Abstract: In alkaline media, well-characterized gelatin-stabilized palladium (GPd) nanoparticles catalyze the reduction of the azo group containing pollutant dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to 1-amino-2-napthol and sulfanilic acid. Kinetic observations and detailed FTIR studies suggests that the reaction follows Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model, where during the reaction both AO7 and borohydride are adsorbed on the GPd surface. Plots of lnko versus ln[AO7] or ln[NaBH4] show that the order of reaction with respect to AO7 and NaBH4 remains almost same over different molar ratios of [NaBH4]/[AO7]. The catalyzed reaction shows an initial induction period (t0) due to a surface-restructuring process of GPd nanoparticles, and (1/t0) can be defined as the rate of surface restructuring. The activation energy of the catalyzed reaction and energy of the surface-restructuring process of GPd are estimated as 22 ± 3 and 25 ± 7 kJ M−1, respectively.
01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors discuss several indices that can measure the inherent safety level of the available process alternatives, including material properties, reaction pathway aspects, equipment characteristics, economics, health, and environment.
Abstract: The enormous increase in the number and scale of chemical process industries has made safety more critical than ever. The safety level of the process can be improved by various approaches like improving the control systems and employing add-on safety systems. These techniques reduce the risk level but the hazard still exists and the failure of these add-on systems can lead to catastrophes. If the hazard potential of the plant can be reduced or even eliminated by careful selection of the process and robust design of the plant, then the need for add-on safety systems and controls is reduced—making the plant inherently safer. In this chapter, we discuss several indices that can measure the inherent safety level of the available process alternatives. We provide a broad classification of these indices based on factors each of these indices considers for evaluating the inherent safety characteristics of a process. These factors typically include material properties, reaction pathway aspects, equipment characteristics, economics, health, and environment.
TL;DR: McKinley et al. as discussed by the authors developed a chemical compatibility table for 73 chemicals and 28 commonly used sampling well materials to compare the results of different solubility databases for hazardous waste site and facility assessments.
Abstract: Regulations and public attitudes remain a focus of hazardous waste management. McManus (1996) presented the voluntary, external environmental audit as a useful method for managing risk and keeping up with regulations. Partnerships among envi ronmental organizations and businesses were evaluated by Wal ton (1996). He emphasized that regulations focus on "paper" compliance instead of "real world" performance and that a market-driven paradigm is required to integrate environment and business, which relies on economic incentives. Niemeyer (1996) conducted a survey to profile Nebraskans' attitudes to ward household hazardous-waste-management practices. She found that the majority reported that they had no community household hazardous-waste-collection programs, and many re ported they were disposing of household hazardous waste in potentially harmful ways, such as pouring on the ground, down the drain, or burning. James et al (1996) discussed an economic risk-cost-benefit analysis in hazardous waste management using a specific case study and stressed the usefulness of such analyses even in the absence of quality data. Databases, software, and surveys have provided important information for hazardous waste management personnel. Clarke et al (1996) developed a database that includes nearly 2 000 values for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concen trations and toxicity equivalencies for fish in the U.S. and inter national waterways. They found that there are quantifiable amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and poly chlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) for fish in waterways throughout the world and in the U.S., regardless of habitat and feeding habits. Currently available process simulator software packages were reviewed by Hilaly and Sikdar (1996), who con cluded that the simulation packages currently available need to be augmented with pollution-prevention models. Cailas et al (1996) proposed an indicator of solid waste generation potential (SWGP), based on socioeconomic variables, as a means of as sisting in the development of integrated solid waste manage ment plans. The use of geographic information systems (GISs) to depict the spatial distribution of the SWGP will help planners visualize the expected overall refuse generation pattern and identify critical regions. McCaulon et al (1996) reviewed the literature to develop a chemical compatibility table for 73 chemicals and 28 commonly used sampling well materials. Common compatibility problems were discussed. A screening model was presented by Spriggs and Smith (1996) for the selection of alternative technologies for solving environmental problems. The screening model can be applied quickly and is compatible with the more rigorous models in detailed environmental assessments. Elemental solu bility limits have extremely large ranges; therefore, the recom mendation of a set of procedures was presented by McKinley and Savage (1996) that would aid in the comparison of solubility databases for hazardous waste site and facility assessments. Peer reviews involving cross-comparison between different solubil ity studies and fully traceable and reproducible database selec tions were considered important components.
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