Journal ArticleDOI

# A Newton Method for Shape-Preserving Spline Interpolation

Asen L. Dontchev, Liqun Qi2
01 Jun 2002-Siam Journal on Optimization (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 588-602
TL;DR: This paper proves local quadratic convergence of their proposed Newton-type method for shape-preserving interpolation by viewing it as a semismooth Newton method and presents a modification of the method which has global quadRatic convergence.
Abstract: In 1986, Irvine, Marin, and Smith proposed a Newton-type method for shape-preserving interpolation and, based on numerical experience, conjectured its quadratic convergence. In this paper, we prove local quadratic convergence of their method by viewing it as a semismooth Newton method. We also present a modification of the method which has global quadratic convergence. Numerical examples illustrate the results.

### If the integral over [a, b] of the piecewise linear function (

• Furthermore, in this case quadratic convergence of the Newton method would follow directly from [13] .
• The following example of dimension 2 shows that such an argument does not work.
• Hence the function above is not piecewise smooth.
• Then the positive semidefiniteness of the elements of ∂F − (λ) follows from the fact that any matrix in the generalized Jacobian of the gradient of a convex function must be symmetric and positive semidefinite.
• By combining the above lemmas and applying Theorem 1.1, the authors obtain the main result of this paper which settles the question posed in [11] .

### 4. Numerical results.

• In Figures 1-5 , the dashed line is for the resulting shape-preserving cubic spline (using the data obtained with the starting point λ 0 = sign(d)); the solid line is for the natural spline (using the MATLAB SPLINE function), and "o" stands for the original given data.
• In Table 1 for results of the numerical experiments the authors use the following notation: 1 , they observe that Algorithm 3.2 converges rapidly to the solution from both starting points for all problems except Example 4.4 (y 9 = 4), to which the algorithm within 30 iterations failed to produce an approximate solution meeting the required accuracy.
• These observations indicate that how far away from zero each divided difference is may make a big difference in the numerical performance of the algorithm.
• The problem is, however, nonsmooth, and here the authors are entering a new territory.

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A NEWTON METHOD FOR SHAPE-PRESERVING SPLINE
INTERPOLATION
ASEN L. DONTCHEV
, HOU-DUO QI
, LIQUN QI
§
, AND HONGXIA YIN
SIAM J. O
PTIM.
c
2002 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 588–602
This work is dedicated to Professor Jochem Zowe
Abstract. In 1986, Irvine, Marin, and Smith proposed a Newton-type method for shape-
preserving interpolation and, based on numerical experience, conjectured its quadratic convergence.
In this paper, we prove local quadratic convergence of their method by viewing it as a semismooth
Newton method. We also present a modiﬁcation of the method which has global quadratic conver-
gence. Numerical examples illustrate the results.
Key words. shape-preserving interpolation, splines, semismooth equation, Newton’s method,
AMS subject classiﬁcations. 41A29, 65D15, 49J52, 90C25
PII. S1052623401393128
1. Introduction. Given nodes a = t
1
<t
2
< ··· <t
N+2
= b and values
y
i
= f(t
i
),i =1,...,N +2,N 3, of an unknown function f :[a, b] R, the
standard interpolation problem consists of ﬁnding a function s from a given set S of
interpolants such that s(t
i
)=y
i
, i =1,...,N+ 2. When S is the set of twice contin-
uously diﬀerentiable piecewise cubic polynomials across t
i
, we deal with cubic spline
interpolation. The problem of cubic spline interpolation can be viewed in various
ways; the closest to this paper is the classical Holladay variational characterization,
according to which the natural cubic interpolating spline can be deﬁned as the unique
solution of the following optimization problem:
min f

2
subject to f(t
i
)=y
i
,i=1,...,N +2,(1)
where ·denotes the norm of L
2
[a, b]. With a simple transformation, this problem
can be written as a nearest point problem in L
2
[a, b]: ﬁnd the projection of the origin
on the intersection of the hyperplanes
u L
2
[a, b] |
b
a
u(t)B
i
(t)dt = d
i
,i=1,...,N
,
where B
i
are the piecewise linear normalized B-splines with support [t
i
,t
i+2
] and d
i
are the second divided diﬀerences.
Received by the editors July 29, 2001; accepted for publication (in revised form) March 26, 2002;
published electronically October 1, 2002.
http://www.siam.org/journals/siopt/13-2/39312.html
Mathematical Reviews, Ann Arbor, MI 48107 (ald@ams.org).
School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW, Australia (hdqi@
maths.unsw.edu.au). The research of this author was supported by the Australian Research Council.
§
Department of Applied Mathematics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon,
Hong Kong (maqilq@polyu.edu.hk). This author’s work is supported by the Hong Kong Research
Grant Council, grant PolyU 5296/02P.
Department of Mathematics, Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 3908,
Beijing 100039, People’s Republic of China (hxyin@maths.unsw.edu.au). This author’s work was
done while the author was visiting the University of New South Wales, Australia, and was supported
by the Australian Research Council.
588

A NEWTON METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED INTERPOLATION 589
Since the mid ’80s, after the ground-breaking paper of Micchelli et al. [15], the
attention of a number of researchers has been attracted to spline interpolation prob-
lems with constraints. For example, if we add to problem (1) the additional constraint
f

0, we obtain a convex interpolation problem; provided that the data are “con-
vex,” then a convex interpolant “preserves the shape” of the data. If we add the
constraint f
0, we obtain a monotone interpolation problem. Central to our analy-
sis here is a subsequent paper by Irvine, Marin, and Smith [11], who rigorously deﬁned
the problem of shape-preserving spline interpolation and laid the groundwork for its
numerical analysis. In particular, they proposed a Newton-type method and, based
on numerical examples, conjectured its fast (quadratic) theoretical convergence. In
the present paper we prove this conjecture.
We approach the problem of Irvine, Marin, and Smith [11] in a new way, by
using recent advances in optimization. It is now well understood that, in general,
the traditional methods based on standard calculus may not work for optimization
problems with constraints; however, such problems can be reformulated as nonsmooth
problems that need special treatment. The corresponding theory emerged already in
the ’70s, championed by the works of R. T. Rockafellar and his collaborators, and is
now becoming a standard tool for more and more theoretical and practical problems.
The present paper is an example of how nonsmooth analysis can be applied to solve
a problem from numerical analysis that hasn’t been solved for quite a while.
Before stating the problem of shape-preserving interpolation that we consider in
this paper, we brieﬂy review the result of nonsmooth analysis which provides the basis
for this work.
For a locally Lipschitz continuous function G : R
n
R
n
, the generalized Jaco-
bian ∂G(x)ofG at x in the sense of Clarke [2] is the convex hull of all limits obtained
along sequences on which G is diﬀerentiable:
∂G(x)=co
lim
x
j
x
G(x
j
) | G is diﬀerentiable at x
j
R
n
.
The generalized Newton method for the (nonsmooth) equation G(x) = 0 has the
following form:
x
k+1
= x
k
V
1
k
G(x
k
),V
k
∂G(x
k
).(2)
A function G : R
n
R
m
is strongly semismooth at x if it is locally Lipschitz and
directionally diﬀerentiable at x, and for all h 0 and V ∂G(x + h) one has
G(x + h) G(x) Vh= O(h
2
).
The local convergence of the generalized Newton method for strongly semismooth
equations is summarized in the following fundamental result, which is a direct gener-
alization of the classical theorem of quadratic convergence of the Newton method.
Theorem 1.1 (see [16, Theorem 3.2]). Let G : R
n
R
n
be strongly semismooth
at x
and let G(x
)=0. Assume that all elements V of the generalized Jacobian
∂G(x
) are nonsingular matrices. Then every sequence generated by the method (2)
, provided that the starting point x
0
is suﬃciently
close to x
.
In the remaining part of the introduction we review the method of Irvine, Marin,
and Smith [11] for shape-preserving cubic spline interpolation and also brieﬂy discuss
the contents of this paper. Let {(t
i
,y
i
)}
N+2
1
be given interpolation data and let
d
i
,i =1, 2,...,N, be the associated second divided diﬀerences. Throughout the

590 A. L. DONTCHEV, H.-D. QI, L. QI, AND H. YIN
paper we assume that d
i
= 0 for all i =1,...,N; we will discuss this assumption
later. Deﬁne the following subsets
i
,i=1, 2, 3, of [a, b]:
1
:= {[t
i
,t
i+1
]| d
i1
> 0 and d
i
> 0},
2
:= {[t
i
,t
i+1
]| d
i1
< 0 and d
i
< 0},
3
:= {[t
i
,t
i+1
]| d
i1
d
i
< 0}.
Also, let
[t
1
,t
2
]
1
if d
1
> 0,
2
if d
1
< 0,
[t
N+1
,t
N+2
]
1
if d
N
> 0,
2
if d
N
< 0.
The problem of shape-preserving interpolation as stated by Micchelli et al. [15] is as
follows:
minimize f

2
(3)
subject to f(t
i
)=y
i
,i=1, 2,...,N +2,
f

(t) 0,t
1
,f

(t) 0,t
2
,
f W
2,2
[a, b].
Here W
2,2
[a, b] denotes the Sobolev space of functions with absolutely continuous ﬁrst
derivatives and second derivatives in L
2
[a, b]. The inequality constraint on the set
1
(resp.,
2
) means that the interpolant preserves the convexity (resp., concavity) of
the data; for more details, see [11, p. 137].
Micchelli et al. [15, Theorem 4.3] showed that the solution of the problem (3)
exists and is unique, and its second derivative has the following form:
f

(t)=
N
i=1
λ
i
B
i
(t)
+
X
1
(t)
N
i=1
λ
i
B
i
(t)
X
2
(t)(4)
+
N
i=1
λ
i
B
i
(t)
X
3
(t),
where λ =(λ
1
,...,λ
N
)
T
is a vector in R
N
, a
+
=max{0,a},(a)
=(a)
+
, and
X
is the characteristic function of the set Ω. This result can also be deduced, as
shown ﬁrst in [4], from duality in optimization; speciﬁcally, here λ is the vector of
the Lagrange multipliers associated with the equality (interpolation) constraints. For
more on duality in this context, see the discussion in our previous paper [5]. In short,
the optimality condition of the problem dual to (3) has the form of the nonlinear
equation
F (λ)=d,(5)
where d =(d
1
,...,d
N
)
T
and the vector function F : R
N
R
N
has components
F
i
(λ)=
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
1
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
+
B
i
(t)dt
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
2
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
B
i
(t)dt

A NEWTON METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED INTERPOLATION 591
+
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
3
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
B
i
(t)dt, i =1, 2,...,N.(6)
Irvine, Marin, and Smith [11] proposed the following method for solving equation
(5): Given λ
0
R
N
, λ
k+1
is a solution of the linear system
M(λ
k
)(λ
k+1
λ
k
)=F (λ
k
)+d,(7)
where M(λ) R
N×N
is the tridiagonal symmetric matrix with components
(M(λ))
ij
=
b
a
P (λ, t)B
i
(t)B
j
(t)dt.
Here
P (λ, t):=
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
0
+
X
1
(t)+
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
0
X
2
(t)+X
3
(t),(8)
where
(τ)
0
+
:=
1ifτ>0,
0 otherwise,
(τ)
0
:= (τ)
0
+
.
Since the matrix M resembles the Jacobian of F (which may not exist for some λ,
and then M is a kind of “directional Jacobian,” more precisely, as we will see later,
an element of the generalized Jacobian), the method (7) has been named the Newton
method. It was also observed in [11] that the Newton-type iteration (7) reduces to
M(λ
k
)λ
k+1
= d; that is, no evaluations of the function F are needed during iterations.
In our previous paper [5], we considered the problem of convex spline interpola-
tion, that is, with
1
=[a, b], and proved local superlinear convergence of the corre-
sponding version of the Newton method (7). In a subsequent paper [6], by a more
detailed analysis of the geometry of the dual problem, we obtained local quadratic
convergence of the Newton method, again for convex interpolation. In this paper, we
consider the shape-preserving interpolation problem originally stated in Irvine, Marin,
and Smith [11] and prove their conjecture that the method is locally quadratically
convergent. As a side result, we observe that the solution of the problem considered
is Lipschitz continuous with respect to the interpolation values. In section 3 we give
a modiﬁcation of the method which has global quadratic convergence. Results of
extensive numerical experiments are presented in section 4.
As for related results, the conjecture of Irvine, Marin, and Smith [11] was proved
in [1] under an additional condition which turned out to be equivalent to smoothness
of the function F in (5). Also, a positive answer to this conjecture without additional
assumptions was announced in [10], but a proof was never made available to us.
2. Local quadratic convergence. For notational convenience, we introduce a
“dummy” node t
0
with corresponding λ
0
= 0 and B
0
(t) = 0; then, for every i, the
sum
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t) restricted to [t
i
,t
i+1
] has the form λ
i1
B
i1
(t)+λ
i
B
i
(t). Our ﬁrst
result concerns continuity and diﬀerentiability properties of the function F deﬁned in
(6).
Lemma 2.1. The function F with components deﬁned in (6) is strongly semi-
smooth.

592 A. L. DONTCHEV, H.-D. QI, L. QI, AND H. YIN
Proof. The claim is merely an extension of [6, Proposition 2.4], where it is proved
that the functions
t
i+1
t
i
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
+
B
i
(t)dt,
t
i+2
t
i+1
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
+
B
i
(t)dt,
and
t
i+2
t
i
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
+
B
i
(t)dt
are strongly semismooth. Hence the function
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
1
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
+
B
i
(t)dt
is strongly semismooth by noticing that
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
1
∈{[t
i
,t
i+1
], [t
i+1
,t
i+2
], [t
i
,t
i+2
], ∅} .
We note that the function
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
3
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
B
i
(t)dt
is linear and therefore is strongly semismooth. Since either [t
i
,t
i+2
]
1
= or
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
2
= , F
i
is given either by
F
i
(λ)=
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
1
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
+
B
i
(t)dt(9)
+
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
3
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
B
i
(t)dt
or by
F
i
(λ)=
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
2
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
B
i
(t)dt(10)
+
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
3
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
B
i
(t)dt.
A composite of strongly semismooth functions is strongly semismooth [8, Theorem
19]. Hence the function F
i
by (9) is strongly semismooth. If F
i
is given by (10), then
F
i
(λ)=
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
2
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
+
B
i
(t)dt +
[t
i
,t
i+2
]
3
N
l=1
λ
l
B
l
(t)
B
i
(t)dt.
Again from [8, Theorem 19], the ﬁrst part of F
i
is strongly semismooth, which in turn
implies the strong semismoothness of F
i
. We conclude that F is strongly semismooth
since each component of F is strongly semismooth.

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[...]

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