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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/DIAGNOSTICS11030437

A Pictorial Review of the Role of Imaging in the Detection, Management, Histopathological Correlations, and Complications of COVID-19 Pneumonia.

04 Mar 2021-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 437
Abstract: Imaging plays an important role in the detection of coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia in both managing the disease and evaluating the complications. Imaging with chest computed tomography (CT) can also have a potential predictive and prognostic role in COVID-19 patient outcomes. The aim of this pictorial review is to describe the role of imaging with chest X-ray (CXR), lung ultrasound (LUS), and CT in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 pneumonia, the current indications, the scores proposed for each modality, the advantages/limitations of each modality and their role in detecting complications, and the histopathological correlations.

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Topics: Pneumonia (54%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/DIAGNOSTICS11091601
02 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Purpose: To describe the perfusion patterns of peripheral organizing pneumonia (POP) by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and their correlation with vascularization patterns (VPs) represented by immunohistochemical CD34 endothelial staining. Methods: From October 2006 until December 2020, 38 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed POPs were standardized-examined by CEUS. The time to enhancement (TE; classified as an early pulmonary-arterial [PA] pattern of enhancement vs. delayed bronchial-arterial [BA] pattern of enhancement), the extent of enhancement (EE; classified as marked or reduced), the homogeneity of enhancement (HE; classified as homogeneous or inhomogeneous), and the decrease of enhancement (DE; classified as rapid washout [<120s] or late washout [≥120s]) were evaluated retrospectively. Furthermore, tissue samples from the study patients were immunohistochemically stained with CD34 antibody. The presence of avascular areas (AAs) and the VPs were evaluated in all tissue samples. Results: The majority of POPs showed a BA pattern of enhancement (71.1%), an isoechoic marked enhancement (76.3%), and an inhomogeneous enhancement (81.6%). A rapid DE was observed in 50.0% of cases. On CD34 staining, all POPs had a chaotic VP, indicating BA neoangiogenesis. AAs (abscess, necrosis, hemorrhage) were identified in (41.9%) cases with an inhomogeneous enhancement on CEUS. Conclusion: On CEUS, POPs predominantly revealed a marked inhomogeneous BA pattern of enhancement with a rapid washout in 50% of cases. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the presence of a PA pattern of enhancement, found in 28.9% of POPs, did not exclude a BA neoangiogenesis as an important feature of chronic inflammatory and malignant processes.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JPM11050380
Abstract: Background: During the COVID-19 public health emergency, our breast cancer screening activities have been interrupted. In June 2020, they resumed, calling for mandatory safe procedures to properly manage patients and staff. Methods: A protocol supporting medical activities in breast cancer screening was created, based on six relevant articles published in the literature and in the following National and International guidelines for COVID-19 prevention. The patient population, consisting of both screening and breast ambulatory patients, was classified into one of four categories: 1. Non-COVID-19 patient; 2. Confirmed COVID-19 in an asymptomatic screening patient; 3. suspected COVID-19 in symptomatic or confirmed breast cancer; 4. Confirmed COVID-19 in symptomatic or confirmed breast cancer. The day before the radiological exam, patients are screened for COVID-19 infection through a telephone questionnaire. At a subsequent in person appointment, the body temperature is checked and depending on the clinical scenario at stake, the scenario-specific procedures for medical and paramedical staff are adopted. Results: In total, 203 mammograms, 76 breast ultrasound exams, 4 core needle biopsies, and 6 vacuum-assisted breast biopsies were performed in one month. Neither medical nor paramedical staff were infected on any of these occasions. Conclusion: Our department organization model can represent a case of implementation of National and International guidelines applied in a breast cancer screening program, assisting hospital personnel into COVID-19 infection prevention.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMED.2021.709402
Abstract: The pandemic spread of the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised the necessity to identify an appropriate imaging method for early diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chest Computed Tomography (CT) has been regarded as the mainstay of imaging evaluation for pulmonary involvement in the early phase of the pandemic. However, due to the poor specificity of the radiological pattern and the disruption of Radiology Centers functionality linked to an excessive demand for exams, the American College of Radiology (ACR) has advised against CT use for a screening purpose. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a point-of care imaging tool that is fast available and easy to disinfect. These advantages have determined a “pandemic” increase of its use for early detection of COVID-19 pneumonia in Emergency Departments. However, LUS findings in COVID-19 patients are even less specific than those detectable on CT scan. The scope of this perspective article is to discuss about the great number of diseases and pathologic conditions that may mimic COVID-19 pneumonia on LUS examination.

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Topics: Pneumonia (55%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMED.2021.707602
Abstract: Background: In the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, lung ultrasound (LUS) has been extensively employed to evaluate lung involvement and proposed as a useful screening tool for early diagnosis in the emergency department (ED), prehospitalization triage, and treatment monitoring of COVID-19 pneumonia. However, the actual effectiveness of LUS in characterizing lung involvement in COVID-19 is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate LUS diagnostic performance in assessing or ruling out COVID-19 pneumonia when compared with chest CT (gold standard) in a population of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Methods: A total of 260 consecutive RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were included in the study. All the patients underwent both chest CT scan and concurrent LUS at admission, within the first 6-12 h of hospital stay. Results: Chest CT scan was considered positive when showing a "typical" or "indeterminate" pattern for COVID-19, according to the RSNA classification system. Disease prevalence for COVID-19 pneumonia was 90.77%. LUS demonstrated a sensitivity of 56.78% in detecting lung alteration. The concordance rate for the assessment of abnormalities by both methods increased in the case of peripheral distribution and middle-lower lung location of lesions and in cases of more severe lung involvement. A total of nine patients had a "false-positive" LUS examination. Alternative diagnosis included chronic heart disease (six cases), bronchiectasis (two cases), and subpleural emphysema (one case). LUS specificity was 62.50%. Collateral findings indicative of overlapping conditions at chest CT were recorded also in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and appeared distributed with increasing frequency passing from the group with mild disease (17 cases) to that with severe disease (40 cases). Conclusions: LUS does not seem to be an adequate tool for screening purposes in the ED, due to the risk of missing some lesions and/or to underestimate the actual extent of the disease. Furthermore, the not specificity of LUS implies the possibility to erroneously classify pre-existing or overlapping conditions as COVID-19 pneumonia. It seems more safe to integrate a positive LUS examination with clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and radiologic findings to suggest a "virosis." Viral testing confirmation is always required.

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Topics: Pneumonia (56%), Bronchiectasis (52%), Population (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/DIAGNOSTICS11101937
19 Oct 2021-
Abstract: This study's aim was to investigate CT (computed tomography) pattern dynamics differences within surviving and deceased adult patients with COVID-19, revealing new prognostic factors and reproducing already known data with our patients' cohort: 635 hospitalized patients (55.3% of them were men, 44.7%-women), of which 87.3% had a positive result of RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) at admission. The number of deaths was 53 people (69.8% of them were men and 30.2% were women). In total, more than 1500 CT examinations were performed on patients, using a GE Optima CT 660 computed tomography (General Electric Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA). The study was performed at hospital admission, the frequency of repetitive scans further varied based on clinical need. The interpretation of the imaging data was carried out by 11 radiologists with filling in individual registration cards that take into account the scale of the lesion, the location, contours, and shape of the foci, the dominating types of changes, as well as the presence of additional findings and the dynamics of the process-a total of 45 parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using the software packages SPSS Statistics version 23.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) and R software version 3.3.2. For comparisons in pattern dynamics across hospitalization we used repeated measures general linear model with outcome and disease phase as factors. The crazy paving pattern, which is more common and has a greater contribution to the overall CT picture in different phases of the disease in deceased patients, has isolated prognostic significance and is probably a reflection of faster dynamics of the process with a long phase of progression of pulmonary parenchyma damage with an identical trend of changes in the scale of the lesion (as recovered) in this group of patients. Already known data on typical pulmonological CT manifestations of infection, frequency of occurrence, and the prognostic significance of the scale of the lesion were reproduced, new differences in the dynamics of the process between recovered and deceased adult patients were also found that may have prognostic significance and can be reflected in clinical practice.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2020.0994
Chaomin Wu1, Xiaoyan Chen1, Yanping Cai, Jia’an Xia2  +21 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Importance Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. Risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia have not yet been well delineated. Objective To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or died. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study of 201 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital in China between December 25, 2019, and January 26, 2020. The final date of follow-up was February 13, 2020. Exposures Confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Main Outcomes and Measures The development of ARDS and death. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management, treatment, and outcome data were also collected and analyzed. Results Of 201 patients, the median age was 51 years (interquartile range, 43-60 years), and 128 (63.7%) patients were men. Eighty-four patients (41.8%) developed ARDS, and of those 84 patients, 44 (52.4%) died. In those who developed ARDS, compared with those who did not, more patients presented with dyspnea (50 of 84 [59.5%] patients and 30 of 117 [25.6%] patients, respectively [difference, 33.9%; 95% CI, 19.7%-48.1%]) and had comorbidities such as hypertension (23 of 84 [27.4%] patients and 16 of 117 [13.7%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-26.1%]) and diabetes (16 of 84 [19.0%] patients and 6 of 117 [5.1%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.9%; 95% CI, 3.6%-24.2%]). In bivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with the development of ARDS and progression from ARDS to death included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.26; 95% CI 2.08-5.11; and HR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.26-11.67, respectively), neutrophilia (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; and HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17, respectively), and organ and coagulation dysfunction (eg, higher lactate dehydrogenase [HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.44-1.79; and HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52, respectively] and D-dimer [HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; and HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, respectively]). High fever (≥39 °C) was associated with higher likelihood of ARDS development (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11-2.84) and lower likelihood of death (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82). Among patients with ARDS, treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.72). Conclusions and Relevance Older age was associated with greater risk of development of ARDS and death likely owing to less rigorous immune response. Although high fever was associated with the development of ARDS, it was also associated with better outcomes among patients with ARDS. Moreover, treatment with methylprednisolone may be beneficial for patients who develop ARDS.

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Topics: ARDS (52%)

4,614 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1148/RADIOL.2020200642
Tao Ai1, Zhenlu Yang, Hongyan Hou2, Chenao Zhan1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
26 Feb 2020-Radiology
Abstract: Chest CT had higher sensitivity for diagnosis of COVID-19 as compared with initial reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from swab samples in the epidemic area of China.

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3,596 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JTH.14768
Ning Tang1, Dengju Li1, Xiong Wang1, Ziyong Sun1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Background: In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, significantly abnormal coagulation parameters in severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) cases were a concern. Objectives: To describe the coagulation feature of patients with NCP. Methods: Conventional coagulation results and outcomes of 183 consecutive patients with confirmed NCP in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The overall mortality was 11.5%, the non-survivors revealed significantly higher D-dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, longer prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared to survivors on admission (P < .05); 71.4% of non-survivors and 0.6% survivors met the criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation during their hospital stay. Conclusions: The present study shows that abnormal coagulation results, especially markedly elevated D-dimer and FDP are common in deaths with NCP.

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Topics: D-dimer (59%), Partial thromboplastin time (56%), Prothrombin time (56%) ... read more

3,232 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
02 May 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Vol 395 May 2, 202

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Topics: Endotheliitis (68%)

3,207 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1148/RADIOL.2462070712
01 Mar 2008-Radiology
Abstract: Members of the Fleischner Society compiled a glossary of terms for thoracic imaging that replaces previous glossaries published in 1984 and 1996 for thoracic radiography and computed tomography (CT), respectively. The need to update the previous versions came from the recognition that new words have emerged, others have become obsolete, and the meaning of some terms has changed. Brief descriptions of some diseases are included, and pictorial examples (chest radiographs and CT scans) are provided for the majority of terms.

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Topics: Glossary (54%)

2,620 Citations