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Journal ArticleDOI

A Resonant Pressure Sensor based on Magnetostrictive/Piezoelectric Magnetoelectric Effect

01 Apr 2020-Vol. 825, Iss: 1, pp 012037
About: The article was published on 2020-04-01 and is currently open access. It has received 2 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Magnetoelectric effect & Pressure sensor.
Citations
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Peer ReviewDOI
13 Jun 2022
TL;DR: A review of the state-of-the-art epoxy-free fabrication techniques for layered or 2-2 configuration magnetoelectric composites can be found in this paper .
Abstract: Layered or 2-2 configuration magnetoelectric (ME) composites have gained significant interest in the last few decades owing to their ease of fabrication and relatively high ME output realizable at room temperature. Conventionally, layered ME composites are fabricated by bonding the constituent magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers via an epoxy or adhesive. Thus, the epoxied interface acts as the medium of strain transfer between the constituent layers resulting in the ME effect. However, the presence of epoxy makes the composite prone to limitations such as reduced device life due to aging epoxy, reduced strain transfer efficacy due to low stiffness of epoxy, and degradation of composite properties at elevated temperatures due to the low glass transition temperature of epoxy material. Thus, various epoxy-free methods for layered or 2-2 type ME composite fabrication have been developed in the last two decades to circumvent these limitations. These methods include co-firing technique, electroless deposition, electrodeposition, shrink-fit, and press-fit. Each of these methods has tried to mitigate the disadvantages of its predecessors, however posing its own set of limitations. This review article captures the evolutionary journey of the development of each of these aforementioned techniques in a chronological sequence by highlighting the advantages and disadvantages offered by each of them. Subsequently, a brief overview of state of the art has been provided in summary, followed by a discussion on the potential avenues that may be probed further to improve the available epoxy-free fabrication techniques for layered or 2-2 ME composites.

1 citations

DOI
TL;DR: In this article , a three-directional ME-based embedded magnetic sensor that has been fabricated using the press-fit technique has been proposed, which negates the use of epoxy in the ME sensor, thus enabling its use at elevated temperatures in excess of 100 ∘C.
Abstract: Owing to the multifunctional behavior possessed by magnetoelectric (ME) composites, they are sought-after materials for various magnetic field sensing applications. This article proposes a three-directional ME-based embedded magnetic sensor that has been fabricated using the press-fit technique. The employed fabrication method negates the use of epoxy in the ME sensor, thus enabling its use at elevated temperatures in excess of 100 ∘C. The fabricated sensor is tested using an experimental setup capable of producing ac and dc bias magnetic fields in three coordinate directions. Experiments are performed for various dc magnetic field conditions, including x, y, z directions, their simultaneous combinations, and magnetic field aligned at an angle with the sensor. Under all testing conditions, the embedded sensor shows a significantly high output voltage response. Additionally, the effect of the magnetic field generated by the double magnet system and single magnet system on the sensor performance has also been demonstrated, wherein the embedded sensor is observed to be marginally affected by magnetic field due to the presence of only one magnet. Finally, quasi-static ME measurements are performed at elevated temperatures up to 100 ∘C, and it is observed that the novel embedded sensor has reliable sensing capabilities in aggravated thermal environments even in excess of 100 ∘C. Thus, the proposed three-directional embedded magnetic sensor offers reliable response under all conditions of magnetic field and temperature and can thus be a reliable alternative for the traditionally used layered-based counterparts.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of mostly recent activities can be found, with a brief summary of the historical perspective of the multiferroic magnetoelectric composites since its appearance in 1972.
Abstract: Multiferroic magnetoelectric materials, which simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have recently stimulated a sharply increasing number of research activities for their scientific interest and significant technological promise in the novel multifunctional devices. Natural multiferroic single-phase compounds are rare, and their magnetoelectric responses are either relatively weak or occurs at temperatures too low for practical applications. In contrast, multiferroic composites, which incorporate both ferroelectric and ferri-/ferromagnetic phases, typically yield giant magnetoelectric coupling response above room temperature, which makes them ready for technological applications. This review of mostly recent activities begins with a brief summary of the historical perspective of the multiferroic magnetoelectric composites since its appearance in 1972. In such composites the magnetoelectric effect is generated as a product property of a magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric substance. A...

3,288 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel, long-type of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric laminate composite design in which the layers are, respectively, magnetized/poled along their length axes, and a theory for modeling its behavior is presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel, long-type of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric laminate composite design in which the layers are, respectively, magnetized/poled along their length axes, and a theory for modeling its behavior. Using piezoelectric and magnetostrictive constitutive equations, and an equation of motion, a magneto-elasto-electric bieffect equivalent circuit is developed. The circuit is used to predict the longitudinal and transverse magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficients of our Terfenol-D/Pb(Zr/sub 1-x/Ti/sub x/)O/sub 3/ laminate design. It is found that the longitudinal ME voltage coefficient is significantly higher (/spl sim/5x) than the transverse one, and that our new laminate design has significantly higher ME voltage coefficients under small applied direct current (DC) magnetic bias fields than designs reported previously by other groups. Experimental values were found to be coincidental with predicted ones.

305 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The magnetoelectric effect, with cross-correlation coupling between magnetic and electric degrees of freedom, is associated with two promising application scenarios: magnetic field sensors and electric-write magnetic-read memory devices as discussed by the authors.

266 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a nonlinear and coupled model is proposed to describe the constitutive relations for a Terfenol-D rod subjected to an axial pre-stress and then located in a axial magnetic field.
Abstract: To overcome some deficiencies in previous constitutive models of giant magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear and coupled model is suggested to describe the constitutive relations for a Terfenol-D rod subjected to an axial pre-stress and then located in an axial magnetic field. The numerical simulation by the model proposed in this paper shows predicted magnetostrictive strain curves for various compressive pre-stresses in good agreement with the experimental data not only in the region of low and moderate magnetic field but also in the region of high field. In comparison with the previous models, the proposed model can more effectively describe the effect of the pre-stress on the maximum magnetostrictive strain. Moreover, the effect of the stress and the magnetic field on the Young’s modulus of the materials, i.e., the ΔE effect, can also be predicted. In the proposed model, there are only five material parameters. They are the saturation magnetization Ms, the saturation magnetostrictive strain λs, the intrinsic (or saturation) Young’s modulus Es and the initial Young’s modulus E0 as well as the linear magnetic susceptibility χm. Since these parameters are easily measured in experiments, the proposed model is convenient to be used in engineering applications.

216 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A ring-type electric current sensor operated in vortex magnetic field detection mode is developed based on a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramic ring bonded between two circumferentially magnetized epoxy-bonded Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite rings as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A ring-type electric current sensor operated in vortex magnetic field detection mode is developed based on a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate of an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring bonded between two circumferentially magnetized epoxy-bonded Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet magnetostrictive composite rings. The electric current sensitivity of the sensor was evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally. The sensor showed a high nonresonance sensitivity of ∼12.6 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 1 Hz–30 kHz and a large resonance sensitivity of 92.2 mV/A at the fundamental shape resonance of 67 kHz, besides an excellent linear relationship between the input electric current and the output magnetoelectrically induced voltage. The power-free, bias-free, high-sensitive, and wide-bandwidth natures of the sensor make it great potential for real-time condition monitoring of engineering systems having electric current-carrying cables or conductors.

87 citations