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Journal ArticleDOI

A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity.

01 Nov 1978-British Journal of Psychiatry (Br J Psychiatry)-Vol. 133, Iss: 5, pp 429-435

TL;DR: The MRS score correlated highly with an independent global rating, and with scores of two other mania rating scales administered concurrently, and also correlated with the number of days of subsequent stay in hospital.
Abstract: An eleven item clinician-administered Mania Rating Scale (MRS) is introduced, and its reliability, validity and sensitivity are examined. There was a high correlation between the scores of two independent clinicians on both the total score (0.93) and the individual item scores (0.66 to 0.92). The MRS score correlated highly with an independent global rating, and with scores of two other mania rating scales administered concurrently. The score also correlated with the number of days of subsequent stay in hospital. It was able to differentiate statistically patients before and after two weeks of treatment and to distinguish levels of severity based on the global rating.
Topics: Young Mania Rating Scale (61%), Global Rating (61%), Rating scale (59%), Absolute Category Rating (58%), Test validity (52%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Robust and rapid antidepressant effects resulted from a single intravenous dose of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist; onset occurred within 2 hours postinfusion and continued to remain significant for 1 week.
Abstract: Context Existing therapies for major depression have a lag of onset of action of several weeks, resulting in considerable morbidity. Exploring pharmacological strategies that have rapid onset of antidepressant effects within a few days and that are sustained would have an enormous impact on patient care. Converging lines of evidence suggest the role of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology and treatment of mood disorders. Objective To determine whether a rapid antidepressant effect can be achieved with an antagonist at theN-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in subjects with major depression. Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study from November 2004 to September 2005. Setting Mood Disorders Research Unit at the National Institute of Mental Health. Patients Eighteen subjects withDSM-IVmajor depression (treatment resistant). Interventions After a 2-week drug-free period, subjects were given an intravenous infusion of either ketamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo on 2 test days, a week apart. Subjects were rated at baseline and at 40, 80, 110, and 230 minutes and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days postinfusion. Main Outcome Measure Changes in scores on the primary efficacy measure, the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results Subjects receiving ketamine showed significant improvement in depression compared with subjects receiving placebo within 110 minutes after injection, which remained significant throughout the following week. The effect size for the drug difference was very large (d = 1.46 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-2.01]) after 24 hours and moderate to large (d = 0.68 [95% confidence interval, 0.13-1.23]) after 1 week. Of the 17 subjects treated with ketamine, 71% met response and 29% met remission criteria the day following ketamine infusion. Thirty-five percent of subjects maintained response for at least 1 week. Conclusions Robust and rapid antidepressant effects resulted from a single intravenous dose of anN-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist; onset occurred within 2 hours postinfusion and continued to remain significant for 1 week. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:NCT00088699.

2,634 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Apr 1997-Nature
TL;DR: Using positron emission tomographic images of cerebral blood flow and rate of glucose metabolism to measure brain activity, an area of abnormally decreased activity is localized in the pre-frontal cortex ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum in both familial bipolar depressives and familial unipolar depressives.
Abstract: Pathological disturbances of mood may follow a 'bipolar' course, in which normal moods alternate with both depression and mania, or a 'unipolar' course, in which only depression occurs. Both bipolar and unipolar disorders can be heritable illnesses associated with neurochemical, neuroendocrine and autonomic abnormalities. The neurobiological basis for these abnormalities has not been established. Using positron emission tomographic (PET) images of cerebral blood flow and rate of glucose metabolism to measure brain activity, we have now localized an area of abnormally decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum in both familial bipolar depressives and familial unipolar depressives. This decrement in activity was at least partly explained by a corresponding reduction in cortical volume, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated reductions in the mean grey matter volume in the same area of 39 and 48% in the bipolar and unipolar samples, respectively. This region has previously been implicated in the mediation of emotional and autonomic responses to socially significant or provocative stimuli, and in the modulation of the neurotransmitter systems targeted by antidepressant drugs.

2,493 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study presents the first prevalence estimates of the BPD spectrum in a probability sample of the United States, and finds subthreshold BPD is common, clinically significant, and underdetected in treatment settings.
Abstract: The estimated lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder (BPD) in population surveys using structured diagnostic interviews and standardized criteria averages approximately 0.8% for BP-I and 1.1% for BP-II.1-8 Despite this comparatively low prevalence, BPD is a leading cause of premature mortality due to suicide and associated medical conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.9, 10 BPD also causes widespread role impairment.11, 12 The recurrent nature of manic and depressive episodes often leads to high direct as well as high indirect health care costs.13, 14 BPD might be even more burdensome from a societal perspective due to the fact that sub-threshold bipolar spectrum disorder has seldom been taken into consideration in examining the epidemiology of BPD. Bipolar spectrum disorder includes hypomania without major depression and hypomania of lesser severity or briefer duration than specified in the DSM and ICD criteria. Although the precise definitions are as yet unclear, recent studies suggest that bipolar spectrum disorder might affect as many as 6% of the general population.15, 16 However, bipolar spectrum disorder has not been studied previously in a nationally representative survey of the US. The purpose of the current report is to present the results of such a study based on analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).17 We estimate prevalence and clinical features of sub-threshold BPD in comparison to BP-I and BP-II.

1,991 citations


Cites background from "A rating scale for mania: reliabili..."

  • ...All the analyses included controls for sex, age (18-29, 3044, 45-59, and 60 years), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and other), educational level (less than high school, completed high school, some college, and completed college), and occupation (professional, technical, serviceclerical, and labor) for the average expected hours of work per week (20-34, 35-44, 45)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The uniform increases in clinical correlates, suicidal behavior, and comorbidity across each diagnostic category provide evidence for the validity of the concept of BPS.
Abstract: Context There is limited information on the prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in international population-based studies using common methods. Objectives To describe the prevalence, impact, patterns of comorbidity, and patterns of service utilization for bipolar spectrum disorder (BPS) in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional, face-to-face, household surveys of 61 392 community adults in 11 countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia assessed with the World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, a fully structured, lay-administered psychiatric diagnostic interview. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) disorders, severity, and treatment. Results The aggregate lifetime prevalences were 0.6% for bipolar type I disorder (BP-I), 0.4% for BP-II, 1.4% for subthreshold BP, and 2.4% for BPS. Twelve-month prevalences were 0.4% for BP-I, 0.3% for BP-II, 0.8% for subthreshold BP, and 1.5% for BPS. Severity of both manic and depressive symptoms as well as suicidal behavior increased monotonically from subthreshold BP to BP-I. By contrast, role impairment was similar across BP subtypes. Symptom severity was greater for depressive episodes than manic episodes, with approximately 74.0% of respondents with depression and 50.9% of respondents with mania reporting severe role impairment. Three-quarters of those with BPS met criteria for at least 1 other disorder, with anxiety disorders (particularly panic attacks) being the most common comorbid condition. Less than half of those with lifetime BPS received mental health treatment, particularly in low-income countries, where only 25.2% reported contact with the mental health system. Conclusions Despite cross-site variation in the prevalence rates of BPS, the severity, impact, and patterns of comorbidity were remarkably similar internationally. The uniform increases in clinical correlates, suicidal behavior, and comorbidity across each diagnostic category provide evidence for the validity of the concept of BPS. Treatment needs for BPS are often unmet, particularly in low-income countries.

1,614 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using positron emission tomography, cerebral glucose metabolism in drug-free, age- and sex-matched, right-handed patients with unipolar depression, bipolar depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with secondary depression, OCD without major depression, and normal controls is studied.
Abstract: • Using positron emission tomography, we studied cerebral glucose metabolism in drug-free, age- and sex-matched, righthanded patients with unipolar depression (n =10), bipolar depression (n =10), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with secondary depression (n =10), OCD without major depression (n =14), and normal controls (n =12). Depressed patients were matched for depression on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and subjects with OCD without depression and OCD with depression had similar levels of OCD pathology. We also studied six non—sex-matched patients with mania. Mean ( ± SD) glucose metabolic rates for the left dorsal anterolateral prefrontal cortex, divided by the rate for the ipsilateral hemisphere as a whole (ALPFC/hem), were similar in the primary depressions (unipolar depression = 1.05 ±0.05; bipolar depression =1.04 ± 0.05), and were significantly lower than those in normal controls (1.12 ± 0.06) or OCD without depression (1.15 ± 0.05). Results for the right hemisphere were similar. Values in subjects with OCD with depression (1.10 0.05) were also significantly lower than in subjects with OCD without depression, and values in subjects with bipolar depression were lower than those in manic subjects (1.12 ± on this measure in the left hemisphere, although results were not significant in the right hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between the HAM-D score and the left ALPFC/hem. With medication for depression (n =12), the left ALPFC/hem increased significantly and the percentage change in the Hamilton scale score correlated with the percentage change in the left ALPFC/hem. These data support other findings that major depression is associated with a left ALPFC abnormality.

1,246 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1956-
Abstract: This is the revision of the classic text in the field, adding two new chapters and thoroughly updating all others. The original structure is retained, and the book continues to serve as a combined text/reference.

35,466 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present scale has been devised for use only on patients already diagnosed as suffering from affective disorder of depressive type, used for quantifying the results of an interview, and its value depends entirely on the skill of the interviewer in eliciting the necessary information.
Abstract: Types of Rating Scale The value of this one, and its limitations, can best be considered against its background, so it is useful to consider the limitations of the various rating scales extant. They can be classified into four groups, the first of which has been devised for use on normal subjects. Patients suffering from mental disorders score very highly on some of the variables and these high scores serve as a measure of their illness. Such scales can be very useful, but have two defects: many symptoms are not found in normal persons; and less obviously, but more important, there is a qualitative difference between symptoms of mental illness and normal variations of behaviour. The difference between the two is not a philosophical problem but a biological one. There is always a loss of function in illness, with impaired efficiency. Self-rating scales are popular because they are easy to administer. Aside from the notorious unreliability of self-assessment, such scales are of little use for semiliterate patients and are no use for seriously ill patients who are unable to deal with them. Many rating scales for behaviour have been devised for assessing the social adjustment of patients and their behaviour in the hospital ward. They are very useful for their purpose but give little or no information about symptoms. Finally, a number of scales have been devised specifically for rating symptoms of mental illness. They cover the whole range of symptoms, but such all-inclusiveness has its disadvantages. In the first place, it is extremely difficult to differentiate some symptoms, e.g., apathy, retardation, stupor. These three look alike, but they are quite different and appear in different settings. Other symptoms are difficult to define, except in terms of their settings, e.g., mild agitation and derealization. A more serious difficulty lies in the fallacy of naming. For example, the term "delusions" covers schizophrenic, depressive, hypochrondriacal, and paranoid delusions. They are all quite different and should be clearly distinguished. Another difficulty may be summarized by saying that the weights given to symptoms should not be linear. Thus, in schizophrenia, the amount of anxiety is of no importance, whereas in anxiety states it is fundamental. Again, a schizophrenic patient who has delusions is not necessarily worse than one who has not, but a depressive patient who has, is much worse. Finally, although rating scales are not used for making a diagnosis, they should have some relation to it. Thus the schizophrenic patients should have a high score on schizophrenia and comparatively small scores on other syndromes. In practice, this does not occur. The present scale has been devised for use only on patients already diagnosed as suffering from affective disorder of depressive type. It is used for quantifying the results of an interview, and its value depends entirely on the skill of the interviewer in eliciting the necessary information. The interviewer may, and should, use all information available to help him with his interview and in making the final assessment. The scale has undergone a number of changes since it was first tried out, and although there is room for further improvement, it will be found efficient and simple in use. It has been found to be of great practical value in assessing results of treatment.

27,411 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John E. Overall1, Donald R. GorhamInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was developed to provide a rapid assessment technique particularly suited to the evaluation of patient change. Sixteen symptom constructs which have resulted from factor analyses of several larger sets of items, principally Lorr's Multidimensional Scale for Rating Psychiatric Patients (MSRPP) (1953) and Inpatient Multidimensional Psychiatric Scale (IMPS) (1960), have been included for rating on 7-point ordered category rating scales. The attempt has been to include a single scale to record degree of symptomacology in each of the relatively independent symptom areas which have been identified. Some of the preliminary work which has led to the identification of primary symptom constructs has been published (Gorham & Overall, 1960, 1961, Overall, Gorharn, & Shawver, 1961). While other reports are in preparation, applications of the Brief Scale in both pure and applied research suggest the importance of presenting the basic instrument to the wider scientific audience at this time, together with recommendations for its standard use. The primary purpose in developing the Brief Scale has been the development of a highly efficient, rapid evaluation procedure for use in assessing treatment change in psychiatric patients while at the same time yielding a rather comprehensive description of major symptom characteristics. It is recommended for use where efficiency, speed, and economy are important considerations, while more detailed evaluation procedures, such as those developed by Lorr (1953, 1961) should perhaps be wed in other cases. In order to achieve the maximum effectiveness in use of the Brief Scale, a standard interview procedure and more detailed description of rating concepts are included in this report. In addition, each symptom concept is defined briefly in the rating scale statements themselves. Raters using the scale should become thoroughly familiar with the scale definitions presented herein, after which the rating scale statements should be sufficient to provide recall of the nature and delineation of each symptom area. , To increase the reliability of ratings, it is recommended that patients be interviewed jointly by a team of two clinicians, with the two raters making independent ratings at the completion of the interview. An alternative procedure which has been recommended by some is to have raters discuss and arrive at a

10,139 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Diagnostic criteria for 14 psychiatric illnesses along with the validating evidence for these diagnostic categories comes from workers outside the authors' group as well as from those within; it consists of studies of both outpatients and inpatients, of family studies, and of follow-up studies.
Abstract: Diagnostic criteria for 14 psychiatric illnesses (and for secondary depression) along with the validating evidence for these diagnostic categories comes from workers outside our group as well as from those within; it consists of studies of both outpatients and inpatients, of family studies, and of follow-up studies. These criteria are the most efficient currently available; however, it is expected that the criteria be tested and not be considered a final, closed system. It is expected that the criteria will change as various illnesses are studied by different groups. Such criteria provide a framework for comparison of data gathered in different centers, and serve to promote communication between investigators.

5,236 citations


Book
01 Jan 1969-

611 citations


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2020434
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2018390
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