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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCIMB.2021.637313

A Novel Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteriophage Endolysin LysAB54 With High Antibacterial Activity Against Multiple Gram-Negative Microbes

02 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 11, pp 637313-637313
Abstract: The rapid spread and emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria spurred scientists and clinicians to look for alternative therapeutic agents to conventional antibiotics. In the present study, an A. baumannii bacteriophage p54 was isolated and characterized. Morphological and genome analysis revealed that bacteriophage p54 belongs to Myoviridae family with a genome size of 165,813 bps. A novel endolysin, namely LysAB54, showing low similarity with other well-known related endolysins, was cloned, expressed, and characterized from the bacteriophage p54. LysAB54 showed significant bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii and other Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, in the absence of outer membrane permeabilizers. Based on all those observations, LysAB54 could represent a potential agent for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative superbugs.

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Topics: Acinetobacter baumannii (62%), Bacteriophage (53%)
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIBIOTICS10080981
Abstract: The rapid increase in pathogenic microorganisms with antimicrobial resistant profiles has become a significant public health problem globally. The management of this issue using conventional antimicrobial preparations frequently results in an increase in pathogen resistance and a shortage of effective antimicrobials for future use against the same pathogens. In this review, we discuss the emergence of AMR and argue for the importance of addressing this issue by discovering novel synthetic or naturally occurring antibacterial compounds and providing insights into the application of various drug delivery approaches, delivered through numerous routes, in comparison with conventional delivery systems. In addition, we discuss the effectiveness of these delivery systems in different types of infectious diseases associated with antimicrobial resistance. Finally, future considerations in the development of highly effective antimicrobial delivery systems to combat antimicrobial resistance are presented.

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Topics: Antimicrobial (57%), Antibiotic resistance (54%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSINFECDIS.1C00222
Abstract: Bacteriophage endolysins (lysins, or murein hydrolases) are enzymes that bacteriophages utilize to degrade the cell wall peptidoglycans (PG) and subsequently disintegrate bacterial cells from within. Due to their muralytic activity, lysins are considered as potential candidates to battle against antibiotic resistance. However, most lysins in their native form lack the capability of trespassing the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative (G-ve) bacteria. To turn the bacteriophage enzymes into antibacterial weapons against G-ve bacteria, endowing these enzymes the capability of accessing the PG substrate underneath the OM is critical. Here we show that fusing a membrane-permeabilizing peptide CeA at the C-terminus of a muralytic enzyme LysAB2 renders a two-step mechanism of bacterial killing and increases the activity of LysAB2 against the multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by up to 100 000-folds. The engineered LysAB2, termed LysAB2-KWK here, also shows remarkable activity against A. baumannii at the stationary phase and a prominent capability to disrupt biofilm formation. In addition, the enzyme shows a broad antibacterial spectrum against G-ve bacteria, a decent tolerance to serum, and a prolonged storage life. LysAB2-KWK rescues the larva of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella from A. baumannii infection through systemic administration. Altogether, our work equips a globular lysin with OM permeabilization activity to enable effective killing of G-ve bacteria, reveals the critical role of the C-terminus of a globular lysin in the antibacterial activity, and points toward a viable route to engineer globular lysins as antibacterial enzymes for potential clinical use against multidrug resistant G-ve bacteria.

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Topics: Lysin (63%), Acinetobacter baumannii (54%), Gram-negative bacteria (53%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13061034
Sangsang Deng1, Qiang Xu2, Yajuan Fu1, Leiqin Liang1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
31 May 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Due to the increasing spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, phage therapy is considered one of the most promising methods for addressing MDR bacteria. Escherichia coli lives symbiotically in the intestines of humans and some animals, and most strains are beneficial in terms of maintaining a healthy digestive tract. However, some E. coli strains can cause serious zoonotic diseases, including diarrhea, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. In this study, we characterized a newly isolated Myoviridae phage, vB_EcoM_APEC. The phage vB_EcoM_APEC was able to infect E. coli APEC O78, which is the most common MDR E. coli serotype in turkeys. Additionally, the phage's host range included Klebsiella pneumoniae and other E. coli strains. The genome of phage vB_EcoM_APEC (GenBank accession number MT664721) was 35,832 bp in length, with 52 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and a GC content of 41.3%. The genome of vB_EcoM_APEC exhibited low similarity (79.1% identity and 4.0% coverage) to the genome of Acinetobacter phage vB_AbaM_IME284 (GenBank no. MH853787.1) according to the nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that vB_EcoM_APEC was a novel phage, and its genome sequence showed low similarity to other available phage genomes. Gene annotation indicated that the protein encoded by orf11 was an endolysin designated as LysO78, which exhibited 64.7% identity (91.0% coverage) with the putative endolysin of Acinetobacter baumannii phage vB_AbaM_B9. The LysO78 protein belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 19, and was described as being a chitinase class I protein. LysO78 is a helical protein with 12 α-helices containing a large domain and a small domain in terms of the predicted three-dimensional structure. The results of site-directed mutagenesis indicated that LysO78 contained the catalytic residues E54 and E64. The purified endolysin exhibited broad-spectrum bacteriolytic activity against Gram-negative strains, including the genera Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Burkholderia, Yersinia, and Pseudomonas, as well as the species Chitinimonas arctica, E. coli, Ralstonia solanacearum, and A. baumannii. An enzymatic assay showed that LysO78 had highly lytic peptidoglycan hydrolases activity (64,620,000 units/mg) against E. coli APEC O78, and that LysO78 had lytic activity in the temperature range of 4-85 °C, with an optimal temperature of 28 °C and optimal pH of 8.0, and was active at pH 3.0-12.0. Overall, the results suggested that LysO78 might be a promising therapeutic agent for controlling MDR E. coli APEC O78 and nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

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Topics: Phage therapy (57%), Escherichia coli (54%), Lytic cycle (53%)

1 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-981-16-1947-2_3
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is a global health challenge in the modern era. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains poses a serious threat to human health across the globe and compromises the arsenal of antibiotics upon which the modern healthcare system heavily relies. Antibiotic resistance diminishes the choice for effective antimicrobial agents and forces researchers to look for effective alternative agents. Bacteriophages have been established as potent antibacterial agents against most of the bacterial pathogens since the pre-antibiotic era. Additionally, the discovery and exploration of endolysins, i.e. phage coded peptidoglycan hydrolases, have further revolutionized the field of phage-based therapy. Bacteriophage and endolysin have demonstrated to be effective for clearing the infection in both in vitro and in vivo models. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of information on the clinical potential of bacteriophage and endolysin. The present chapter will highlight the features of bacteriophage and endolysin that make them attractive and effective long-term therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of drug-resistant infections in clinical settings.

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Topics: Phage therapy (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13091848
Kyeongmin Kim1, Maidul Islam1, Dooyoung Kim1, Sung Ho Yun  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
16 Sep 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen, which is a problem worldwide due to the emergence of a difficult-to-treat multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB). Endolysins are hydrolytic enzymes produced by a bacteriophage that can be used as a potential therapeutic agent for multidrug-resistant bacterial infection in replacing antibiotics. Here, we isolated a novel bacteriophage through prophage induction using mitomycin C from clinical A. baumannii 1656-2. Morphologically, ΦAb1656-2 was identified as a Siphoviridae family bacteriophage, which can infect MDRAB. The whole genome of ΦAb1656-2 was sequenced, and it showed that it is 50.9 kb with a G + C content of 38.6% and 68 putative open reading frames (ORFs). A novel endolysin named AbEndolysin with an N-acetylmuramidase-containing catalytic domain was identified, expressed, and purified from ΦAb1656-2. Recombinant AbEndolysin showed significant antibacterial activity against MDRAB clinical strains without any outer membrane permeabilizer. These results suggest that AbEndolysin could represent a potential antimicrobial agent for treating MDRAB clinical isolates.

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Topics: Acinetobacter baumannii (61%), Prophage (55%), Bacteriophage (52%) ... read more

References
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47 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.MOLBEV.A040454
Naruya Saitou1, Masatoshi NeiInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.

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Topics: Tree rearrangement (55%), Split (55%), Computational phylogenetics (54%) ... read more

54,096 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.1985.TB00420.X
Joseph Felsenstein1Institutions (1)
01 Jul 1985-Evolution
Abstract: The recently-developed statistical method known as the "bootstrap" can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies. It involves resampling points from one's own data, with replacement, to create a series of bootstrap samples of the same size as the original data. Each of these is analyzed, and the variation among the resulting estimates taken to indicate the size of the error involved in making estimates from the original data. In the case of phylogenies, it is argued that the proper method of resampling is to keep all of the original species while sampling characters with replacement, under the assumption that the characters have been independently drawn by the systematist and have evolved independently. Majority-rule consensus trees can be used to construct a phylogeny showing all of the inferred monophyletic groups that occurred in a majority of the bootstrap samples. If a group shows up 95% of the time or more, the evidence for it is taken to be statistically significant. Existing computer programs can be used to analyze different bootstrap samples by using weights on the characters, the weight of a character being how many times it was drawn in bootstrap sampling. When all characters are perfectly compatible, as envisioned by Hennig, bootstrap sampling becomes unnecessary; the bootstrap method would show significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.

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Topics: Resampling (56%)

37,948 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MOLBEV/MSY096
Sudhir Kumar1, Sudhir Kumar2, Glen Stecher2, Michael Li2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

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Topics: Mega- (60%), Virtualization (51%), Software (50%)

11,718 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1469-0691.2011.03570.X
A-P Magiorakos1, Arjun Srinivasan2, R B Carey2, Yehuda Carmeli3  +14 moreInstitutions (11)
Abstract: Many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to create a standardized international terminology with which to describe acquired resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae (other than Salmonella and Shigella), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., all bacteria often responsible for healthcare-associated infections and prone to multidrug resistance. Epidemiologically significant antimicrobial categories were constructed for each bacterium. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created using documents and breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). MDR was defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories, XDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories) and PDR was defined as non-susceptibility to all agents in all antimicrobial categories. To ensure correct application of these definitions, bacterial isolates should be tested against all or nearly all of the antimicrobial agents within the antimicrobial categories and selective reporting and suppression of results should be avoided.

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6,403 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1586/ERI.13.12
Abstract: In recent years, the Infectious Diseases Society of America has highlighted a faction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) - acronymically dubbed 'the ESKAPE pathogens' - capable of 'escaping' the biocidal action of antibiotics and mutually representing new paradigms in pathogenesis, transmission and resistance. This review aims to consolidate clinically relevant background information on the ESKAPE pathogens and provide a contemporary summary of bacterial resistance, alongside pertinent microbiological considerations necessary to face the mounting threat of antimicrobial resistance.

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789 Citations