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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CMI.2016.7413741

A novel way to acquire foot contour measurements of remotely located patients having foot deformities

25 Feb 2016-pp 211-214
Abstract: In developing countries, patients with disabilities are often deprived of getting treated at rehabilitation centres with modern equipments and technologies. In India as per the 2011 census about 2.21% of the population suffer with disabilities due to either visual, auditory, speech or locomotor dysfunctions. Locomotor disability is seen predominantly in about 20.27% of patients amongst the various other disabilities. Measurement of the foot deformities is very essential for the fabrication of orthosis. The techniques of foot measurement that are presently used needs either the patient's foot outline measurement to be sent to the rehabilitation centre or cast measurement to be taken using plaster of paris mould. The need of the hour is for a technique that is quick and doesn't require the patient to visit the rehabilitation centre. This paper suggests a method in which the digital photograph of the foot outline of a remotely located patient would help to acquire the required dimensions of the foot. The developed technique of measuring foot outline has been validated by comparing n=103 pairs of digital photographs of patient's foot outline with that of the manual method of measurement. Error in measurement using this technique was found to be 2.83 ±0.39mm. Also Pearson correlation coefficient of measured foot length and width were 0.991±0.005 for a 95% Confidence Interval and was very significant (p<0.001). Acquiring foot measurement of remotely located patients through these methods can help the clinical experts in the rehabilitation centre fabricate appropriate foot wear or orthotic device for the patient.

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Topics: Foot (unit) (54%), Orthotic device (54%), Population (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/1463922X.2018.1432715
Parth Shah1, Yan Luximon1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Human head is one of the most important parts of the body, as it houses brain and other sensory organs, which controls functioning and working of the whole body. The products used for head and face are designed for functions like protection, information transfer, healthcare or to improve the aesthetic appearance. In order for them to serve their purpose, they need a close fit and in order to make it more ergonomic, user's comfort also needs to be addressed, thereby making it necessary to acquire accurate anthropometric data for ergonomic product design. Traditional techniques involve manual measurement using tapes, callipers and scales which normally have low reliability and low accuracy. With the advancement in image processing and computer aided designing and modelling techniques it has become possible to develop highly accurate and reliable 3D head and face model. Following paper presents a systematic review of different approaches that have been proposed for developing 3D head and face model a...

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7 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-60825-9_19
Parth Shah1, Yan Luximon1, Ameersing Luximon1Institutions (1)
17 Jul 2017-
Abstract: In order to achieve better comfort and fit for designed products it is important to understand the product and user interface and to analyze the interaction at the region of contact. Study of biomechanical properties of soft tissue can provide a good insight of this interface between user and the product. Biomechanical properties can help the designers in material selection which can improve the comfort and fit and help in serving the purpose of the designed product. A sample study of soft tissue thickness of human head and face was conducted using an ultrasound indentation device at selected locations. Results showed the variation in soft tissue thickness levels, which was further used to discuss the role of soft tissue properties in the field of ergonomic product design.

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Topics: Material selection (51%), Product design (51%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FAS.2017.07.1125
Abstract: Background Around 125,785 new cases in year 2013–14 of leprosy were detected in India as per WHO report on leprosy in September 2015 which accounts to approximately 62% of the total new cases. Anaesthetic foot caused by leprosy leads to uneven loading of foot leading to ulcer in approximately 20% of the cases. Much efforts have gone in identifying newer techniques to efficiently monitor the progress of ulcer healing. Current techniques followed in measuring the size of ulcers, have not been found to be so accurate but are still is followed by clinicians across the globe. Quantification of prognosis of the condition would be required to understand the efficacy of current treatment methods and plan for further treatment. This study aims at developing a non contact technique to precisely measure the size of ulcer in patients affected by leprosy. Methods Using MATLAB software, GUI was designed to process the acquired ulcer image by segmenting and calculating the pixel area of the image. The image was further converted to a standard measurement using a reference object. The developed technique was tested on 16 ulcer images acquired from 10 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc analysis software to find the reliability of the system. Results The analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient (r=0.9882) between the ulcer area measurements done using traditional technique and the newly developed technique, The reliability of the newly developed technique was significant with a significance level of 99.9%. Conclusions The designed non-contact ulcer area calculating system using MATLAB is found to be a reliable system in calculating the size of ulcers. The technique would help clinicians have a reliable tool to monitor the progress of ulcer healing and help modify the treatment protocol if needed.

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2 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1049/CP.2014.0787
01 Jan 2014-
Abstract: The neglect of the early symptoms for the primary impairments like the callous and the corns can lead to the secondary impairments in patients affected by Leprosy. The secondary impairments further when neglected can lead to the limitations in activities of daily living leading to further stigma, both self and perceived. The anaesthetic feet of the leprosy affected many times develop plantar ulcers if it is not properly taken care. Providing customized orthosis helps in the prevention of these ulcers. The Computed Tomography (CT) images of leprosy affected patient's foot with deformities were used to develop these orthosis. The CT images were 3 dimensionally reconstructed and then imported into the Computer aided designing (CAD) Software for designing. Boolean operations between the 3D foot model and a solid rectangular surface designed in the CAD were carried out to create a customized foot orthosis. The computerized orthotic fabrication method followed in this study was found to be more reliable and efficient in acquiring the exact anatomical contours of the feet for orthotic fabrication. The unique technique followed in the fabrication of orthosis would help to reduce the more cumbersome procedures of moulding and casting the foot to take measurements.

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Topics: Foot orthosis (71%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/341/1/012003
01 Mar 2018-
Abstract: This paper describes the idea to realize three-dimensional surfaces of objects with cylinder-based shapes where the techniques adopted and the strategy developed for a non-rigid three-dimensional surface reconstruction of an object from uncalibrated two-dimensional image sequences using multiple-view digital camera and turntable setup. The surface of an object is reconstructed based on the concept of tomography with the aid of performing several digital image processing algorithms on the two-dimensional images captured by a digital camera in thirty-six different projections and the three-dimensional structure of the surface is analysed. Four different objects are used as experimental models in the reconstructions and each object is placed on a manually rotated turntable. The results shown that the proposed method has successfully reconstruct the three-dimensional surface of the objects and practicable. The shape and size of the reconstructed three-dimensional objects are recognizable and distinguishable. The reconstructions of objects involved in the test are strengthened with the analysis where the maximum percent error obtained from the computation is approximately 1.4 % for the height whilst 4.0%, 4.79% and 4.7% for the diameters at three specific heights of the objects.

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Topics: Digital image processing (56%), Surface reconstruction (55%), Radon transform (53%) ...read more

1 Citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/875647939000600106
Abstract: A basic consideration in the evaluation of professional medical literature is being able to understand the statistical analysis presented. One of the more frequently reported statistical methods involves correlation analysis where a correlation coefficient is reported representing the degree of linear association between two variables. This article discusses the basic aspects of correlation analysis with examples given from professional journals and focuses on the interpretations and limitations of the correlation coefficient. No attention was given to the actual calculation of this statistical value.

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Topics: Correlation coefficient (63%), Correlation ratio (62%), Fisher transformation (59%) ...read more

1,496 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ERGON.2006.06.004
Abstract: An approach to automatic foot measurement using 3D scanned data is proposed in this paper The proposed approach was evaluated through comparisons of simulated measurements (SM) of eleven male and nine female participants with manual measurements (MM) and with the output of a commercially available automated foot measuring system (CP) The registration procedure for the measurements and unambiguous definitions for each measurement were first established Eighteen dimensions of each foot were calculated from the scanned data that comprised point clouds and selected landmarks Two operators manually measured each participant's foot twice These MM showed high inter- and intra-operator reliability (ICC>084) Ten of the 18 dimensions obtained from the three measurement methods, SM, CP, and MM, were subjected to an ANOVA and eight of the measurements showed significant differences among the three methods After establishing a linear correction to adjust for systematic errors, there were no significant differences between the SM and MM methods for 17 of the 18 foot dimensions; and the single exception was the heel width dimension The differences among the three methods, correction procedures and their significance are discussed

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  • Figure 7. Girths and their locations
    Figure 7. Girths and their locations
  • Table 12. Paired t-test results of difference (adjusted SM‡- ) on all 18 foot measurements of test data set
    Table 12. Paired t-test results of difference (adjusted SM‡- ) on all 18 foot measurements of test data set
  • Figure 3. Landmarks on foot surface
    Figure 3. Landmarks on foot surface
  • Figure 13. Variation of SM short heel girth with tolerance value and corresponding MM value for participant No. 8 of test data set.
    Figure 13. Variation of SM short heel girth with tolerance value and corresponding MM value for participant No. 8 of test data set.
  • Table 1. Descriptive statistics of participants (N=20)
    Table 1. Descriptive statistics of participants (N=20)
  • + 15

145 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-3-19
Scott Telfer1, James Woodburn1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A number of surface scanning systems with the ability to quickly and easily obtain 3D digital representations of the foot are now commercially available. This review aims to present a summary of the reported use of these technologies in footwear development, the design of customised orthotics, and investigations for other ergonomic purposes related to the foot. The PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Reference lists and experts in the field were also consulted to identify additional articles. Studies in English which had 3D surface scanning of the foot as an integral element of their protocol were included in the review. Thirty-eight articles meeting the search criteria were included. Advantages and disadvantages of using 3D surface scanning systems are highlighted. A meta-analysis of studies using scanners to investigate the changes in foot dimensions during varying levels of weight bearing was carried out. Modern 3D surface scanning systems can obtain accurate and repeatable digital representations of the foot shape and have been successfully used in medical, ergonomic and footwear development applications. The increasing affordability of these systems presents opportunities for researchers investigating the foot and for manufacturers of foot related apparel and devices, particularly those interested in producing items that are customised to the individual. Suggestions are made for future areas of research and for the standardization of the protocols used to produce foot scans.

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128 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1682/JRRD.2003.11.0517
Abstract: Knowledge of the plantar foot shape alteration under weight bearing can offer implications for the design and construction of a comfortable and functional foot support. The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in three-dimensional foot shape under different weight-bearing conditions. The plantar foot shapes of 16 normal feet were collected by an impression casting method under three weight-bearing conditions: non-weight bearing, semi-weight bearing, and full-weight bearing. An optical digitizing system was used to capture the three-dimensional plantar surface shape of the foot cast. Measurements and comparisons from the digitized shapes were conducted for the whole foot and regions of the foot. The data showed that increased weight bearing significantly increased the contact area, foot length, foot width, and rearfoot width, while it decreased average height, arch height, and arch angle. Compared with the non-weight-bearing foot shape, the semi-weight-bearing condition would produce increases in the contact area of 35.1% +/- 21.6 %, foot length of 2.7% +/- 1.2%, foot width of 2.9% +/- 2.4%, and rearfoot width of 5.9% +/- 4.8%, and decreases in the arch height of 15.4% +/- 7.8% and arch angle of 21.7% +/- 17.2%. The full-weight-bearing condition would produce increases in the contact area of 60.4% +/- 33.2%, foot length of 3.4% +/- 1.3%, foot width of 6.0% +/- 2.1%, and rearfoot width of 8.7% +/- 4.9%, and decreases in the arch height of 20.0% +/- 9.2% and arch angle of 41.2% +/- 16.2%. The findings may be useful for considering the change of foot shape in the selection of shoe size and shoe or insole design.

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Topics: Plantar arch (52%), Foot (unit) (50%)

111 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Accurate and precise wound measurements are a critical component of every wound assessment. To examine the reliability and validity of a new computerized technique for measuring human and animal wounds, chronic human wounds (N = 45) and surgical animal wounds (N = 38) were assessed using manual and computerized techniques. Using intraclass correlation coefficients, intrarater and interrater reliability of surface area measurements obtained using the computerized technique were compared to those obtained using acetate tracings and planimetry. A single measurement of surface area using either technique produced excellent intrarater and interrater reliability for both human and animal wounds, but the computerized technique was more precise than the manual technique for measuring the surface area of animal wounds. For both types of wounds and measurement techniques, intrarater and interrater reliability improved when the average of three repeated measurements was obtained. The precision of each technique with human wounds and the precision of the manual technique with animal wounds also improved when three repeated measurement results were averaged. Concurrent validity between the two techniques was excellent for human wounds but poor for the smaller animal wounds, regardless of whether single or the average of three repeated surface area measurements was used. The computerized technique permits reliable and valid assessment of the surface area of both human and animal wounds.

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83 Citations


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