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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3063237

A New Image Encryption Algorithm for Grey and Color Medical Images

02 Mar 2021-IEEE Access (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 9, pp 37855-37865
Abstract: Recently, diagnosing diseases using medical images became crucial. As these images are transmitted through the network, they need a high level of protection. If the data in these images are liable for unauthorized usage, this may lead to severe problems. There are different methods for securing images. One of the most efficient techniques for securing medical images is encryption. Confusion and diffusion are the two main steps used in encryption algorithms. This paper presents a new encryption algorithm for encrypting both grey and color medical images. A new image splitting technique based on image blocks introduced. Then, the image blocks scrambled using a zigzag pattern, rotation, and random permutation. Then, a chaotic logistic map generates a key to diffuse the scrambled image. The efficiency of our proposed method in encrypting medical images is evaluated using security analysis and time complexity. The security is tested in entropy, histogram differential attacks, correlation coefficient, PSNR, keyspace, and sensitivity. The achieved results show a high-performance security level reached by successful encryption of both grey and color medical images. A comparison with various encryption methods is performed. The proposed encryption algorithm outperformed the recent existing encryption methods in encrypting medical images.

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Topics: Encryption (65%), Confusion and diffusion (53%), Key (cryptography) (51%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.14569/IJACSA.2021.0120754
Abstract: In this paper, we design a cellular automata (CA)-based ROI (region of interest) image encryption system that can effectively reduce computational cost and maintain an appropriate level of security. The proposed image encryption system obtains a cryptographic image through three steps. First, a region of interest with high importance is extracted from the entire image using deep learning. We use the YOLO (You Only Look Once) algorithm to extract the ROI from a given original image. Next, the detected ROI is encrypted using the Chen system, a chaotic-based function with high security. Finally, the execution time is effectively reduced by encrypting the entire image using a hardware-friendly CA. The safety of the proposed encryption system is verified through various statistical experiment results and analyses.

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Topics: Encryption (61%), Region of interest (57%), Cryptography (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3113734
Xuejun Li1, Bo Li1, Bo Sun1, Zhisen Wang1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2021-IEEE Access
Abstract: Compared with general chaotic systems, laser chaotic systems have more complex dynamic behaviors and extremely high sensitivity to parameters and initial values. So far, there are few studies on the application of laser chaotic systems to image encryption. Therefore, this paper proposes a new image encryption scheme based on an optical injection semiconductor laser chaotic system. The encryption scheme mainly includes two processes of scrambling and diffusion. The scrambling process converts the pseudo-random sequences generated by the laser chaotic system into chaotic matrixes and scrambling each pixel through a random point scrambling algorithm. In the diffusion process, the chaotic sequences generated by the laser chaotic system are quantized into random numbers and applied to the improved gravitational model algorithm to achieve the effect of pixel diffusion. The experimental results and security analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm has good image encryption performance and can effectively resist various common attacks on image encryption systems.

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Topics: Encryption (59%), Chaotic (59%), Scrambling (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3125961
01 Jan 2021-IEEE Access
Abstract: Transmission of multimedia data such as images, videos, and audio over the Internet is risky due to cyberattacks. To overcome the security issues, several encryption schemes are proposed over the last few decades which also possess few vulnerabilities such as time inefficiency and weak security. In this research, to provide the highest level of security to the digital data, chaos is incorporated for the scrambling of rows and columns of the plaintext image. Further, a noisy image is generated based on the chaotic logistic map and the suitable initial conditions which are selected based on the analysis performed. For the reduction of the encryption computational time, a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used in which only low-frequency bands are encrypted because most of the plaintext information lies in such frequency bands. To gauge the performance of the proposed encryption scheme, several security tests such as entropy, correlation, energy, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, keyspace, and key sensitivity analysis, noise-resistant, and cropping attack analyses are performed. From the cropping and noise attack analysis, we have found that the proposed encryption algorithm can decrypt the plaintext image with negligible loss of information but the content of the plaintext image can be visualized.

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Topics: Plaintext (70%), Encryption (67%), Key (cryptography) (56%) ... read more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00371-021-02311-2
Xingyuan Wang1, Yining Su1, Lin Liu1, Hao Zhang2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: In this paper, a color image encryption algorithm based on Fisher-Yates scrambling and DNA subsequence operation (elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, insertion arithmetic) is proposed. Firstly, the three-dimensional color image is transformed into two-dimensional gray image, and the chaotic sequence generated by Chen system and Fisher-Yates scrambling method is used to scramble the plaintext images of R, G and B channels. Secondly, the three channel images of the scrambled plaintext image are transformed into three DNA sequence matrixes by using the DNA coding rules, and then the three DNA sequence matrixes are manipulated by using DNA subsequence operation and DNA addition, subtraction and XOR operation to destroy the scrambled plaintext information. Finally, the color encrypted image is obtained by using the DNA decoding rule. Experimental results and security analysis demonstrate that our encryption algorithm has good performance and may resist against various typical attacks.

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Topics: Plaintext (59%), Color image (56%), Scrambling (56%) ... read more

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: One-pixel attack is a curious way of deceiving neural network classifier by changing only one pixel in the input image. The full potential and boundaries of this attack method are not yet fully understood. In this research, the successful and unsuccessful attacks are studied in more detail to illustrate the working mechanisms of a one-pixel attack created using differential evolution. The data comes from our earlier studies where we applied the attack against medical imaging. We used a real breast cancer tissue dataset and a real classifier as the attack target. This research presents ways to analyze chromatic and spatial distributions of one-pixel attacks. In addition, we present one-pixel attack confidence maps to illustrate the behavior of the target classifier. We show that the more effective attacks change the color of the pixel more, and that the successful attacks are situated at the center of the images. This kind of analysis is not only useful for understanding the behavior of the attack but also the qualities of the classifying neural network.

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Topics: Classifier (UML) (50%)

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18 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00521-017-2993-9
Xiuli Chai1, Xiuli Chai2, Zhihua Gan2, Ke Yuan2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: In the paper, a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA sequence operations and chaotic systems is proposed. The encryption architecture of permutation and diffusion is adopted. Firstly, 256-bit hash value of the plain image is gotten to calculate the initial values and system parameters of the 2D Logistic-adjusted-Sine map (2D-LASM) and a new 1D chaotic system; thus, the encryption scheme highly depends on the original image. Next, the chaotic sequences from 2D-LASM are used to produce the DNA encoding/decoding rule matrix, and the plain image is encoded into a DNA matrix according to it. Thirdly, DNA level row permutation and column permutation are performed on the DNA matrix of the original image, inter-DNA-plane permutation and intra-DNA-plane permutation can be attained simultaneously, and then, DNA XOR operation is performed on the permutated DNA matrix using a DNA key matrix, and the key matrix is produced by the combination of two 1D chaotic systems. Finally, after decoding the confused DNA matrix, the cipher image is obtained. Experimental results and security analyses demonstrate that the proposed scheme not only has good encryption effect, but also is secure enough to resist against the known attacks.

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Topics: Probabilistic encryption (62%), Encryption (59%), Permutation (55%) ... read more

113 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMPELECENG.2017.08.020
Xin Liao1, Jiaojiao Yin1, Sujing Guo1, Xiong Li2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: With the development of computer and biomedical technologies, medical JPEG images contain the patients’ personal information and the security of the private information attracts great attention. Steganography is utilized to conceal the private information, so as to provide privacy protection of medical images. Most of existing JPEG steganographic schemes embed messages by modifying discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients, but the dependencies among DCT coefficients would be disrupted. In this paper, we propose a new medical JPEG image steganographic scheme based on the dependencies of inter-block coefficients. The basic strategy is to preserve the differences among DCT coefficients at the same position in adjacent DCT blocks as much as possible. The cost values are allocated dynamically according to the modifications of inter-block neighbors in the embedding process. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can cluster the inter-block embedding changes and perform better than the state-of-the-art steganographic method.

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Topics: Quantization (image processing) (63%), Lossless JPEG (61%), JPEG (59%) ... read more

100 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SIGPRO.2016.10.003
01 Mar 2017-Signal Processing
Abstract: This paper presents a medical image encryption algorithm using edge maps derived from a source image. The algorithm is composed by three parts: bit-plane decomposition, generator of random sequence, and permutation. It offers users the following flexibilities: (1) any type of images can be used as the source image; (2) different edge maps can be generated by various edge detectors and thresholds; (3) selection of appropriate bit-plane decomposition method is flexible; (4) many permutation methods can be cascaded with the proposed algorithm. A significantly large key space and strong key sensitive are possessed by the proposed algorithm to protect different types of medical images. Furthermore, it has a wider applicability than other methods for fuzzy edge maps. Experiments and security analysis further demonstrate that it has a strong resistance against various security attacks and outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. HighlightsA lossless edge maps based image cryptosystem for medical image is proposed.Many kinds of edge maps with various edge detectors can be applied as the keys.The algorithm costs little time with a machine-friendly binary system.The scheme shows a higher security level with other state-of-the-art methods.

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Topics: Image gradient (63%), Encryption (54%), Key space (54%) ... read more

88 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2906292
20 Mar 2019-IEEE Access
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new chaos-based encryption scheme for medical images. It is based on a combination of chaos and DNA computing under the scenario of two encryption rounds, preceded by a key generation layer, and follows the permutation-substitution-diffusion structure. The SHA-256 hash function alongside the initial secret keys is employed to produce the secret keys of the chaotic systems. Each round of the proposed algorithm involves six steps, i.e., block-based permutation, pixel-based substitution, DNA encoding, bit-level substitution (i.e., DNA complementing), DNA decoding, and bit-level diffusion. A thorough search of the relevant literature yielded only this time the pixel-based substitution and the bit-level substitution are used in cascade for image encryption. The key-streams in the bit-level substitution are based on the logistic-Chebyshev map, while the sine-Chebyshev map allows producing the key-streams in the bit-level diffusion. The final encrypted image is obtained by repeating once the previous steps using new secret keys. Security analyses and computer simulations both confirm that the proposed scheme is robust enough against all kinds of attacks. Its low complexity indicates its high potential for real-time and secure image applications.

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Topics: Encryption (62%), Hash function (54%), Key generation (53%) ... read more

62 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2874026
09 Nov 2018-IEEE Access
Abstract: With the rapid development in the field of medical image encryption, researchers analyzed a number of encryption algorithms based on chaotic systems. But there is a difficulty lies, i.e., small key space and weak security in 1-D chaotic cryptosystems. To overcome this difficulty, an alternative security model was proposed in this paper. This paper investigated highly secure medical images with a couple of subkeys, initially where a couple of subkeys are given by utilizing chaotic logistic and tent maps. As per the chaotic (C-function) process, the security was investigated like diffusion as well as confusion. Based on the initial conditions, different random numbers were generated for each map from chaotic maps. Adaptive grasshopper optimization algorithm with PSNR and correlation coefficient fitness function was proposed to choose the optimal secret and public key of the system among the random numbers. The reason behind choosing adaptive process is to enhance high-security investigation of the current proposed model compared to the existing methods. At last, the proposed strategy results were compared with existing security methods and literary works, but found to be high performing.

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Topics: Computer security model (57%), Encryption (56%), Chaotic (55%) ... read more

56 Citations


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