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Journal ArticleDOI

A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity.

17 Aug 2012-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 337, Iss: 6096, pp 816-821

TL;DR: This study reveals a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage and highlights the potential to exploit the system for RNA-programmable genome editing.
Abstract: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the silencing of invading nucleic acids. We show here that in a subset of these systems, the mature crRNA that is base-paired to trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) forms a two-RNA structure that directs the CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 to introduce double-stranded (ds) breaks in target DNA. At sites complementary to the crRNA-guide sequence, the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain cleaves the complementary strand, whereas the Cas9 RuvC-like domain cleaves the noncomplementary strand. The dual-tracrRNA:crRNA, when engineered as a single RNA chimera, also directs sequence-specific Cas9 dsDNA cleavage. Our study reveals a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage and highlights the potential to exploit the system for RNA-programmable genome editing.
Topics: Trans-activating crRNA (78%), CRISPR/Cpf1 (64%), Cas9 (63%), Protospacer adjacent motif (63%), CRISPR (61%)
Citations
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28 Jul 2005-
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Le Cong1, Le Cong2, F. Ann Ran1, F. Ann Ran2  +12 moreInstitutions (5)
15 Feb 2013-Science
Abstract: Functional elucidation of causal genetic variants and elements requires precise genome editing technologies. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas adaptive immune system has been shown to facilitate RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage. We engineered two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems and demonstrate that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells. Cas9 can also be converted into a nicking enzyme to facilitate homology-directed repair with minimal mutagenic activity. Lastly, multiple guide sequences can be encoded into a single CRISPR array to enable simultaneous editing of several sites within the mammalian genome, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.

10,364 citations


01 Feb 2013-
TL;DR: Two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems are engineered and it is demonstrated that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.
Abstract: Genome Editing Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) function as part of an adaptive immune system in a range of prokaryotes: Invading phage and plasmid DNA is targeted for cleavage by complementary CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) bound to a CRISPR-associated endonuclease (see the Perspective by van der Oost). Cong et al. (p. 819, published online 3 January) and Mali et al. (p. 823, published online 3 January) adapted this defense system to function as a genome editing tool in eukaryotic cells. A bacterial genome defense system is adapted to function as a genome-editing tool in mammalian cells. [Also see Perspective by van der Oost] Functional elucidation of causal genetic variants and elements requires precise genome editing technologies. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas adaptive immune system has been shown to facilitate RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage. We engineered two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems and demonstrate that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells. Cas9 can also be converted into a nicking enzyme to facilitate homology-directed repair with minimal mutagenic activity. Lastly, multiple guide sequences can be encoded into a single CRISPR array to enable simultaneous editing of several sites within the mammalian genome, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.

9,336 citations


Cites background from "A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA ..."

  • ...> U6-St_tracrRNA(7-97) GAGGGCCTATTTCCCATGATTCCTTCATATTTGCATATACGATACAAGGCTGTTAGAGAGATAA TTGGAATTAATTTGACTGTAAACACAAAGATATTAGTACAAAATACGTGACGTAGAAAGTAATA ATTTCTTGGGTAGTTTGCAGTTTTAAAATTATGTTTTAAAATGGACTATCATATGCTTACCGTA ACTTGAAAGTATTTCGATTTCTTGGCTTTATATATCTTGTGGAAAGGACGAAACACCGTTACTT AAATCTTGCAGAAGCTACAAAGATAAGGCTTCATGCCGAAATCAACACCCTGTCATTTTATGGC AGGGTGTTTTCGTTATTTAA...

    [...]

  • ...The Type II CRISPR system carries out targeted DNA double-strand break (DSB) in sequential steps (12-14, 20, 21)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Prashant Mali1, Luhan Yang1, Kevin M. Esvelt2, John Aach1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
15 Feb 2013-Science
TL;DR: The type II bacterial CRISPR system is engineer to function with custom guide RNA (gRNA) in human cells to establish an RNA-guided editing tool for facile, robust, and multiplexable human genome engineering.
Abstract: Bacteria and archaea have evolved adaptive immune defenses, termed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems, that use short RNA to direct degradation of foreign nucleic acids. Here, we engineer the type II bacterial CRISPR system to function with custom guide RNA (gRNA) in human cells. For the endogenous AAVS1 locus, we obtained targeting rates of 10 to 25% in 293T cells, 13 to 8% in K562 cells, and 2 to 4% in induced pluripotent stem cells. We show that this process relies on CRISPR components; is sequence-specific; and, upon simultaneous introduction of multiple gRNAs, can effect multiplex editing of target loci. We also compute a genome-wide resource of ~190 K unique gRNAs targeting ~40.5% of human exons. Our results establish an RNA-guided editing tool for facile, robust, and multiplexable human genome engineering.

7,430 citations


Cites background from "A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA ..."

  • ...A recent in vitro reconstitution of the Streptococcus pyogenes type II CRISPR system demonstrated that crRNA fused to a normally trans-encoded tracrRNA is sufficient to direct Cas9 protein to sequence-specifically cleave target DNA sequences matching the crRNA (4)....

    [...]

  • ...S3) (4, 5), whereas inactivating both domains may enable Cas9 to function as a retargetable DNA binding protein....

    [...]

  • ...Consistent with (4), in which a related Cas9 protein is shown to cut both strands 3 bp upstream of the PAM, our NHEJ data confirmed that most deletions or insertions occurred at the 3′ end of the target sequence (fig....

    [...]

  • ...Existing studies of type II CRISPR specificity (4) suggest that target sites must perfectly match the PAM sequence NGG and the 8- to 12-base “seed sequence” at the 3′ end of the gRNA....

    [...]

  • ...The ease of retargeting our system to modify genomic sequences greatly exceeds that of comparable ZFNs and TALENs, while offering similar or greater efficiencies (4)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
F. Ann Ran, Patrick D. Hsu, Jason Wright1, Vineeta Agarwala1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Nov 2013-Nature Protocols
TL;DR: A set of tools for Cas9-mediated genome editing via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR) in mammalian cells, as well as generation of modified cell lines for downstream functional studies are described.
Abstract: Targeted nucleases are powerful tools for mediating genome alteration with high precision. The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system can be used to facilitate efficient genome engineering in eukaryotic cells by simply specifying a 20-nt targeting sequence within its guide RNA. Here we describe a set of tools for Cas9-mediated genome editing via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR) in mammalian cells, as well as generation of modified cell lines for downstream functional studies. To minimize off-target cleavage, we further describe a double-nicking strategy using the Cas9 nickase mutant with paired guide RNAs. This protocol provides experimentally derived guidelines for the selection of target sites, evaluation of cleavage efficiency and analysis of off-target activity. Beginning with target design, gene modifications can be achieved within as little as 1-2 weeks, and modified clonal cell lines can be derived within 2-3 weeks.

6,858 citations


References
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Book
15 Jan 2001-
Abstract: Molecular Cloning has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential. Molecular Cloning, Fourth Edition, by the celebrated founding author Joe Sambrook and new co-author, the distinguished HHMI investigator Michael Green, preserves the highly praised detail and clarity of previous editions and includes specific chapters and protocols commissioned for the book from expert practitioners at Yale, U Mass, Rockefeller University, Texas Tech, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Washington University, and other leading institutions. The theoretical and historical underpinnings of techniques are prominent features of the presentation throughout, information that does much to help trouble-shoot experimental problems. For the fourth edition of this classic work, the content has been entirely recast to include nucleic-acid based methods selected as the most widely used and valuable in molecular and cellular biology laboratories. Core chapters from the third edition have been revised to feature current strategies and approaches to the preparation and cloning of nucleic acids, gene transfer, and expression analysis. They are augmented by 12 new chapters which show how DNA, RNA, and proteins should be prepared, evaluated, and manipulated, and how data generation and analysis can be handled. The new content includes methods for studying interactions between cellular components, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing technologies, RNA interference, and epigenetic analysis using DNA methylation techniques and chromatin immunoprecipitation. To make sense of the wealth of data produced by these techniques, a bioinformatics chapter describes the use of analytical tools for comparing sequences of genes and proteins and identifying common expression patterns among sets of genes. Building on thirty years of trust, reliability, and authority, the fourth edition of Mol

215,117 citations


28 Jul 2005-
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jan 2005-Cell
TL;DR: In a four-genome analysis of 3' UTRs, approximately 13,000 regulatory relationships were detected above the estimate of false-positive predictions, thereby implicating as miRNA targets more than 5300 human genes, which represented 30% of the gene set.
Abstract: We predict regulatory targets of vertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) by identifying mRNAs with conserved complementarity to the seed (nucleotides 2-7) of the miRNA. An overrepresentation of conserved adenosines flanking the seed complementary sites in mRNAs indicates that primary sequence determinants can supplement base pairing to specify miRNA target recognition. In a four-genome analysis of 3' UTRs, approximately 13,000 regulatory relationships were detected above the estimate of false-positive predictions, thereby implicating as miRNA targets more than 5300 human genes, which represented 30% of our gene set. Targeting was also detected in open reading frames. In sum, well over one third of human genes appear to be conserved miRNA targets.

11,029 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Mar 2007-Science
TL;DR: It is found that, after viral challenge, bacteria integrated new spacers derived from phage genomic sequences, and CRISPR provided resistance against phages, and resistance specificity is determined by spacer-phage sequence similarity.
Abstract: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are a distinctive feature of the genomes of most Bacteria and Archaea and are thought to be involved in resistance to bacteriophages. We found that, after viral challenge, bacteria integrated new spacers derived from phage genomic sequences. Removal or addition of particular spacers modified the phage-resistance phenotype of the cell. Thus, CRISPR, together with associated cas genes, provided resistance against phages, and resistance specificity is determined by spacer-phage sequence similarity.

4,220 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 Mar 2011-Nature
Abstract: CRISPR/Cas systems constitute a widespread class of immunity systems that protect bacteria and archaea against phages and plasmids, and commonly use repeat/spacer-derived short crRNAs to silence foreign nucleic acids in a sequence-specific manner. Although the maturation of crRNAs represents a key event in CRISPR activation, the responsible endoribonucleases (CasE, Cas6, Csy4) are missing in many CRISPR/Cas subtypes. Here, differential RNA sequencing of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes uncovered tracrRNA, a trans-encoded small RNA with 24-nucleotide complementarity to the repeat regions of crRNA precursor transcripts. We show that tracrRNA directs the maturation of crRNAs by the activities of the widely conserved endogenous RNase III and the CRISPR-associated Csn1 protein; all these components are essential to protect S. pyogenes against prophage-derived DNA. Our study reveals a novel pathway of small guide RNA maturation and the first example of a host factor (RNase III) required for bacterial RNA-mediated immunity against invaders.

2,017 citations


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