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Journal ArticleDOI

A reflective journal as learning process and contribution to quality and validity in interpretative phenomenological analysis

01 Jul 2017-Qualitative Social Work (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 16, Iss: 4, pp 1473325016635244

AbstractUsing selected, contemporaneous illustrations from the reflective journal of a doctoral student undertaking data analysis for the first time, this article examines the relationship between journaling as a learning process when undertaking computer-assisted qualitative data analysis and establishing quality and validity in interpretative phenomenological analysis. The writing of the journal is shown both to enact some potential validity criteria (e.g. in producing an audit trail) whilst also recording and reflectively prompting the process of learning, interpretation and bracketing, thus evidencing transparency. By using a journal inside the software package and alongside the stages of the interpretative phenomenological analysis, analysis within the software package, it is argued that quality and validity become dynamic, not static constructs. These constructs are intimately linked to the researcher-learning-process and permit a critical stance to be taken.

Summary (1 min read)

Introduction

  • It examines the activity of journaling, (i.e. the use of a reflective researcher-created regular written log) as a learning process when undertaking data analysis.
  • The use of a software package instead can enable and in turn, be judged against, as being of quality and valid.

The learning process

  • The doctoral study from which the data are being analysed concerns the exploration of the role and experience of Approved Mental Health Professionals , a statutory role in which various approved non-medical professionals assess people for admission to mental health hospital in England and Wales.
  • At this stage in the process the student was beginning to use the journal to reflect upon the reading she was doing in relation to the use of the software package to manage the analysis.
  • In IPA the analyst is offering an interpretative account of what it means for the participant to have such concerns in a particular context 18/11/2014 10:06 what it means for the person in this particular situation (Larkin et al.
  • This, as it turns out, did not matter as she was becoming more aware that her use of the journal was allowing her to reflect upon the learning and in turn she could use journals linked to each source as a way of not just analysing each source but of adding layers.

Conclusion

  • This article discusses the relationship between such use and the process of data analysis when they are both housed inside a software package.
  • The journal that began about the process became within the process.
  • Using a journal inside the same software package housing the data is dynamic, simultaneously enabling the process of moving from description to interpretation and the development of the hermeneutic and later double hermeneutic, essential to IPA, and the assurance of its quality and validity.
  • The testimony upon which their argument is based relies on the experience of one student.
  • The student has also realised that analysis is an ongoing process.

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A reflective journal as learning process and
contribution to quality and validity in interpretative
phenomenological analysis
Journal Item
How to cite:
Vicary, Sarah; Young, Alys and Hicks, Stephen (2017). A reflective journal as learning process and contribution to
quality and validity in interpretative phenomenological analysis. Qualitative Social Work, 16(4) pp. 550–565.
For guidance on citations see FAQs.
c
2016 The Authors
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Version: Accepted Manuscript
Link(s) to article on publisher’s website:
http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1177/1473325016635244
Copyright and Moral Rights for the articles on this site are retained by the individual authors and/or other copyright
owners. For more information on Open Research Online’s data policy on reuse of materials please consult the policies
page.
oro.open.ac.uk

Open Research Online
The Open University’s repository of research publications
and other research outputs
A reflective journal as learning process and
contribution to quality and validity in interpretative
phenomenological analysis
Journal Article
How to cite:
Vicary, Sarah; Young, Alys and Hicks, Stephen (2016). A reflective journal as learning process and
contribution to quality and validity in interpretative phenomenological analysis. Qualitative Social Work
(early access).
For guidance on citations see FAQs.
c
2016 The Authors
Version: Accepted Manuscript
Link(s) to article on publisher’s website:
http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1177/1473325016635244
Copyright and Moral Rights for the articles on this site are retained by the individual authors and/or other
copyright owners. For more information on Open Research Online’s data policy on reuse of materials please
consult the policies page.
oro.open.ac.uk

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01 Jan 2006

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Abstract: Saudi Arabian entrepreneurs face major difficulties with the country’s complex regulatory system. Based on Schumpeter’s theory of entrepreneurship, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to reveal the lived experiences of Saudi entrepreneurs in navigating regulatory procedures in Jeddah. Data were collected through prolonged, face-toface phenomenological interviews with 22 Saudi businesspeople who started successful businesses. The van Kaam method and member checking helped validate the transcribed data, which were subsequently coded into 4 themes. Four themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) obstacles in regulatory processes, (b) lack of information, (c) cumbersome procedures and need for alternatives to stringent protocols, and (d) persistence strategies needed to maneuver through inflexible regulations. For entrepreneurship progress according to the selected individuals, business rules needed to be comprehensible, shorter, and less bureaucratic. The analysis in this research suggest that, once entrepreneurship rules are transparent, Saudi Arabia may become a choice country for international businesses. These findings have implications for positive social change by informing the efforts of governmental authorities in their work towards effective regulatory processes as roadways to the economic well-being of businesses and communities, and could be a catalyst to boost foreign investments in the country.

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  • ...The data collection and data analysis methodologies are instrumental in interpretative phenomenological assessments and evaluations [285]....

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Dissertation
27 Apr 2017
TL;DR: The present study appears to be the first to associate personhood with approved mental health practice and shows role fulfilment as sophisticated emotion management, primarily the active use of dissonance.
Abstract: This thesis is concerned with the impact of professional background on role fulfilment In the United Kingdom current policy in health and social care in mental health is underpinned by integration; the idea that responsibilities can be accomplished irrespective of profession Approved mental health practice is one example of a psychiatric statutory role and function, until recently carried out by the profession of social work, which is now extended to other, non-medical, mental health professions This thesis aims to explore the role and experiences of current practitioners in order to understand the impact, if any, of professional background on the fulfilment of approved mental health practice and the way in which it is experienced Qualitative data are generated through semi-structured individual interviews with twelve approved mental health practitioners: five nurses, two occupational therapists and five social workers and the use of rich pictures to supplement the interview discussions Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was applied to the verbatim transcripts Key findings were that approved mental health practice can be accomplished irrespective of professional background Its practitioners require particular shared attributes, specifically a cognitive and affective capacity to deal with and use discord and to manage the disparate emotions that occur Conceptualised in this thesis as “pull,” this finding constitutes a different understanding of the use of emotion in the workplace and provides evidence of a new emotional dimension; the active use of dissonance Professional identity is also found to be influenced by approved mental health practice thereby turning on its head the original hypothesis of this thesis Last, personhood is found to be an additional aspect of the moral framework for approved mental health practice and is being practiced in a different circumstance than previously considered The implications of this work are that it challenges the perception that approved mental health practice is synonymous with the profession of social work It also revives the theory that its normative moral framework is inherently contradictory The present study appears to be the first to associate personhood with approved mental health practice and shows role fulfilment as sophisticated emotion management, primarily the active use of dissonance Both provide new insights into the enactment of approved mental health practice and are important issues for the future training and development of practitioners The influence on role of professional identity may also help policy makers better understand the impact that new ways of working in mental health might have on traditional professional roles and boundaries in integrated services

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01 Jan 2019
Abstract: This thesis presents an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon of intimate partner (IPA) between an adult sample of non-heterosexual women living in Ireland who experienced IPA in a female-to-female relationship. The research on which it is based is concerned with understanding the nature and the experience of intimate partner abuse. With a principal aim of capturing and representing the participants' own unique views and subjective experiences, this thesis is also concerned with presenting an understanding of the broader societal contexts that ultimately shape and influence the subjective experiences of those women. Utilising a qualitative methodological approach, an in-depth understanding of intimate partner abuse is achieved by engaging adult women. Situated within an interpretative phenomenological perspective, the research draws on qualitative data generated via semi-structured, in depth interviews with 9 women who self-identified as having experienced intimate partner abuse in a previous same sex relationship. Key findings emerging from this thesis suggest that non-heterosexual women are experiencing diverse forms of abusive behaviours from their female partners involving coercive control, physical, financial, identity, and sexual abuse, and incurring impacts during and post-relationship, and longer-term, that affect mental and physical well-being. Help-seeking is principally directed toward informal support options (friends), counselling services are the most sought formal support option while domestic violence services are the least sought. Key findings from this research further identify that stereotypical perceptions of femininity, female-to-female relationships, and violence, negatively influence the familial and professional response to victims of female-to-female intimate partner abuse.

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  • ...This reflection by the researcher was captured during the analysis phase of data collection where transcripts were annotated creating an audit trail (Vicary et al., 2017) of the researcher's reflections....

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TL;DR: This study offers a provider-perspective on the challenges faced by ambulance personnel deciding to commence, continue, withhold or terminate resuscitation efforts, and highlights clinical, cognitive, emotional and physical demands associated with decision-making in the cardiac arrest context.
Abstract: Introduction When faced with a patient in cardiac arrest, ambulance personnel must rapidly make complex decisions with limited information. Much of the research examining decisions to commence, continue, withhold or terminate resuscitation has used retrospective audits of registry data and clinical documentation. This study offers a provider-perspective which characterises uncertainty and highlights clinical, cognitive, emotional and physical demands associated with decision-making in the cardiac arrest context. Method Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of sixteen demographically diverse ambulance personnel, currently employed in a variety of emergency ambulance response roles across New Zealand. Results All participants readily identified clinical, cognitive, emotional and ethical challenges associated with resuscitation decision-making. Four main themes were identified: grey areas; exceptional cases; scene challenges; and personal responses. A lack of information or a mix of favourable and unfavourable prognostic factors created decision-making uncertainty or "grey areas". Exceptional cases such as first-encounters also increased uncertainty and presented emotional, ethical and clinical challenges. Cardiac arrest scenes were often challenging, and participants described managing bystander expectations and responses and logistical limitations including adverse environmental conditions, fatigue and task-overload, and crew resource management. Conclusion This unique research presents a provider-perspective on the challenges faced by ambulance personnel deciding to commence, continue, withhold or terminate resuscitation efforts. Knowledge of personal values and strategies for managing personal responses appear to be central to certainty and coping. Simulated training should move beyond resuscitation task performance, to incorporate challenging elements and encourage ambulance personnel to explore their personal values, stressors and coping strategies.

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  • ...A combination of strategies and tools were used during data analysis, including reflexive journaling [15], manual coding on printed transcripts and use of Nvivo 11 [16]....

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References
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Abstract: n our chapter for the first edition of the Handbook of Qualitative Research, we focused on the contention among various research paradigms for legitimacy and intellectual and p;uadigmatic hegemony (Guba & Lincoln, 1994). The postmodern paradigms that we discussed (postmodernist critical theory and constructivism) 1 were in contention with the received positivist and postpositivist paradigms for legitimacy, and with one another for intellectual legitimacy. In the half dozen years that have elapsed since that chapter was published, substantial change has occurred in the landscape of social scientific inquiry. On the matter of legitimacy, we observe that readers familiar with the literature on methods and paradigms reflect a high interest in ontologies and epistemologies that differ sharply from those undergirding conventional social science. Second, even those est::~blished professionals trained in quantitative social science (including the two of us) want to learn more about qualitative approaches, because new young professionals being mentored in graduate schools are asking serious questions about and looking for guidance in qualitatively oriented studies and dissertations. Third, the number of qualitative texts, research papers, workshops, and training materials has exploded. Indeed, it would be difficult to miss the distinct turn of the social sciences tow::~rd more interpretive, postmodern, and criticalist practices and theorizing (Bloland, 1989, 1995). This nonpositivist orientation has created a context (surround) in which virtually no study can go unchallenged by proponents of contending paradigms. Further, it

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03 Jun 2009
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"A reflective journal as learning pr..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Or, I can see if the memo source using three types of initial comments as described by Smith et al., 2009 will work....

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  • ...Last a criterion of relevance concerning analysis is transparency, or as Smith states, ‘what steps were used in analysis’ (Smith et al. 2009 p. 182) and, later, ‘so [the] reader can see what was done’ (Smith 2011a p. 17)....

    [...]

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  • ...They are, according to the proponents of the methodology (Smith 1996, Smith et al. 2009), also offering an interpretative account of what it means for the participant to have such concerns within their particular context....

    [...]

  • ...She therefore would be unable to analyse annotations distinguishing between the suggested three-way approach as suggested by Smith (Smith et al., 2009)....

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Book
25 Dec 2021
Abstract: The aim of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is to explore in detail how participants are making sense of their personal and social world, and the main currency for an IPA study is the meanings particular experiences, events, states hold for participants. The approach is phenomenological (see Chapter 3) in that it involves detailed examination of the participant’s lifeworld; it attempts to explore personal experience and is concerned with an individual’s personal perception or account of an object or event, as opposed to an attempt to produce an objective statement of the object or event itself. At the same time, IPA also emphasizes that the research exercise is a dynamic process with an active role for the researcher in that process. One is trying to get close to the participant’s personal world, to take, in Conrad’s (1987) words, an ‘insider’s perspective’, but one cannot do this directly or completely. Access depends on, and is complicated by, the researcher’s own conceptions; indeed, these are required in order to make sense of that other personal world through a process of interpretative activity. Thus, a two-stage interpretation process, or a double hermeneutic, is involved. The participants are trying to make sense of their world; the researcher is trying to make sense of the participants trying to make sense of their world. IPA is therefore intellectually connected to hermeneutics and theories of interpretation (Packer and Addison, 1989; Palmer, 1969; Smith, in press; see also Chapter 2 this volume). Different interpretative stances are possible, and IPA combines an empathic hermeneutics with a questioning hermeneutics. Thus, consistent with its phenomenological origins, IPA is concerned with trying to understand what it is like, from the point of view of the participants, to take their side. At the same time, a detailed IPA analysis can also involve asking critical questions of the texts from participants, such as the following: What is the person trying to achieve here? Is something leaking out here that wasn’t intended? Do I have a sense of something going on here that maybe the participants themselves are less aware of?

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01 Jan 2005
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