TL;DR: A new efficient hybrid explicit/implicit in-plane-out-of-plane separated representation for dynamic problems defined in plate-like domains that allows computing 3D solutions with the stability constraint exclusively determined by the coarser in-planes discretization.

Abstract: The present paper extends in-plane-out-of-plane separated representations successfully used for addressing fully 3D model solutions defined in plate-like domain, to dynamics. Common time integration are performed using explicit or implicit strategies. Even if the implementation of implicit integration schemes into a 3D in-plane-out-of-plane separated representation does not imply major difficulties, the use of explicit integration preferable in many applications becomes a tricky issue. In fact the mesh employed for discretizing the out-of-plane dimension (thickness) determines the maximum time-step ensuring stability. In this paper we introduce a new efficient hybrid explicit/implicit in-plane-out-of-plane separated representation for dynamic problems defined in plate-like domains that allows computing 3D solutions with the stability constraint exclusively determined by the coarser in-plane discretization.

TL;DR: An enrichment procedure able to address 3D local behaviors, preserving the direct minimally-invasive coupling with existing plate and shell discretizations is proposed and will be extended to inelastic behaviors and structural dynamics.

Abstract: Most of mechanical systems and complex structures exhibit plate and shell components. Therefore, 2D simulation, based on plate and shell theory, appears as an appealing choice in structural analysis as it allows reducing the computational complexity. Nevertheless, this 2D framework fails for capturing rich physics compromising the usual hypotheses considered when deriving standard plate and shell theories. To circumvent, or at least alleviate this issue, authors proposed in their former works an in-plane-out-of-plane separated representation able to capture rich 3D behaviors while keeping the computational complexity of 2D simulations. However, that procedure it was revealed to be too intrusive for being introduced into existing commercial softwares. Moreover, experience indicated that such enriched descriptions are only compulsory locally, in some regions or structure components. In the present paper we propose an enrichment procedure able to address 3D local behaviors, preserving the direct minimally-invasive coupling with existing plate and shell discretizations. The proposed strategy will be extended to inelastic behaviors and structural dynamics.

TL;DR: This paper proposes an efficient integration of fully 3D descriptions into existing plate software to capture rich 3D behaviors while keeping the computational complexity the one of 2D simulations.

Abstract: Most of mechanical systems and complex structures exhibit plate and shell components. Therefore, 2D simulation, based on plate and shell theory, appears as an appealing choice in structural analysis as it allows reducing the computational complexity. Nevertheless, this 2D framework fails for capturing rich physics compromising the usual hypotheses considered when deriving standard plate and shell theories. To circumvent, or at least alleviate this issue, authors proposed in their former works an in-plane–out-of-plane separated representation able to capture rich 3D behaviors while keeping the computational complexity the one of 2D simulations. In the present paper we propose an efficient integration of fully 3D descriptions into existing plate software.

TL;DR: This work proposes a space separation with a time adaptive number of modes to efficiently capture transient wave propagation in separable domains and shows that the PGD solution approximates its standard finite element solution counterpart with acceptable accuracy, while reducing the storage needs and the computation time.

Abstract: Transient wave propagation problems may involve rich discretizations, both in space and in time, leading to computationally expensive simulations, even for simple spatial domains. The Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) is an attractive model order reduction technique to address this issue, especially when the spatial domain is separable. In this work, we propose a space separation with a time adaptive number of modes to efficiently capture transient wave propagation in separable domains. We combine standard time integration schemes with this original space separated representation for empowering standard procedures. The numerical behavior of the proposed method is explored through several 2D wave propagation problems involving radial waves, propagation on long time analyses, and wave conversions. We show that the PGD solution approximates its standard finite element solution counterpart with acceptable accuracy, while reducing the storage needs and the computation time (CPU time). Numerical results show that the CPU time per time step linearly increases when refining the mesh, even with implicit time integration schemes, which is not the case with standard procedures.

Abstract: The use of mesh-based numerical methods for a 3D elasticity solution of thick plates involves high computational costs. This particularly limits parametric studies and material distribution design problems because they need a large number of independent simulations to evaluate the effects of material distribution and optimization. In this context, in the current work, the Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) technique is adopted to overcome this difficulty and solve the 3D elasticity problems in a high-dimensional parametric space. PGD is an a priori model order reduction technique that reduces the solution of 3D partial differential equations into a set of 1D ordinary differential equations, which can be solved easily. Moreover, PGD makes it possible to perform parametric solutions in a unified and efficient manner. In the present work, some examples of a parametric elasticity solution and material distribution design of multi-directional FGM composite thick plates are presented after some validation case studies to show the applicability of PGD in such problems.

TL;DR: The ESI Group’s aim is to provide real-time information about the physical properties of the Saarinen Tower and its surroundings to help engineers and scientists better understand the structure and purpose of the building.

Abstract: The need of solving industrial problems using faster and less computationally expensive techniques is becoming a requirement to cope with the present digital transformation of most industries. Recently, data is conquering the domain of engineering with different purposes: (i) defining data-driven models of materials, processes, structures and systems, whose physics-based models, when they exists, remain too inaccurate; (ii) enriching the existing physics-based models within the so-called hybrid paradigm; and (iii) using advanced machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques for scales bridging (upscaling), that is, for creating models that operating at the coarse-grained scale (cheaper in what respect the computational resources) enables integrating the fine-scale richness. The present work addresses the last item, aiming at enhancing standard structural models (defined in 2D shell geometries) for accounting all the fine-scale details (3D with rich through-the-thickness behaviors). For this purpose, two main strategies will be combined: (i) the in-plane-out-of-plane proper generalized decomposition -PGD- serving to provide the fine-scale richness; and (ii) advance machine learning techniques able to learn and extract the regression relating the input parameters with those high-resolution detailed descriptions.

Cites background from "A new hybrid explicit/implicit in-p..."

...[1-5]; (ii) thermal models defined in plates and laminates [6-7]; (iii) flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in thin flat and rough gaps [8-12]; (iv) electromagnetism in stratified composites [13]; ....

Abstract: 1. An Introduction to the Use of Finite Element Procedures. 2. Vectors, Matrices and Tensors. 3. Some Basic Concepts of Engineering Analysis and an Introduction to the Finite Element Methods. 4. Formulation of the Finite Element Method -- Linear Analysis in Solid and Structural Mechanics. 5. Formulation and Calculation of Isoparametric Finite Element Matrices. 6. Finite Element Nonlinear Analysis in Solid and Structural Mechanics. 7. Finite Element Analysis of Heat Transfer, Field Problems, and Incompressible Fluid Flows. 8. Solution of Equilibrium Equations in State Analysis. 9. Solution of Equilibrium Equations in Dynamic Analysis. 10. Preliminaries to the Solution of Eigenproblems. 11. Solution Methods for Eigenproblems. 12. Implementation of the Finite Element Method. References. Index.

7,875 citations

"A new hybrid explicit/implicit in-p..." refers methods in this paper

...Before introducing the hybrid strategy we consider at time tkþ1 the standard implicit and explicit formulations (two commun time integration schemas among other possibilities [4]), given respectively by...

TL;DR: This work states thatKinetic theory models involving the Fokker-Planck equation can be accurately discretized using a mesh support using a reduced approximation basis within an adaptive procedure making use of an efficient separation of variables.

Abstract: Kinetic theory models involving the Fokker-Planck equation can be accurately discretized using a mesh support (finite elements, finite differences, finite volumes, spectral techniques, etc.). However, these techniques involve a high number of approximation functions. In the finite element framework, widely used in complex flow simulations, each approximation function is related to a node that defines the associated degree of freedom. When the model involves high dimensional spaces (including physical and conformation spaces and time), standard discretization techniques fail due to an excessive computation time required to perform accurate numerical simulations. One appealing strategy that allows circumventing this limitation is based on the use of reduced approximation basis within an adaptive procedure making use of an efficient separation of variables. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

TL;DR: This work presents a new family of solvers for some classes of multidimensional partial differential equations encountered in kinetic theory modeling of complex fluids using separated representations and tensor product approximations basis for treating transient models.

Abstract: Kinetic theory models described within the Fokker-Planck formalism involve high-dimensional spaces (including physical and conformation spaces and time). One appealing strategy for treating this kind of problems lies in the use of separated representations and tensor product approximations basis. This technique that was introduced in a former work [A. Ammar, B. Mokdad, E Chinesta, R. Keunings, A new family of solvers for some classes of multidimensional partial differential equations encountered in kinetic theory modeling of complex fluids, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 139 (2006) 153-176] for treating steady state kinetic theory models is extended here for treating transient models. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

307 citations

"A new hybrid explicit/implicit in-p..." refers methods in this paper

...Even if as also indicated space-time separated discretizations were considered many times in the past [20,2], in the present work time derivatives are discretized using standard schemes....

TL;DR: The present text is the first available book describing the Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD), and provides a very readable and practical introduction that allows the reader to quickly grasp the main features of the method.

Abstract: Many problems in scientific computing are intractable with classical numerical techniques. These fail, for example, in the solution of high-dimensional models due to the exponential increase of the number of degrees of freedom.Recently, the authors of this book and their collaborators have developed a novel technique, called Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) that has proven to be a significant step forward. The PGD builds by means of a successive enrichment strategy a numerical approximation of the unknown fields in a separated form. Although first introduced and successfully demonstrated in the context of high-dimensional problems, the PGD allows for a completely new approach for addressing more standard problems in science and engineering. Indeed, many challenging problems can be efficiently cast into a multi-dimensional framework, thus opening entirely new solution strategies in the PGD framework. For instance, the material parameters and boundary conditions appearing in a particular mathematical model can be regarded as extra-coordinates of the problem in addition to the usual coordinates such as space and time. In the PGD framework, this enriched model is solved only once to yield a parametric solution that includes all particular solutions for specific values of the parameters. The PGD has now attracted the attention of a large number of research groups worldwide. The present text is the first available book describing the PGD. It provides a very readable and practical introduction that allows the reader to quickly grasp the main features of the method. Throughout the book, the PGD is applied to problems of increasing complexity, and the methodology is illustrated by means of carefully selected numerical examples. Moreover, the reader has free access to the Matlab software used to generate these examples.

297 citations

"A new hybrid explicit/implicit in-p..." refers background in this paper

...The interested reader can refer to the primer [9] and the numerous references therein....