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A peoples‘ europe? european citizenship and european identity

01 Oct 1993-Politics (Blackwell Publishing Ltd)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 25-31

AbstractWe are not forming coalitions between States, but union among people (Jean Monnet, Washington, 1952).

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Introduction

  • De l'beritage monumen I' entreprise de patrimoi une histoire de la transiJ culturelle en France, )C ECS No. 91/4 Mary DAL Y !Kirsten S~ Time and Money: Stratc for Redistributing Reso to Women ECS No. 91/5 Claudius GELLERT.
  • Insl and Functional Modific European Higher Educ1 ECS No. 92/6 Xose-M. NU:rimz Historical Research on Regionalism and Peripl Nationalism in Spain: a Reappraisal EUI WORKING.

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Working
Pap
ECS
No. 90/1
Uonce
BEKEMANS
European Integration a
Policies. Analysis
of
a l
Polarity
ECS
No. 90/2
Christine FAURE
Intellectuelles et citoyeJ
en France, de la n!volu
au second empire
(17S5
ECS
No. 91/3
Dominique POULOT
De l'beritage monumen
I'
entreprise de patrimoi
une histoire de la
transiJ
culturelle
en
France,
)C
ECS
No. 91/4
Mary DAL Y !Kirsten
S~
Time and Money:
Stratc
for Redistributing Reso
to Women
ECS
No. 91/5
Claudius GELLERT
The Emergence
of
Thrc
University Models. Insl
and Functional Modific
European Higher
Educ1
ECS
No. 92/6
Xose-M.
NU:rimz
Historical Research on
Regionalism and Peripl
Nationalism in Spain: a
Reappraisal
EUI
WORKING
PAPERS
IN EUROPEAN
CULTURAL
STUDIES
EUI
Working
Paper
ECS
No.
93/2
A Peoples' Europe?
European Citizenship and European Identity
JENNIFER M.
WELSH
European University Institute, Florence

1990
the
EID
Working
Paper
Series
is
DIHiene~s.
each
sub-series
is
numbered
Working
Paper
LAW
No
90/1).
EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE,
FLORENCE
EUROPEAN CULTURE RESEARCH CENTRE
EUI Working Paper ECS No. 93/2
A Peoples'
Europe?
European
Citizenship
and
European
Identity
JENNJFER M.
WELSH
BADIA FIESOLANA, SAN DOMENICO
(FI)

All rights reserved.
No part
of
this paper may be reproduced in any form
without permission
of
the author.
© Jennifer M. Welsh
Printed in Italy in September 1993
European University Institute
Badia Fiesolana
I-
50016 San Domenico (FI)
Italy
A
PEOPLES'
EUROPE?
EUROPEAN
CITIZENSHIP
AND
EUROPEAN
IDENTITY
Dr.
Jennifer
M.
Welsh
Jean
Monnet
Fellow,
European
University
Institute
"We
are not forming coalitions between States,
but
union
among
people."
Jean
Monnet
Washington,
1952
As
part
of
its
mission to move beyond a purely
"businessmen's
Europe",
the
drafters
of
the
recent
Maastricht
Treaty
on
European
Union
have
for
the
first
time
attempted
to define
what
it
means
to be
a
European
citizen.1 \';rhis idea of citizenship is a
relatively
new one
in
Community
parlance,
given "that
the
agenda
for
integration
has
hitherto
concerned
itself
mainly
with
the
achievement
of
economic
rather
than
political or
cultural
objectives. Moreover,
the
fact
that
the
original
Treaty
of Rome refers to
several
"peoples" -
and
not
a single
one -
suggests
that
it
did
not
intend
to
create
any
supranational
notion
of
European
citizenship.
Instead,
the
individual
rights
of
citizenship
were
to
remain
within
the
competence
of
indivi.dual
Member
States.2
As a consequence,
the
evolution
of
European
citizenship
has
been
shaped
by
the
more
general
tension
within
the
Community
between
supra
nationalism
and
intergovernmentalism,
combining
concrete
rights
which
can
be
extrapolated
from
existing
treaties
with
more
general
ideas of a common
"European
identity".3
lThe
process
of
constructing "'Peoples' Europe" actually began
in
1985 with
the
publication
of
the
Adonnino Report, commissioned by
the
Fontainebleau
European
Council.
2Mancini,
"The
Making
of a
Constitution
for Europe", Common Market Law
Review,
26
(1989),
595-614
(p.
596). Hence, citizens of a Member
State
were still
regarded
by
the
Treaty
as
aliens
or
foreigners by
other
Member
States,
and could suffer discrimination in those
areas
not
covered
by EC law.
l

-2-
The
result
is
a
weak
and
ambiguous
legal
status
which
does
little
to
reflect
or
develop
a
sense
of
shared
goals
and
values
among
.
European
peoples.
The
Rights
of
Citizenship
Before
tracing
the
development
of
European
citizenship,
it
is
useful
to
consider
the
more
established
concept
of
state
citizenship
that
has
been
discussed
by
political
theorists,
economists
and
sociologists.
Citizenship
has
become
an
increasingly
important
subject
for social
scientists
in
the
latter
half
of
the
twentieth
century,
for
reasons
existing
both
within
and
beyond
the
nation-state.
External
factors
include
the
intensifying
processes
of
globalization
and
modernization4,
the
increase
in
economic
and
cultural
transnational
connections
among
peoples,
and
the
creation
of
international
guarantees
for
the
protection
individual
human
rights.5
Internally,
citizenship
has
factored
into
debates
concerning
the
growing
crisis
in
the
welfare
state,
the
erosion
of
participatory
democracy,
the
link
between
state
and
"civil
society",
and
the
jurisdictional
power
struggles
between
regional
and
central
governments.
6
In
his
now
famous
1949
article,
"Citizenship
and
Social
Class",
sociologist
T.H.
Marshall
defines
citizenship
as
a
"status
bestowed
on
those
who
are
full
members
of
a
community."?
Hence,
though
it
is
a
status
accorded
to
individuals,
citizenship
is
a
fundamentally
social
phenomenon,
which
has
little
meaning
outside
of
a
collective
framework.
More
importantly,
citizenship
is
an
egalitarian
symbol:
all
those
who
possess
it
enjoy de
jure,
if
not
de facto,
equality
with
respect
to
its
corresponding
rights
and
duties.B
in
this
sense,
notes
3carlos
Closa,
"The
Concept
of
Citizenship
in
the
Treaty
on
European
Union"
Common Market
Law Review,
29
(1992),
1137-1169
(p.
1139J.
This
paper
will
rely
heavily
on
Closa
for
its
legal
analysis.
4For
a
discussion
of
the
link
between
globalization
and
citizenship,
see
Global Politics:
Globalization and the Nation-State,
edited
by
Anthony
G.
McGrew,
Paul
G.
Lewis
et
al
(Oxford:
Polity
Press,
1992
),
Part
IV.
5The
development
of
these
guarantees
is
discussed
by
RJ.
Vincent,
Human
Rights
and
International Relations
(Cambridge:
Cambridge
University
Press,
1986).
6A.n
overview
of
these
current
debates,
with
a
particular
emphasis
on
Britain
can
be
found
in
Citizenship,
edited
by
Geoff
Andrews
(London:
Lawrence
and
Wishart,
199ll.
7T.H.
Marshall,
"Citizenship
and
Social
Class",
in
Class, Citizenship
and
Social Development:
.:ssays
by T.H. Marshal!
(London:
University
of
Chicago
Press,
1964J,
71-134
(p.
92J.
Ibid.
-3-
political
theorist
David
Held,
citizenship
is a
particularly
interesting
concept,
for
it
"combines
in
rather
unusual
ways
the
public
and
social
with
the
individual
aspects
of
political life
....
Individual
citizens
enjoy
entitlements
on
the
basis
of
a
fundamental
equality
of
condition,
which
is
their
membership
ofthe
community."9
In
concrete
terms,
the
rights
of
citizenship
were
originally
translated
as
entitlement
to
equality
under
the
law
-
what
Marshall
refers
to
as
civil
rights.
This
essentially
"negative"
conception
of
rights,10
particularly
dominant
in
Enlightenment
thinking,
granted
citizens
a
free
space
in
which
to
pursue
their
individual
goals
without
the
risk
of
state
interference.
It
therefore
included
the
right
to
freedom
of
speech,
the
right
to
private
property,
and
the
access
to
legal
process.11
Over
time,
however,
it
became
clear
that
such
rights
were
not
necessarily
exercised
by
all
and
that
a
negative
interpretation
of
rights
did
not
give
citizens
a
sufficient
degree
of
empowerment.
While
in
theory
there
was
equality
before
the
law,
in
practice
there
were
non
legal
barriers
restricting
the
capacity
to
choose
between
different
courses
of
action
or
to
guarantee
the
possession
of
certain
entitlements.
As
Marshall
puts
it:
"A
property
right
is
not
a
right
to
possess
property,
but
a
right
to
acquire
it,
if
you
can,
and
to
protect
it,
if
you
can
get
it."12
Consequently,
over
the
course
of
the
nineteenth
century,
citizenship
expanded
to
include
the
right
to
participate
in
the
decision-making
process.
These
political
rights
for
the
most
part
consisted
of
the
right
to
vote
and
to
stand
for
public
office.
In
our
own
tw_entieth
century,
further
"positive"
rights
have
been
added
to
the
status
of
citizenship.
Through
the
institutions
of
the
modern
welfare
state,
social
rights
(e.g., access
to
health
care,
education,
and
social
services)
have
become
part
of
the
catalogue
of
citizenship
entitlements
in
many
nation-states
of
Europe.
i~avid
~e~d,
"~etween
State
and
Civil
Society:
Citizenship",
in
Andrews,
op.cit.,
19-25
(p.
21).
,
The
d1stmctwn
between
negative
and
positive
liberty
is
made
by
Isaiah
Berlin.
1
~
For
a
history
of
the
development
of
citizenship
rights
in
France,
see
Catherine
Withol
de
Wenden,
Citoyennete, Nationalite et Immigration
(Arcantere:
Paris,
1987).
12Marshall,
op.cit.,
p.
97.
The
same
could
be
said
for
the