scispace - formally typeset

ReportDOI

A process for determining radiohalogens

01 Dec 1993-

AbstractTechniques for the separation and potential determination of chlorine-36 and iodine-129 were examined. Separation was based upon addition to the carbon-carbon double bond in 1-hexene. These specific organic halides formed an acceptable liquid scintillation counting cocktail with chlorine but not with iodine. The miscibility of 1,2-dichlorohexane should allow a larger mass of sample in a scintillation cocktail, lowering the detection limit of the determination of chlorine-36. Organic halides are also expected to be more receptive to waste treatment than metals such as silver. These techniques offer the potential for determination of chlorine-36 in groundwater samples while producing less mixed waste than current analytical techniques.

Summary (1 min read)

Jump to:  and [Summary]

Summary

  • Techniques for the separation and potential determination of chlorine-36 and iodine-129 were examined.
  • Separation was based upon addition to the carbon-carbon double bond in l-hexene.
  • These specific organic halides formed an acceptable liquid scintillation counting cocktail with chlorine but not with iodine.
  • The miscibility of 1,2-dichlorohexane should allow a larger mass of sample in a scintillation cocktail, lowering the detection limit of the ,determination of chlorine-36.
  • Organic halides are also expected to be more receptive to waste treatment than metals such as silver.
  • These techniques o" offer the potential for determination of chlorine-36 in groundwater samples while producing less mixed waste than some current analytical techniques.

Did you find this useful? Give us your feedback

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

ill ill
i
i1111Iii11--IIIIL

q
__ Ill

WINCO-1169 UC-510
A PROCESS FOR DETERMINING RADIOHALOGENS
W. 1 Washington
E A. Hohorst
December 1993
(__) WestinghouseIdaho
NuclearCompany,Inc.
PREPAREDFORTHE
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE
UNDERCONTRACTDE-AC07-841D12435

A PROCESS FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOHALOGENS
"_ W.J. Washington and F. A. Hohorst
q,
ABSTRACT
Techniques for the separation and potential determination of chlorine-36
and iodine-129 were examined. Separation was based upon addition to the
carbon-carbon double bond in l-hexene. These specific organic halides formed
an acceptable liquid scintillation counting cocktail with chlorine but not
with iodine. The miscibility of 1,2-dichlorohexane should allow a larger mass
of sample in a scintillation cocktail, lowering the detection limit of the
,- determination of chlorine-36. Organic halides are also expected to be more
receptive to waste treatment than metals such as silver. These techniques
o"
offer the potential for determination of chlorine-36 in groundwater samples
while producing less mixed waste than some current analytical techniques.
INTRODUCTION
Water quality is monitored at any of the many locations at the Idaho
National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeast Idaho. Chlorine-36 and
iodine-129 are of special interest because they are readily assimilated into
-" living tissue. Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is one method for
determination of radioactivity which is readily adapted to large sample
I"
throughput.
Some methods of halide determination precipitate halide ion from
solution using silver nitrate x'2 Silver is a heavy metal which is hazardous

to the environment. The identification of an efficient alternative to silver
is desirable.
Conversion of halides to halogens or hydrohalides followed by addition
°
to carbon-carbon bonds provides one means by which halides may be isolated.
Chlorine is prepared through a reaction with acidic permanganate. Hydroiodic °
acid is formed by action of a strong, non-oxidizing acid on iodide.
l-Hexene is an appropriate substrate because it has a useful difference
between its boiling point and the high boiling points of 1,2-dichlorohexane
and 2-iodohexane 3. The differences in boiling points and densities make the
product easy to separate and distinguish from the reactant.
Once halogens have been incorporated into organic molecules and
purified, they may be added to a liquid scintillation cocktail to count the
beta particles given off by radioactive halogen atoms. The measured light
intensity then provides a measure of the radioactivity of the sample 4.
"e
EXPERIMENTAL
General
All experimentation was performed inside a fume hood. All chemical
reactions took place inside glass/Teflon'" systems assembled from Wheaton Semi-
micro kits. Nitrogen flow rate was measured by a Matheson mass flow meter
Model 8111-0422 [0 - 200 normal cubic centimeters per minute (nccm, ± 3% of
full scale)]. Samples were counted on a Beckman liquid scintillation system,
Model 5801, in 20 mL low potassium glass vials.
Reagents
All chemicals used were of reagent grade, unless otherwise stated below:
Hexene, Kodak stock # 15613
2

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: 36Cl is a beta-emitter with a very low specific activity. It is produced during the irradiation of nuclear fuel, in the reactor core of power plants, from neutron capture by stable 35Cl that may be present at trace level in any part of the irradiated material. Due to its long half-life (T1/2 = 3.01 . 105 y), 36Cl may be significant in impact assessment studies of disposal sites of nuclear wastes. Considering these different elements, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra-France) requests information on the 36Cl content of the waste packages destined to be stored at Andra sites. As for other halogens, the measurement of 36Cl is a difficult analytical task in view of its potential losses during the different chemical steps and also because of the lack of international certified reference material needed to validate the chemical and measurement procedures. This paper describes the methodology processed to constitute an in-house solid reference sample with a known content of stable and radioactive chlorine. The original radiochemistry developed to extract 36Cl from solid samples and purify it before a liquid scintillation counting is explained. The comparison of the results given by this radiochemical protocol and other methods allow its validation. The replication of the measurements on the constituted reference materials gives a repeatability around 8% at a confidence level of 95% that is very close to the calculated combined uncertainty value.

16 citations


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1979
Abstract: Chapter 1 Radiation Sources. I. Units And Definitions. II. Fast Electron Sources. III. Heavy Charged Particle Sources. IV. Sources Of Electromagnetic Radiation. V. Neutron Sources. Chapter 2 Radiation Interactions. I. Interaction Of Heavy Charged Particles. II. Interaction Of Fast Electrons. III. Interaction Of Gamma Rays. IV. Interaction Of Neutrons. V. Radiation Exposure And Dose. Chapter 3 Counting Statistics And Error Prediction. I. Characterization Of Data. II. Statistical Models. III. Applications Of Statistical Models. IV. Error Propagation. V. Optimization Of Counting Experiments. VI. Limits Of Detectability. VII. Distribution Of Time Intervals. Chapter 4 General Properties Of Radiation Detectors. I. Simplified Detector Model. II. Modes Of Detector Operation. III. Pulse Height Spectra. IV. Counting Curves And Plateaus. V. Energy Resolution. VI. Detection Efficiency. VII. Dead Time. Chapter 5 Ionization Chambers. I. The Ionization Process In Gases. II. Charge Migration And Collection. III. Design And Operation Of Dc Ion Chambers. IV. Radiation Dose Measurement With Ion Chambers. V. Applications Of Dc Ion Chambers. VI. Pulse Mode Operation. Chapter 6 Proportional Counters. I. Gas Multiplication. II. Design Features Of Proportional Counters. III. Proportional Counter Performance. IV. Detection Efficiency And Counting Curves. V. Variants Of The Proportional Counter Design. VI. Micropattern Gas Detectors. Chapter 7 Geiger-Mueller Counters. I. The Geiger Discharge. II. Fill Gases. III. Quenching. IV. Time Behavior. V. The Geiger Counting Plateau. VI. Design Features. VII. Counting Efficiency. VIII. Time-To-First-Count Method. IX. G-M Survey Meters. Chapter 8 Scintillation Detector Principles. I. Organic Scintillators. II. Inorganic Scintillators. III. Light Collection And Scintillator Mounting. Chapter 9 Photomultiplier Tubes And Photodiodes. I. Introduction. II. The Photocathode. III. Electron Multiplication. IV. Photomultiplier Tube Characteristics. V. Ancillary Equipment Required With Photomultiplier Tubes. VI. Photodiodes As Substitutes For Photomultiplier Tubes. VII. Scintillation Pulse Shape Analysis. VIII. Hybrid Photomultiplier Tubes. IX. Position-Sensing Photomultiplier Tubes. X. Photoionization Detectors. Chapter 10 Radiation Spectroscopy With Scintillators. I. General Considerations In Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy. II. Gamma-Ray Interactions. III. Predicted Response Functions. IV. Properties Of Scintillation Gamma-Ray Spectrometers. V. Response Of Scintillation Detectors To Neutrons. VI. Electron Spectroscopy With Scintillators. VII. Specialized Detector Configurations Based On Scintillation. Chapter 11 Semiconductor Diode Detectors. I. Semiconductor Properties. II. The Action Of Ionizing Radiation In Semiconductors. III. Semiconductors As Radiation Detectors. IV. Semiconductor Detector Configurations. V. Operational Characteristics. VI. Applications Of Silicon Diode Detectors. Chapter 12 Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors. I. General Considerations. II. Configurations Of Germanium Detectors. III. Germanium Detector Operational Characteristics. IV. Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy With Germanium Detectors. Chapter 13 Other Solid-State Detectors. I. Lithium-Drifted Silicon Detectors. II. Semiconductor Materials Other Than Silicon Or Germanium. III. Avalanche Detectors. IV. Photoconductive Detectors. V. Position-Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors. Chapter 14 Slow Neutron Detection Methods. I. Nuclear Reactions Of Interest In Neutron Detection. II. Detectors Based On The Boron Reaction. III. Detectors Based On Other Conversion Reactions. IV. Reactor Instrumentation. Chapter 15 Fast Neutron Detection And Spectroscopy. I. Counters Based On Neutron Moderation. II. Detectors Based On Fast Neutron-Induced Reactions. III. Detectors That Utilize Fast Neutron Scattering. Chapter 16 Pulse Processing. I. Overview Of Pulse Processing. II. Device Impedances. III. Coaxial Cables. IV. Linear And Logic Pulses. V. Instrument Standards. VI. Summary Of Pulse-Processing Units. VII. Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICS). VIII. Components Common To Many Applications. Chapter 17 Pulse Shaping, Counting, And Timing. I. Pulse Shaping. II. Pulse Counting Systems. III. Pulse Height Analysis Systems. IV. Digital Pulse Processing. V. Systems Involving Pulse Timing. VI. Pulse Shape Discrimination. Chapter 18 Multichannel Pulse Analysis. I. Single-Channel Methods. II. General Multichannel Characteristics. III. The Multichannel Analyzer. IV. Spectrum Stabilization And Relocation. V. Spectrum Analysis. Chapter 19 Miscellaneous Detector Types. I. Cherenkov Detectors. II. Gas-Filled Detectors In Self-Quenched Streamer Mode. III. High-Pressure Xenon Spectrometers. IV. Liquid Ionization And Proportional Counters. V. Cryogenic Detectors. VI. Photographic Emulsions. VII. Thermoluminescent Dosimeters And Image Plates. VIII. Track-Etch Detectors. IX. Superheated Drop Or "Bubble Detectors". X. Neutron Detection By Activation. XI. Detection Methods Based On Integrated Circuit Components. Chapter 20 Background And Detector Shielding. I. Sources Of Background. II. Background In Gamma-Ray Spectra. III. Background In Other Detectors. IV. Shielding Materials. V. Active Methods Of Background Reduction. Appendix A The NIM, CAMAC, And VME Instrumentation Standards. Appendix B Derivation Of The Expression For Sample Variance In Chapter 3. Appendix C Statistical Behavior Of Counting Data For Variable Mean Value. Appendix D The Shockley-Ramo Theorem For Induced Charge.

8,453 citations