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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-84387-3

A novel highly quantitative and reproducible assay for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies.

04 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 5198-5198
Abstract: The quantitative range and reproducibility of current serological tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not optimized. Herein, we developed a diagnostic test that detects SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM with high quantitativeness and reproducibility and low interference. The system was based on the high-sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (HISCL) platform and detects IgG and IgM specific to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Quantification accuracy and reproducibility were evaluated using serially diluted samples from 60 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Assay performance was evaluated using serum samples from the SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and 500 SARS-CoV-2-negative serum samples collected before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. The system showed high quantification accuracy (range, 102), high reproducibility (within 5%), and no cross-reaction between SARS1- and MERS-S proteins. Detection accuracy was 98.3% and 93.3% for IgG and IgM against spike proteins and 100% and 71.7% for IgG and IgM against nucleocapsid proteins, respectively. Mean antibody levels were > 10 times that in negative samples upon admission and > 100 times that at convalescent periods. Clinical severity upon admission was not correlated with IgG or IgM levels. This highly quantitative, reproducible assay system with high clinical performance may help analyze temporal serological/immunological profiles of SARS-CoV-2 infection and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness.

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Topics: Immunoassay (51%)
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMAONCOL.2021.2159
01 Aug 2021-JAMA Oncology
Abstract: Importance Patients with cancer and health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Assessing the antibody status of patients with cancer and HCWs can help understand the spread of COVID-19 in cancer care. Objective To evaluate serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody status in patients with cancer and HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants Participants were enrolled for this prospective cross-sectional study between August 3 and October 30, 2020, from 2 comprehensive cancer centers in the epidemic area around Tokyo, Japan. Patients with cancer aged 16 years or older and employees were enrolled. Participants with suspected COVID-19 infection at the time of enrollment were excluded. Exposures Cancer of any type and cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, surgery, immune checkpoint inhibitors, radiotherapy, and targeted molecular therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures Seroprevalence and antibody levels in patients with cancer and HCWs. Seropositivity was defined as positivity to nucleocapsid IgG (N-IgG) and/or spike IgG (S-IgG). Serum levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Results A total of 500 patients with cancer (median age, 62.5 years [range, 21-88 years]; 265 men [55.4%]) and 1190 HCWs (median age, 40 years [range, 20-70 years]; 382 men [25.4%]) were enrolled. In patients with cancer, 489 (97.8%) had solid tumors, and 355 (71.0%) had received anticancer treatment within 1 month. Among HCWs, 385 (32.3%) were nurses or assistant nurses, 266 (22.4%) were administrative officers, 197 (16.6%) were researchers, 179 (15.0%) were physicians, 113 (9.5%) were technicians, and 50 (4.2%) were pharmacists. The seroprevalence was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.33%-2.32%) in patients and 0.67% (95% CI, 0.29%-1.32%) in HCWs (P = .48). However, the N-IgG and S-IgG antibody levels were significantly lower in patients than in HCWs (N-IgG: β, −0.38; 95% CI, −0.55 to −0.21;P Conclusions and Relevance In this cross-sectional study of Japanese patients with cancer and HCWs, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies did not differ between the 2 groups; however, findings suggest that comorbid cancer and treatment with systemic therapy, including chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, may influence the immune response to SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Cancer (53%)

11 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.27.21261237
Kenji Maeda, Masayuki Amano1, Yukari Uemura, Kiyoto Tsuchiya  +19 moreInstitutions (3)
30 Jul 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been exceedingly effective in preventing symptomatic viral infection, the features of immune response remain to be clarified. Methods In the present prospective observational study, 225 healthy individuals in Kumamoto General Hospital, Japan, who received two BNT162b2 doses in February 2021, were enrolled. Correlates of BNT162b2-elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activity (50% neutralization titer: NT 50 ; assessed using infectious virions and live target cells) with SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding-IgG and -IgM levels, adverse effects (AEs), ages, and genders were examined. The average half-life of neutralizing activity and the average time length for the loss of detectable neutralizing activity were determined and the potency of serums against variants of concerns was also determined. Findings Significant rise in NT 50 s was seen in serums on day 28 post-1st dose. A moderate inverse correlation was seen between NT 50 s and ages, but no correlation was seen between NT 50 s and AEs. NT 50 s and IgG levels on day 28 post-1st dose and pain scores following the 2nd shot were greater in women than in men. The average half-life of neutralizing activity in the vaccinees was approximately 67.8 days and the average time length for their serums to lose the detectable neutralizing activity was 198.3 days. While serums from elite-responders (NT 50 s>1,500-fold: the top 4% among all participants' NT 50 s) potently to moderately blocked the infectivity of variants of concerns, some serums with moderate NT 50 s failed to block the infectivity of a beta strain. Interpretation BNT162b2-elicited immune response has no significant association with AEs. BNT162b2-efficacy is likely diminished to under detection limit by 6-7 months post-1st shot. High-level neutralizing antibody-containing serums potently to moderately block the infection of SARS-CoV-2 variants; however, a few moderate-level neutralizing antibody-containing serums failed to do so. If BNT162b2-elicited immunity memory is short, an additional vaccine or other protective measures would be needed. Research in context Evidence before this study: While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been exceedingly effective in preventing symptomatic viral infection, the salient features of immune response including the persistence of protection remain to be clarified. There is a report that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persist through 6 months after the second dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine (Doria-Rose et al. N Engl J Med . 2021;384:2259-2261); however, more definite immune kinetics following mRNA-vaccine-elicited protection have to be clarified. The mRNA-vaccine-elicited protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants are also to be determined. Added value of this study: In the present prospective study, 225 twice-BNT162b2-dose-receiving individuals in Japan were enrolled. No significant correlation was seen between 50% neutralizing titers (NT 50 s), determined by using infectious SARS-CoV-2 virions and live target cells, and adverse effects. Largely, NT 50 s and IgG levels were greater in women than in men. Following 28 days post-2 nd shot, significant reduction was seen in NT 50 s, IgG, and IgM levels. The average half-life of NT 50 s was ∼68 days and the average time-length for participants' serums to lose the detectable activity was ∼198 days. Although serums from elite-responders potently to moderately blocked the infectivity of variants of concerns, some serums with moderate NT 50 s failed to block the infectivity of a beta strain. Implications of all the available evidence: BNT162b2 efficacy is likely to be diminished to under detection limit by 6-7 months post-1 st shot on average. Individuals with moderate NT 50 s may fail to block beta variants. If BNT162b2-elicited immune memory is lost soon, additional vaccine(s) or other protective means would be needed.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.701752
Abstract: For more than a year now, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been causing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic with high mortality and detrimental effects on society, economy, and individual lives. Great hopes are being placed on vaccination as one of the most potent escape strategies from the pandemic and multiple vaccines are already in clinical use. However, there is still a lot of insecurity about the safety and efficacy of vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), especially under treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. We propose strategic approaches to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination management in MS patients and encourage fellow physicians to measure the immune response in their patients. Notably, both humoral and cellular responses should be considered since the immunological equivalent for protection from SARS-CoV-2 after infection or vaccination still remains undefined and will most likely involve antiviral cellular immunity. It is important to gain insights into the vaccine response of immunocompromised patients in order to be able to deduce sensible strategies for vaccination in the future.

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Topics: Vaccination (57%), Cellular immunity (55%)

2 Citations



Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.11.02.21265750
Maya F. Amjadi1, Ryan R Adyniec1, Srishti Gupta1, S. Janna Bashar1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
08 Nov 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: The consequences of past COVID-19 infection for personal health and long-term population immunity are only starting to be revealed. Unfortunately, detecting past infection is currently a challenge, limiting clinical and research endeavors. Widely available anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests cannot differentiate between past infection and vaccination given vaccine-induced anti-spike antibodies and the rapid loss of infection-induced anti-nucleocapsid antibodies. Anti-membrane antibodies develop after COVID-19, but their long-term persistence is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that anti-membrane IgG is a sensitive and specific marker of past COVID-19 infection and persists at least one year. We also confirm that anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) Ig is a long-lasting, sensitive, and specific marker of past infection and vaccination, while anti-nucleocapsid IgG lacks specificity and quickly declines after COVID-19. Thus, a combination of anti-membrane and anti-RBD antibodies can accurately differentiate between distant COVID-19 infection, vaccination, and naive states to advance public health, individual healthcare, and research goals.

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Topics: Vaccination (54%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (57%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... read more

12,056 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001316
Qun Li1, Xuhua Guan1, Peng Wu2, Xiaoye Wang1  +43 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Background The initial cases of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and January 2020. We analyzed data on the...

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Topics: Coronavirus (54%)

10,234 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1
Abstract: Summary Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe community and nosocomial outbreaks. Comprehensive data for serial respiratory viral load and serum antibody responses from patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not yet available. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs are usually obtained for serial viral load monitoring of respiratory infections but gathering these specimens can cause discomfort for patients and put health-care workers at risk. We aimed to ascertain the serial respiratory viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in posterior oropharyngeal (deep throat) saliva samples from patients with COVID-19, and serum antibody responses. Methods We did a cohort study at two hospitals in Hong Kong. We included patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We obtained samples of blood, urine, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, and rectal swabs. Serial viral load was ascertained by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 internal nucleoprotein (NP) and surface spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using EIA. Whole-genome sequencing was done to identify possible mutations arising during infection. Findings Between Jan 22, 2020, and Feb 12, 2020, 30 patients were screened for inclusion, of whom 23 were included (median age 62 years [range 37–75]). The median viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva or other respiratory specimens at presentation was 5·2 log10 copies per mL (IQR 4·1–7·0). Salivary viral load was highest during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined with time (slope −0·15, 95% CI −0·19 to −0·11; R2=0·71). In one patient, viral RNA was detected 25 days after symptom onset. Older age was correlated with higher viral load (Spearman's ρ=0·48, 95% CI 0·074–0·75; p=0·020). For 16 patients with serum samples available 14 days or longer after symptom onset, rates of seropositivity were 94% for anti-NP IgG (n=15), 88% for anti-NP IgM (n=14), 100% for anti-RBD IgG (n=16), and 94% for anti-RBD IgM (n=15). Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NP or anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG levels correlated with virus neutralisation titre (R2>0·9). No genome mutations were detected on serial samples. Interpretation Posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples are a non-invasive specimen more acceptable to patients and health-care workers. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome, patients with COVID-19 had the highest viral load near presentation, which could account for the fast-spreading nature of this epidemic. This finding emphasises the importance of stringent infection control and early use of potent antiviral agents, alone or in combination, for high-risk individuals. Serological assay can complement RT-qPCR for diagnosis. Funding Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Michael Tong, Marina Lee, Government Consultancy Service, and Sanming Project of Medicine.

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2,287 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41591-020-0897-1
Quanxin Long1, Bai Zhong Liu2, Hai Jun Deng1, Gui Cheng Wu3  +47 moreInstitutions (4)
29 Apr 2020-Nature Medicine
Abstract: We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.

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Topics: Seroconversion (64%)

1,864 Citations