scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

A Novel Two Degrees of Freedom System for Measuring Iron Ore Water Content on a Conveyor Belt

15 Jul 2021-IEEE Sensors Journal (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 21, Iss: 14, pp 16291-16300
TL;DR: In this article, the capacitive method was used to determine the dielectric constant of the iron ore located between the sensor electrodes and, consequently, the moisture in a conveyor belt.
Abstract: Water content or moisture of materials is a parameter widely used in the industry. In mining, it is an important variable to control in iron ore production. High moistures may cause instability of iron ore piles and may make transport by ship unfeasible. Therefore, this paper presents the development of a system for measuring iron ore moisture on a conveyor belt (laboratory-scale). The structure that supports the sensor has two degrees of freedom, which allow perpendicular and parallel movements. The parallel movement makes the relative velocity between the measurement cell and the ore almost zero. The vertical movement allows the sensor to be placed at different depths in the ore. These sets enable real-time and in situ measurements. The system uses the capacitive method to determine the dielectric constant of the iron ore located between the sensor electrodes and, consequently, the moisture. This system has a measuring range of 0 to 14% on a dry basis and presents an uncertainty up to 0.07 percentage points for a 2-standard-deviation confidence level. In the validation process, the absolute error was less than 0.34 percentage point in the mining interest range of 6 to 14%. The founded results achieve a significant advance in the development of real-time equipment for measuring ore moisture since there is no device capable of doing it with the necessary level of accuracy and precision. For mining, this kind of system represents a big step to take corrective and preventive decisions around iron ore moisture control.
Citations
More filters
Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Oct 2022
TL;DR: In this paper , an automated conveyor belt system can sort objects based on their temperature and count the number of objects from the belt using Arduino, temperature sensor and ultrasonic sensor.
Abstract: Conveyor belt dynamics and stability have significantly improved in recent years. Still, the conveyor belt system necessitates a great deal of human intervention. This paper describes an advanced form of conveyor belt system that employs automation to sort the products on the belt. This automated conveyor belt system can sort objects based on their temperature and count the number of objects from the belt. The system which is presented in this paper uses Arduino, temperature sensor and ultrasonic sensor for automating the work done by humans on the conveyor belt system. This will help the industries to reduce labor, time, and expenses. The system presented in this paper is more reliable as it requires less labor which additionally brings about the lesser expense of assembling, further it increases productivity.
Proceedings ArticleDOI
24 Oct 2022
TL;DR: In this article , an automated conveyor belt system can sort objects based on their temperature and count the number of objects from the belt using Arduino, temperature sensor and ultrasonic sensor.
Abstract: Conveyor belt dynamics and stability have significantly improved in recent years. Still, the conveyor belt system necessitates a great deal of human intervention. This paper describes an advanced form of conveyor belt system that employs automation to sort the products on the belt. This automated conveyor belt system can sort objects based on their temperature and count the number of objects from the belt. The system which is presented in this paper uses Arduino, temperature sensor and ultrasonic sensor for automating the work done by humans on the conveyor belt system. This will help the industries to reduce labor, time, and expenses. The system presented in this paper is more reliable as it requires less labor which additionally brings about the lesser expense of assembling, further it increases productivity.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a parallel plate capacitive sensor applied to a small wagon prototype made of acrylic to measure the iron ore moisture and support studies of particulate emissions carried out in a laboratory.
Abstract: The emission of particulates during rail transport is related to the low moisture of the ore, which causes environmental pollution along the railroad. Given this problem, this work proposes the development of a parallel plate capacitive sensor applied to a small wagon prototype made of acrylic to measure the iron ore moisture and support studies of particulate emissions carried out in a laboratory. The sensor uses the Real-Dual Frequency method, which decreases the influence of electrical conductivity on the dielectric constant, even using low frequency (up to 8 MHz). From the dielectric constant, iron ore moisture is determined from indirect calibration, which obtained an accuracy of 0.07 pp and a maximum error of 0.39 pp. This study shows the development of an innovative real-time capacitive sensor, which uses a modern impedance-based technique to investigate particulate emissions and the drying behavior of iron ore
References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The dependence of the dielectric constant, at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz, on the volumetric water content is determined empirically in the laboratory as discussed by the authors, and the effect of varying the texture, bulk density, temperature, and soluble salt content on this relationship was also determined.
Abstract: The dependence of the dielectric constant, at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz, on the volumetric water content is determined empirically in the laboratory. The effect of varying the texture, bulk density, temperature, and soluble salt content on this relationship was also determined. Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to measure the dielectric constant of a wide range of granular specimens placed in a coaxial transmission line. The water or salt solution was cycled continuously to or from the specimen, with minimal disturbance, through porous disks placed along the sides of the coaxial tube. Four mineral soils with a range of texture from sandy loam to clay were tested. An empirical relationship between the apparent dielectric constant Ka and the volumetric water content θv, which is independent of soil type, soil density, soil temperature, and soluble salt content, can be used to determine θv, from air dry to water saturated, with an error of estimate of 0.013. Precision of θv to within ±0.01 from Ka can be obtained with a calibration for the particular granular material of interest. An organic soil, vermiculite, and two sizes of glass beads were also tested successfully. The empirical relationship determined here agrees very well with other experimenters' results, which use a wide range of electrical techniques over the frequency range of 20 MHz and 1 GHz and widely varying soil types. The results of applying the TDR technique on parallel transmission lines in the field to measure θv versus depth are encouraging.

4,855 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance measurements is proposed to measure transient phase fraction distributions in a flow cross-section, such as in a pipe or other vessel, and is able to discriminate fluids having different relative permittivity values in a multiphase flow.
Abstract: We introduce a new wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance (permittivity) measurements. The sensor can be used to measure transient phase fraction distributions in a flow cross-section, such as in a pipe or other vessel, and is able to discriminate fluids having different relative permittivity (dielectric constant) values in a multiphase flow. We designed and manufactured a prototype sensor which comprises two planes of 16 wires each. The wires are evenly distributed across the measuring cross-section, and measurement is performed at the wire crossings. Time resolution of the prototype sensor is 625 frames per second. Sensor and measuring electronics were evaluated showing good stability and accuracy in the capacitance measurement. The wire-mesh sensor was tested in a silicone oil/water two-phase bubbly flow.

234 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The complex permittivity of aqueous solutions at 20 degrees C has been measured and empirical equations were derived to predict the dielectric behavior of sodium chloride solutions between 0 and 5 mol/L and 5 degrees C-35 degrees C.
Abstract: The complex permittivity of aqueous solutions at 20 °C has been measured at concentrations between 0.001 and 5 mol/L and over a frequency range 0.13–20 GHz. The results were combined with literature values to derive empirical equations to predict the dielectric behavior of sodium chloride solutions between 0 and 5 mol/L and 5°C–35 °C. Bioelectromagnetics 28:264–274, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

229 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, at eight temperatures T between 0 and 60 °C and at five mole fractions xe of ethanol (0 < xe ≤ 1) the complex (electric) permittivity of ethanol/water mixtures has been measured as a function of frequency ν between 1 MHz and 24 GHz.
Abstract: At eight temperatures T between 0 and 60 °C and at five mole fractions xe of ethanol (0 < xe ≤ 1) the complex (electric) permittivity of ethanol/water mixtures has been measured as a function of frequency ν between 1 MHz and 24 GHz. At 25 °C the ethanol permittivities are completed by literature data for the frequency range 200 MHz to 90 GHz. The spectra for ethanol and for the ethanol/water mixtures are compared to permittivity spectra for water which, at some temperatures, are available up to 900 GHz. All spectra of the ethanol/water system can be well represented by the assumption of two relaxation regions. The relaxation time τ1 of the dominating relaxation process varies between 4 ps (xe = 0, 60 °C) and 310 ps (xe = 1, 0 °C). The relaxation time τ2 of the second relaxation process is smaller. Evaluation of the extrapolated low frequency (“static”) permittivity yields a minium in the effective dipole orientation correlation of the ethanol/water system at 0.2 ≤ xe ≤ 0.4. In this composition range, othe...

205 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a low-cost microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors is proposed, where the sensor is directly connected to a microcontroller without using either a signal conditioner or an analogue to digital converter in the signal path.
Abstract: This paper introduces and analyses a low-cost microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors, i.e. sensors whose parasitic conductance (Gx) is not negligible. Such a circuit relies on a previous circuit also proposed by the authors, in which the sensor is directly connected to a microcontroller without using either a signal conditioner or an analogue-to-digital converter in the signal path. The novel circuit uses the same hardware, but it performs an additional measurement and executes a new calibration technique. As a result, the sensitivity of the circuit to Gx decreases significantly (a factor higher than ten), but not completely due to the input capacitances of the port pins of the microcontroller. Experimental results show a relative error in the capacitance measurement below 1% for Gx < 200 nS, which is quite remarkable considering the simplicity of the circuit proposed. The measurement of a commercial capacitive humidity sensor subjected to condensation (in order to have a significant value of Gx) shows the effectiveness of the circuit.

57 citations