scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on Eddy Current Technique

01 Apr 2020-IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 69, Iss: 4, pp 1275-1283

TL;DR: This paper presents the design and development of a novel, linear, eddy current-based noncontact angle sensor with 360° range that has no electrical contact to the rotary part and its output is immune to moisture, dust, and oil.
Abstract: This paper presents the design and development of a novel, linear, eddy current-based noncontact angle sensor with 360° range. Although the eddy current proximity sensors are known for high reliability, resolution, and insensitivity to moisture and oil, the approach has not been exploited to develop full-circle range angle sensors with such features. The proposed sensor consists of a rotary conducive hollow tube (e.g., made of aluminum) part and a stationary part with four identical flexible coils. The tube has a simple but special groove. The position of the groove modifies the value of the inductance of the stationary coil as a function of the sensing angle. The design is such that the inductance of each coil varies linearly for a specified range of the angle. From this piecewise linear characteristic, an output that is linear for the full-circle range is obtained using a simple yet effective algorithm. A suitable signal conditioning circuit is developed to obtain an output that is proportional to the change in the inductance of the coil. In order to optimize the design, first, the sensor structure was studied using finite-element analysis. Then, a prototype of the sensor was built and tested in the laboratory. The prototype sensor has a resolution of 0.08° and a maximum nonlinearity of 0.25%. The possible sources of error of the sensor have been analyzed and quantified. The sensor has no electrical contact to the rotary part and its output is immune to moisture, dust, and oil.
Topics: Proximity sensor (61%), Electromagnetic coil (56%), Eddy current (54%), Inductance (52%), Signal conditioning (50%)
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of advancements made in the area of non-contact angle sensing in the last two decades shows significant progress that has been achieved in the performance aspects of angle sensors, overcoming the challenges introduced by new and specific applications.
Abstract: This paper presents a critical review of advancements made in the area of non-contact angle sensing in the last two decades. Angular position sensing is an essential function in most of the engineering systems associated with industries such as automotive, robotics, process, and aircraft. The review shows significant progress that has been achieved in the performance aspects of angle sensors, overcoming the challenges introduced by new and specific applications. Progress is also visible in effectively utilizing the emerging allied technologies on the sensing and electronics field for the development of high-end angle sensors. As a part of the review, the important sensing techniques utilized for the angle sensors are identified and carefully looked at the advantages and limitations of those. Besides, the potential areas for improvements are also suggested. The important techniques employed to design and develop the angle sensors are based on capacitive, inductive, magneto-resistive, and optical schemes. Signal conditioning circuits, analog or digital, or a combination of it, are necessary to derive the best from the sensing elements. They play a vital role in the overall performance of the sensor. The review addresses the advancement in the sensing element, methodology, and signal conditioning aspect in detail. In this review, the important angle sensors reported are evaluated against the performance parameters such as range, resolution, linearity, accuracy, sensitivity, power consumption, complexity, cost, manufacturability, and reliability.

7 citations


Cites background or methods from "A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on ..."

  • ...The existing electronic interface for eddy current angle sensors measures the impedance of the sensing coils as it changes as a function of angular displacement [48]....

    [...]

  • ...In order to measure the inductance independent of coil resistance, circuits described in [48] and [126] are well suited....

    [...]

  • ...The resolution of the eddy current sensors is a function of the skin depth of the target material [48]....

    [...]

  • ...These could be used for sensors where the change in self-inductance is used to sense the angle information [48], [49], [52], [53]....

    [...]

  • ...The circuit incorporated a phase-sensitive detector (PSD), which has outputs corresponding to the in-phase and quadrature components of coil voltages, and quadrature output will be proportional to the inductive reactance Xeq [48]....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 May 2020-
TL;DR: A signal conditioning circuit is presented in this paper which measures the difference in inductance between two coils and a suitable algorithm has been developed to calculate the displacement using the corresponding inductance values.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel, non-contact displacement sensor based on the eddy current sensing technique. The moving part of the sensor is a conductive sheet with a simple surface groove. This part is easy to fabricate as the machining process required is simple. The moving part is not electrically connected to the measurement system, like the eddy current proximity sensor. The displacement of the moving part is determined by the change in the inductance of four identical stationary planar coils kept underneath the moving part. A signal conditioning circuit is presented in this paper which measures the difference in inductance between two coils. A suitable algorithm has been developed to calculate the displacement using the corresponding inductance values. A prototype has been fabricated in the laboratory to evaluate the performance. The test result shows that the maximum error is less than 1.65%. The output of the prototype sensor was linear for the full range, as expected. It is well suited for application where the vertical space available for the installation is limited. The overall thickness of the developed sensor is less than 5 mm.

2 citations


Cites background or methods from "A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on ..."

  • ...A non-contact angular displacement sensor based on eddy current technique has been reported in [15]....

    [...]

  • ...It uses a conductive moving part with a simple surface groove and does not require a through-hole groove like the one in [15]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Mehran Mirzaei1, Pavel Ripka1, Vaclav Grim1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A novel position sensor for pneumatic and hydraulic cylinder applications is presented in this article, and the conical solid iron core conical in shape surrounded by axisymmetric coils is an essential part of the proposed position sensor.
Abstract: A novel position sensor for pneumatic and hydraulic cylinder applications is presented in this article. The solid iron core conical in shape surrounded by axisymmetric coils is an essential part of the proposed position sensor. The axisymmetric coils are used for excitation and voltage measurements. The conical solid iron core is annealed to homogenize the magnetic properties and to increase the permeability of the conical solid iron core. This improves the performance of the position sensor in terms of sensitivity and linearity. Analytical and finite-element analyses are utilized along with measurements in order to analyze the performance of the position sensor. The position sensor performs measurements of excitation coil inductance and pickup coil voltages. Various frequencies are considered for the analysis and for the measurements. The measurement results show that the maximum linearity error is about 4% for the manufactured sensor and is calculated to have a maximum value of 1% for the theoretical model. The achievable resolution of the proposed sensor is about 0.4 mm.

2 citations


Cites background from "A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on ..."

  • ...CONTACTLESS linear and angular position detection of target objects is always a challenging issue [1]–[3]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Peng-Hao Hu1, Linchao Zhao1, Chuxin Tang1, Shanlin Liu1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
20 Jul 2020-Sensors
TL;DR: Results show that the root mean square angular error of a single axis within a range of ±14° is approximately 20 min, which suggests the feasibility of the proposed method.
Abstract: Precision spherical joint is a spherical motion pair that can realize rotation with three degrees of freedom. This joint is widely used in robots, parallel mechanisms, and high-end medical equipment, as well as in aerospace and other fields. However, the rotation orientation and angle cannot be determined when the joint is in passive motion. The real-time determination of the rotation orientation and angle is crucial to the improvement of the motion control accuracy of the equipment where the joint is installed in. In this study, a new measurement method that utilizes eddy current sensors is proposed to identify the special features of the joint ball and realize angle measurements indirectly. The basic idea is to manufacture the specific shape features on the ball without affecting its movement accuracy and mechanical performance. An eddy current sensor array is distributed in the ball socket. When the ball head rotates, the features on the ball opposite to the sensor, as well as the output signal of every eddy current sensor, change. The measurement model that establishes the relationship between the output signal of the eddy current sensor array and the rotation direction and angle of the ball head is constructed by learning and training an artificial neural network. A prototype is developed using the proposed scheme, and the model simulation and feasibility experiment are subsequently performed. Results show that the root mean square angular error of a single axis within a range of ±14° is approximately 20 min, which suggests the feasibility of the proposed method.

2 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...It also can be used to detect angle [22,23] and thickness [24]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Chao Zhang1, Zhipeng Li1, Jie Chen, Qiu Feng1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jun 2021-Measurement
Abstract: In this study, a new type of non-contact vertical inductive torque sensor was built and investigated. The sensor is small and easy to install and uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to measure the angular displacement of a rotor. More precisely, based on the relative displacement of the two rotors, the torque of the torsion bar is determined. Since the eddy-current distribution on the rotor surface is uneven, and the shape of the rotor affects the eddy-current path, four different shapes of the rotor are used for the analysis. Using Ansys Maxwell finite-element software, the change of the induced voltage of the sensor’s receiving coil, when the torsion bar rotates, is simulated. Furthermore, the effect of different rotors on the nonlinear characteristics of the sensor is analyzed. Based on the simulation results, a prototype of the sensor is manufactured. The experimentally obtained nonlinearity is 1.36%F.S.

1 citations


References
More filters

Book
Sergio Franco1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1988-
Abstract: Franco's "Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, 3e" is intended for a design-oriented course in applications with operational amplifiers and analog ICs. It also serves as a comprehensive reference for practicing engineers. This new edition includes enhanced pedagogy (additional problems, more in-depth coverage of negative feedback, more effective layout), updated technology (current-feedback and folded-cascode amplifiers, and low-voltage amplifiers), and increased topical coverage (current-feedback amplifiers, switching regulators and phase-locked loops). Table of contents 1 Operational Amplifier Fundamentals 2 Circuits with Resistive Feedback 3 Active Filters: Part I 4 Active Filters: Part II 5 Static Op Amp Limitations 6 Dynamic Op Amp Limitations 7 Noise 8 Stability 9 Nonlinear Circuits 10 Signal Generators 11 Voltage References and Regulators 12 D-A and A-D Converters 13 Nonlinear Amplifiers and Phase-Locked Loops

689 citations


"A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...A Howland current source [33] was realized using an op-amp LF347....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An up-to-date review paper on automotive sensors is presented. Attention is focused on sensors used in production automotive systems. The primary sensor technologies in use today are reviewed and are classified according to their three major areas of automotive systems application-powertrain, chassis, and body. This subject is extensive. As described in this paper, for use in automotive systems, there are six types of rotational motion sensors, four types of pressure sensors, five types of position sensors, and three types of temperature sensors. Additionally, two types of mass air flow sensors, five types of exhaust gas oxygen sensors, one type of engine knock sensor, four types of linear acceleration sensors, four types of angular-rate sensors, four types of occupant comfort/convenience sensors, two types of near-distance obstacle detection sensors, four types of far-distance obstacle detection sensors, and and ten types of emerging, state-of the-art, sensor technologies are identified.

433 citations


"A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The automotive applications include steering angle sensor, rotary switches, throttle angle, and accelerator pedal position sensors [1]....

    [...]


Book
17 Aug 1993-
TL;DR: Signal Conditioning for Resistive Sensors Reactance Variation and Electromagnetic Sensors and Signals for Self-Generating Sensors Signal conditioning for self-Generation Sensors Digital Sensors Telemetry and Data Acquisition.
Abstract: Resistive Sensors Signal Conditioning for Resistive Sensors Reactance Variation and Electromagnetic Sensors Signal Conditioning for Reactance Variation Sensors Generating Sensors Signal Conditioning for Self-Generating Sensors Digital Sensors Other Sensing Methods Telemetry and Data Acquisition General Bibliography Appendix Index.

432 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John Schmalzel1, D.A. Rauth1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The challenge we take up in this fourth installment in a series of tutorials in instrumentation and measurement is to consider how to make a sensor work in a measurement system. Signal conditioning broadly includes the steps needed to make the sensor an active part of a measurement system by providing excitation, if required, and then performing the preliminary actions needed to obtain a signal that can be processed. What's done to and with that signal is the subject of future parts of this tutorial series. Luckily, we don't have to wait that long to get results, because the output of the signal conditioning stage can be used for something as simple as driving a display subsystem so that we see results. Signal conditioning is a critical step in a measurement system but so is each element as emphasized by the serial model we have been using so far to depict the basic elements of an instrument. However, it is important to keep in mind that many overall performance limits of a measurement are strongly influenced by what happens in the signal conditioning stage. For example, linearity, accuracy, noise rejection, and long-term drift behaviors will be strongly affected by decisions made here.

115 citations


"A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...As the final output is obtained using a PSD, the interference signals induced in the coil will have a very low effect in the output [14]....

    [...]

  • ...In this paper, the PSD is implemented in the virtual instrument using LabVIEW....

    [...]

  • ...The output voltage vG (t) = √ 2 GVRE sin(ω t) of the amplifier G is used as the reference signal for the PSD, where VRE is the voltage across the external resistance RE ....

    [...]

  • ...the phase difference between VA and VRE can be measured using a switching-type phase sensitive detector (PSD) [14] as given in Fig....

    [...]

  • ...In order to find the suitable G, instead of measuring Req and RE , the phase difference between VA and VRE can be measured using a switching-type phase sensitive detector (PSD) [14] as given in Fig....

    [...]


BookDOI
John G. Webster, Halit Eren1Institutions (1)
29 Jan 2014-
Abstract: The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized according to measurement problem, the Spatial, Mechanical, Thermal, and Radiation Measurement volume of the Second Edition: Contains contributions from field experts, new chapters, and updates to all 96 existing chapters Covers instrumentation and measurement concepts, spatial and mechanical variables, displacement, acoustics, flow and spot velocity, radiation, wireless sensors and instrumentation, and control and human factors A concise and useful reference for engineers, scientists, academic faculty, students, designers, managers, and industry professionals involved in instrumentation and measurement research and development, Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Second Edition: Spatial, Mechanical, Thermal, and Radiation Measurement provides readers with a greater understanding of advanced applications.

95 citations


"A Noncontact Angle Sensor Based on ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The conventional rotary potentiometers [3] (resistive) require a spring-loaded wiper contact....

    [...]


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20217
20203