# A New Multihop Logical Topology for Reliable Broadband Communication

TL;DR: A new logical topology GIADM-net, a generalised IADM network for enhancing the reliability of optical networks using wavelength division multiplexing, connects any arbitrary no.

Abstract: This paper presents a new logical topology GIADM-net, a generalised IADM network for enhancing the reliability of optical networks using wavelength division multiplexing. The presence of multiple number of paths of same distance between any two nodes in exchange of reasonable number of hops in the network, ensures a higher degree of reliability compared to other existing topologies in case of link failure, as well as in balancing link loading in the network so as to maximise the network throughput. This GIADM-net, connects any arbitrary no. of nodes in a regular graph as opposed to the cases in De Bruijn graph and shufflenet. The average hopping distance between two nodes, using this topology is smaller, compared to that in GEM net, shufflenet and De Bruijn Graph, at the cost of marginal increase in diameter.

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TL;DR: The paper presents a performance evaluation of Scale-net, a relatively newer logical topology that was introduced by the authors in their earlier work and results confirm the theoretical prediction of a small diameter and low average hopping distance.

Abstract: The paper presents a performance evaluation of Scale-net, a relatively newer logical topology that was introduced by the authors in their earlier work [1]. The proposed irregular topology is based on de Bruijn graph, a regular, non-scalable one with simple routing strategy. The Scale-net could consist of any arbitrary number of nodes. In spite of being a irregular topology, it follows a simple, yet efficient routing logic. Also, perturbation is relatively low in Scale-net when the network grows in size. The simulation results confirm the theoretical prediction of a small diameter and low average hopping distance.

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TL;DR: A comprehensive explanation of the newest developments in optical networks in the MCGRAW-HILL COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS series.

Abstract: A comprehensive explanation of the newest developments in optical networks in the MCGRAW-HILL COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS series. Case studies and research projects at AT&T, Fujitsu, and NTT are considered in order to provide the reader with hands-on information which can be applied in practice.

846 citations

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TL;DR: This work adopts a more general approach in which all paths between a source-destination pair are considered and incorporate network state information into the routing decision, and performs routing and wavelength assignment jointly and adaptively, and outperforms fixed routing techniques.

Abstract: We consider routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed all-optical networks (WAN) with circuit switching. The conventional approaches to address this issue consider the two aspects of the problem disjointly by first finding a route from a predetermined set of candidate paths and then searching for an appropriate wavelength assignment. We adopt a more general approach in which we consider all paths between a source-destination (s-d) pair and incorporate network state information into the routing decision. This approach performs routing and wavelength assignment jointly and adaptively, and outperforms fixed routing techniques. We present adaptive routing and wavelength assignment algorithms and evaluate their blocking performance. We obtain an analytical technique to compute approximate blocking probabilities for networks employing fixed and alternate routing. The analysis can also accommodate networks with multiple fibers per link. The blocking performance of the proposed adaptive routing algorithms are compared along with their computational complexity.

537 citations

### "A New Multihop Logical Topology for..." refers methods in this paper

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TL;DR: A survey of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-based local lightwave networks is presented, and regular topologies that have been studied as candidates for multihop light wave networks, including the perfect shuffle, the de Bruijn graph, the toroid, and the hypercube are discussed.

Abstract: For pt.I see ibid., vol.6, no.3, p.12-27, 1992. A survey of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-based local lightwave networks is presented. The general characteristics of multihop systems are discussed, and various multihop approaches are reviewed. The construction of optimal structures based on minimizing the maximum link flow and optimizations based on minimization of the mean network packet delay are also reviewed. Regular topologies that have been studied as candidates for multihop lightwave networks, including the perfect shuffle, the de Bruijn graph, the toroid, and the hypercube, are discussed. Near-optimal node placement algorithms and shared-channel multihop systems are also discussed. >

496 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore design principles for next-generation optical wide-area networks, employing wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and targeted to nationwide coverage, and formulate the virtual topology design problem as an optimization problem with one of two possible objective functions: (1) for a given traffic matrix, minimize the networkwide average packet delay (corresponding to a solution for present traffic demands), or (2) maximize the scale factor by which the traffic matrix can be scaled up (to provide the maximum capacity upgrade for future traffic demands).

Abstract: We explore design principles for next-generation optical wide-area networks, employing wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and targeted to nationwide coverage. This optical network exploits wavelength multiplexers and optical switches in routing nodes, so that an arbitrary virtual topology may be embedded on a given physical fiber network. The virtual topology, which is used as a packet-switched network and which consists of a set of all-optical "lightpaths", is set up to exploit the relative strengths of both optics and electronics-viz. packets of information are carried by the virtual topology "as far as possible" in the optical domain, but packet forwarding from lightpath to lightpath is performed via electronic switching, whenever required. We formulate the virtual topology design problem as an optimization problem with one of two possible objective functions: (1) for a given traffic matrix, minimize the network-wide average packet delay (corresponding to a solution for present traffic demands), or (2) maximize the scale factor by which the traffic matrix can be scaled up (to provide the maximum capacity upgrade for future traffic demands). Since simpler versions of this problem have been shown to be NP-hard, we resort to heuristic approaches. Specifically, we employ an iterative approach which combines "simulated annealing" (to search for a good virtual topology) and "flow deviation" (to optimally route the traffic-and possibly bifurcate its components-on the virtual topology). We do not consider the number of available wavelengths to be a constraint, i.e., we ignore the routing of lightpaths and wavelength assignment for these lightpaths. We illustrate our approaches by employing experimental traffic statistics collected from NSFNET.

473 citations

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TL;DR: This book presents the theoretical basis and a number of case studies that demonstrate how the construction of an interconnection network to provide interprocessor communications is done.

Abstract: Parallel computer systems are being used to forecast the weather, make maps, simulate chemical reactions, control air traffic, guide missiles, provide robots with vision, and manage ballistic missile defense. A major problem in designing large-scale parallel systems is the construction of an interconnection network to provide interprocessor communications. This book presents the theoretical basis and a number of case studies that demonstrate how this work is done. This revision includes the most recent research in the field.

426 citations

### "A New Multihop Logical Topology for..." refers methods in this paper

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