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Journal ArticleDOI

A review: metamaterial sensors for material characterization

20 Apr 2019-Sensor Review (Emerald)-Vol. 39, Iss: 3, pp 417-432
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on research work related to metamaterial-based sensors for material characterization that have been developed for past ten years, particularly focusing on shape, size and nature of materials characterized.
Abstract: Purpose This paper aims to focus on research work related to metamaterial-based sensors for material characterization that have been developed for past ten years. A decade of research on metamaterial for sensing application has led to the advancement of compact and improved sensors. Design/methodology/approach In this study, relevant research papers on metamaterial sensors for material characterization published in reputed journals during the period 2007-2018 were reviewed, particularly focusing on shape, size and nature of materials characterized. Each sensor with its design and performance parameters have been summarized and discussed here. Findings As metamaterial structures are excited by electromagnetic wave interaction, sensing application throughout electromagnetic spectrum is possible. Recent advancement in fabrication techniques and improvement in metamaterial structures have led to the development of compact, label free and reversible sensors with high sensitivity. Originality/value The paper provides useful information on the development of metamaterial sensors for material characterization.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the various possible applications of metamaterial absorbers and made an attempt to explore the various potential applications of these sensors, including biomedical, chemical industry, food quality testing, agriculture, and agriculture.
Abstract: Abstract Sensors based on metamaterial absorbers are very promising when it comes to high sensitivity and quality factor, cost, and ease of fabrication. The absorbers could be used to sense physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, density as well as they could be used for determining electromagnetic properties of materials and their characterization. In this work, an attempt has been made to explore the various possible applications of these sensors. Metamaterial-based sensors are very popular for its diverse applications in areas such as biomedical, chemical industry, food quality testing, agriculture. Split-ring resonators with various shapes and topologies are the most frequently used structures where the sensing principle is based on electromagnetic interaction of the material under test with the resonator. Overcoming the design challenges using metamaterial sensors involving several constraints such as cost, compactness, reusability, ease in fabrication, and robustness is also addressed.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented three designs of flexible metamaterial nanograting (FMN) with multiple layers, denoted as FMN-1, FMN2, and FMN3, exhibiting dual-, triple-, and quad-resonance.

11 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2021

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a double-slit complementary split rectangular resonator sensor is proposed for the characterisation of dielectric properties of the materials under test (MUTs), which is designed and simulated on the CST microwave studio software using a low cost substrate FR4.
Abstract: Metamaterial-based double-slit complementary split rectangular resonator sensor is proposed for the characterisation of dielectric properties of the materials under test (MUTs). The proposed sensor is designed and simulated on the CST microwave studio software using a low-cost substrate FR4. An array of three identical resonators is etched in the ground plane of the sensor to achieve a single and deep notch of −58.7 dB in the transmission coefficient (S 21) at the resonant frequency of 7.01 GHz, which is the novelty of the proposed sensor. A deep and single resonant frequency band has a significant role in the precise measurement of the dielectric properties of the MUTs. The effective constitutive parameters are extracted from the S-parameters. An equivalent circuit model is suggested that describes the overall behaviour of the sensor. The sensor is fabricated on the FR4 substrate and measured through the vector network analyser (N5224B) by placing the standard materials. The parabolic equation for the proposed sensor is formulated to approximate the permittivity of the MUTs. A very small percentage of error, 0.77, is found which shows high accuracy of the sensor. This methodology is efficient, simple in fabrication, and reduces cost and computational time also.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an integrated multifunctional design for simultaneous perfect absorption and polarization conversion is proposed that worked in the Ku band: the proposed structure consisted of two asymmetric dielectric semi-rings which are supported on a ground plane by two dielectrics cylinders with different heights.
Abstract: Herein, an integrated multifunctional design for simultaneous perfect absorption and polarization conversion is proposed that worked in the Ku band: the proposed structure consisted of two asymmetric dielectric semi-rings which are supported on a ground plane by two dielectric cylinders with different heights. Simulated results demonstrate that unity absorption and linear cross-polarization conversion can be integrated into one multifunctional structure: absorption and polarization conversion operate at different frequencies. Furthermore, these different functions under the different polarized modes (TE and TM) are integrated into the single structure without adjusting any parameters, while also at a large range of incident angles. The integrated design is more conducive to the miniaturization and multi-functionality of devices and there are also practical applications in other areas.

4 citations


Cites background from "A review: metamaterial sensors for ..."

  • ...parency (EIT) [13, 14], and sensor [15, 16] and, of course, MMs absorber [17–25] and polarization conversion [26–42] are the other two important branches of its applications....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors' simulations show that a version of the lens operating at the frequency of visible light can be realized in the form of a thin slab of silver, which resolves objects only a few nanometers across.
Abstract: Optical lenses have for centuries been one of scientists’ prime tools. Their operation is well understood on the basis of classical optics: curved surfaces focus light by virtue of the refractive index contrast. Equally their limitations are dictated by wave optics: no lens can focus light onto an area smaller than a square wavelength. What is there new to say other than to polish the lens more perfectly and to invent slightly better dielectrics? In this Letter I want to challenge the traditional limitation on lens performance and propose a class of “superlenses,” and to suggest a practical scheme for implementing such a lens. Let us look more closely at the reasons for limitation in performance. Consider an infinitesimal dipole of frequency v in front of a lens. The electric component of the field will be given by some 2D Fourier expansion,

10,974 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Apr 2001-Science
TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.
Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

8,477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that microstructures built from nonmagnetic conducting sheets exhibit an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu/sub eff/, which can be tuned to values not accessible in naturally occurring materials.
Abstract: We show that microstructures built from nonmagnetic conducting sheets exhibit an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu//sub eff/, which can be tuned to values not accessible in naturally occurring materials, including large imaginary components of /spl mu//sub eff/. The microstructure is on a scale much less than the wavelength of radiation, is not resolved by incident microwaves, and uses a very low density of metal so that structures can be extremely lightweight. Most of the structures are resonant due to internal capacitance and inductance, and resonant enhancement combined with compression of electrical energy into a very small volume greatly enhances the energy density at critical locations in the structure, easily by factors of a million and possibly by much more. Weakly nonlinear materials placed at these critical locations will show greatly enhanced effects raising the possibility of manufacturing active structures whose properties can be switched at will between many states.

8,135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents the design of a non-magnetic cloak operating at optical frequencies, and the principle and structure of the proposed cylindrical cloak are analysed and the general recipe for the implementation of such a device is provided.
Abstract: Artificially structured metamaterials have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves and producing new functionalities, including the cloak of invisibility based on coordinate transformation1,2,3. Unlike other cloaking approaches4,5,6, which are typically limited to subwavelength objects, the transformation method allows the design of cloaking devices that render a macroscopic object invisible. In addition, the design is not sensitive to the object that is being cloaked. The first experimental demonstration of such a cloak at microwave frequencies was recently reported7. We note, however, that that design7 cannot be implemented for an optical cloak, which is certainly of particular interest because optical frequencies are where the word ‘invisibility’ is conventionally defined. Here we present the design of a non-magnetic cloak operating at optical frequencies. The principle and structure of the proposed cylindrical cloak are analysed, and the general recipe for the implementation of such a device is provided.

1,953 citations