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A Review of Commercially Available Technologies in Developing Low Carbon Eco-cities

01 May 2015-

AboutThe article was published on 2015-05-01 and is currently open access. It has received 2 citation(s) till now.

Summary (10 min read)

Jump to: [Introduction][Industrial sector][Energy monitoring and control systems][High--energy--efficiency motors][Key features:][Cost (or payback time):][Related KPIs: Carbon intensity][Pump systems][Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential:][Subsector--specific opportunities][Co--firing of waste materials and use of alternative clinker materials (cement)][Related KPIs: Carbon intensity, industrial waste recycling][Related KPIs: Carbon/methane intensity][Applications:][Building sector][Related KPIs: Residential building average energy intensity, public building average electricity intensity][Smart windows (envelope)][Natural and hybrid ventilation (HVAC)][Lighting--system improvements][Power sector][Distributed solar and building--integrated photovoltaics][Combined heat and power (CHP)][Fuel--cell power systems][Utility--scale solar][Utility--scale energy storage][Cost (and/or payback time):][Microgrids][Integrated gasification combined cycle for electricity generation][Smart grid][Carbon capture, utilization and storage][Transportation sector][Hydrogen vehicles][Automatic bike--rent/share system][Smart parking systems][Rapid--transit systems][Water sector][Gray--water recycling (demand--side efficiency)][Smart water--distribution networks (distribution system)][Related KPIs: Municipal water consumption/capita, carbon intensity (indirect)][Reverse osmosis (industrial treatment)][Controlled--atmosphere separation technology (Industrial water recycling and reuse)][Waste sector][Integrated Solid--Waste Management] and [Hydrolysis treatment]

Introduction

  • The low--carbon eco--cities collaboration between U.S. and China is a natural platform for strengthening the understanding of China's emerging policies and technology and services markets as well as the latest developments in low--carbon eco--cities in China and for informing U.S. industries and manufacturers of potential market opportunities.
  • The authors intent is to fill the information gap for policy makers with introductory information on commercial technologies that can improve a city's performance relative to the KPIs in the ELITE Cities analysis.
  • In the power sector section of the guide, the authors do not include natural--gas technologies because, although this technology is important in the U.S., China does not use very much natural gas for electricity.
  • The technologies included are complete end--user products, also known as Scope.

Industrial sector

  • Of all of the sectors considered in this guidebook, the industrial sector has perhaps the most diverse set of opportunities to contribute to low--carbon eco--city goals.
  • Not only are there many different subsectors within industry, but there are also multiple processes performed at various types of facilities within each subsector, each of which offers opportunities for reducing energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and pollutant emissions.
  • In the industrial--sector section of this guide, the authors address the following sectors: cement, glass, iron and steel, pulp and paper, refining, and textiles.
  • Following their discussion of cross--cutting energy--efficiency opportunities, the authors examine energy--saving and pollution--reduction opportunities unique to each industrial subsector.
  • Improvements in industrial--sector energy use and emissions will improve a number of a city's energy and air KPIs, including carbon intensity, daily average city--wide 10--micron particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations as well as the proportion of days per year that air quality meets Level II standards.

Energy monitoring and control systems

  • Energy monitoring and control systems are composed of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and a utilities optimizer, also known as Description.
  • In contrast to traditional utility meters, which are read manually, AMI collects digital data from on--site electricity, gas, and water meters and uses various communications media to send these data to facility managers.
  • A utilities optimizer can be used to evaluate options for new equipment or equipment retrofits for certain units or processes, for example feed--water heating for boilers, choice of system for on--site generation, or steam processes.
  • Costs will vary depending in the size of the facility and the amount of submetering desired for individual processes and systems, also known as Cost (or payback time).
  • It can be used to benchmark a facility in relation to its peers and identify energy--efficiency opportunities, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.

High--energy--efficiency motors

  • Motors run a large portion of a factory's functions, including processes that involve altering pressure (compressing, pumping), altering physical shape (crushing, rolling, wire drawing), altering temperature (fans), or moving and transporting materials (conveyors, hoists, cranes), also known as Description.
  • In the European Union (EU), for example, motors account for 68% of industrial--sector electricity consumption.
  • Increasing the energy efficiency of motors usually involves either system--level optimization or replacement of fixed--speed motors with variable--speed--drive motors.

Key features:

  • Choosing high--energy--efficiency motors involves considering motor efficiency, motor sizing, motor controls, power--supply quality, maintenance practices, and the efficiency of any end--use devices to which the motor is connected.
  • Waste--heat, waste--steam, and waste--gas recovery applications abound in industry, also known as Applications.
  • GSHP systems can meet 100% of some residential and commercial buildings' heating and cooling needs, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.
  • The system is usually composed of a card reader, rental machine, lock/unlock gate, and bike(s).

Cost (or payback time):

  • Sometimes, for smaller motors, the price premium can be greater than 50%.
  • Four of six natural--ventilation case--study projects in the UK saved between 24% and 71% of carbon emissions compared to industry benchmark figures for an average air--conditioned building, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.
  • Study results underscored the effectiveness of APS schedule--based functionality, which reduced plug loads at workstations by 26% even though advanced computer power management was already in place, and by nearly 50% in printer rooms and kitchens, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.
  • Water treatment and supply accounts for 3% of electricity use in the U.S., so any water reuse will result in meaningful energy as well as water savings.
  • Turbine costs for providing electricity and heat are additional to the digester costs and can range from US$500--2,000 per kW of capacity depending on the type of turbine and system.

Pump systems

  • Pump systems account for approximately 20% of global electricity demand and anywhere from 25% to 60% of energy usage in industrial facilities, e.g., 59% of energy usage in petroleum refining, 31% in pulp and paper, and 26% in chemicals, also known as Description.
  • It has been said that 75% of pumping systems are oversized (some by more than 20%) and that oversizing is the number--one source of inefficiency in pump systems.
  • Pump--system efficiency is determined by a number of process conditions, including the pump efficiency, overall system design, pump regulation and control, and maintenance cycles.

Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential:

  • The amount of energy that can be produced from waste heat is usually limited by the waste--heat temperature.
  • Carbon intensity of electricity generation, renewable share of total electricity consumption, distributed generation share of total electricity consumption, also known as Related KPIs.
  • Municipal fleet improvement, public transportation share of trips, public transportation network penetration, access to public transportation, also known as Related KPIs.
  • The energy potential of food waste (376 m 3 gas/ton) is three times greater than that of biosolids (120 m 3 gas/ton), so a wastewater treatment facility that digests food waste can not only offset the amount of energy the facility uses but potentially sell excess energy back to the grid (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2014).

Subsector--specific opportunities

  • This section describes energy--efficiency and carbon/pollution--reduction opportunities unique to specific industrial subsectors.
  • The applicable subsector is identified in parenthesis in the heading for each technology.

Co--firing of waste materials and use of alternative clinker materials (cement)

  • Municipal solid waste (MSW) from landfills and sewage sludge from wastewater treatment facilities can be burned in cement kilns using a practice known as co--processing, also known as Description.
  • This practice has been widespread in the EU, U.S., and Japan for more than 20 years.
  • The ashes left over after combustion can be integrated into the cement clinker, which can save raw materials as well as CO 2 emissions from the calcination process.
  • Another benefit of this practice is diverting waste from landfills, helping mitigate the increase in waste generation associated with rapid urbanization in many developing countries.

Applications:

  • The thermal energy recovered in the CDQ process can be used to produce steam or electricity, to pre--heat coking coal, or directly as heat (such as in district heating) Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential:.
  • The most efficient coke ovens using CDQ consume up to 40% less energy than ovens using a wet--quenching process.
  • Related KPIs: Carbon intensity, industrial water consumption (industrial water consumption/industrial GDP) Sources and additional resources: (Jones, 2012) , (Worrell, Blinde, Neelis, Blomen, & Masanet, 2010) , (Institute of Industrial Productivity, 2014) The most common cool--roof applications are in warm and hot climates that have long cooling seasons and short heating seasons.
  • By reducing water leakage, smart water networks can reduce monetary and energy expenditures related to purchasing, treating, and pumping water.

Building sector

  • Opportunities abound for energy--saving design and energy--efficient technology in residential and commercial buildings.
  • Advanced technologies for the building envelope system itself include cool roofs, smart windows, and interior and exterior shading systems.
  • Energy management and optimization for building operation are increasingly important to ensuring that the building energy system performs efficiently.
  • Assemble an experienced, innovative design team.
  • GPG reports that efficient window technology "is particularly applicable to commercial new construction and major reconstruction that have high window--to--wall area ratios that are fully conditioned and where the capital cost can be offset by the downsized HVAC equipment cost.", also known as Applications.

Smart windows (envelope)

  • In addition to the highly insulating windows described above, another efficient option is windows with "smart" functionality that enables them to change their transparency, light transmission, and solar heat gain factor.
  • There are two types of smart windows: electrochromic and thermotropic.
  • Both are used to reduce solar heat gain in warmer climates, which, in turn, reduces cooling energy use and peak electrical loads.

Natural and hybrid ventilation (HVAC)

  • Mechanical cooling and fan energy account for approximately 20% of U.S. commercial building electricity consumption, also known as Description.
  • Natural ventilation provides air flow -and potentially cooling -without the use of a mechanical system.

Lighting--system improvements

  • Lighting accounts for 38% of the electricity used in U.S. commercial buildings, representing a large potential source of energy savings, also known as Description.
  • The majority of savings can be found in daylighting design and lighting controls (such as daylighting controls and occupancy sensors).
  • Occupancy sensors are relatively commonplace now and have short payback periods of six months to approximately two years.
  • Both LEDs and lighting controls are widely applicable in both residential and commercial buildings, also known as Applications.
  • Current LED technology has similar luminous efficacy to that of compact fluorescents although the latter technology is not improving while LED technology is improving rapidly, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.

Power sector

  • In 2012, the power sector was the largest source of U.S. GHG emissions, accounting for about 32% of the U.S. total.
  • GHG emissions from electricity production have increased by about 11% since 1990 as electricity demand has grown and fossil fuels have remained the dominant source for generation (U. S. EPA, 2014).
  • In China, the power sector accounts for about half of the country's coal consumption and about 40% of carbon emissions (CEC, 2014) .
  • The authors focus on technologies that are within the city's authority to affect or control.
  • These include fuel cells, CHP, energy storage, microgrids, and smart grids.

Distributed solar and building--integrated photovoltaics

  • Technology name: Distributed solar technology Description: Distributed generation refers to electricity that is produced at or near the location where it is used.
  • States, cities, and towns are experimenting with policies that encourage distributed solar to offset peak electricity demand and stabilize the local grid (SEIA, 2013).
  • BIPV systems save materials and electricity costs, reduce pollution, and can add to a building's architectural appeal .
  • The price of residential and commercial PV systems continues to fall.
  • In general, developers claim a payback time of 5--10 years, and the solar systems last 20--25 years.

Combined heat and power (CHP)

  • Technology name: Combined heat and power (CHP) Description: CHP, also known as cogeneration, is the simultaneous production of electricity and heat from a single fuel source such as natural gas, biomass, biogas, coal, waste heat, or oil.
  • CHP uses the waste heat from the conversion process either directly or to run turbines that produce additional power.
  • Facilities with high heating loads are typically the most appropriate for CHP systems from a purely economic standpoint, but in warmer regions with high cooling loads there might be good sites for combined cooling, heating, and power.
  • CHP generates on--site electrical and/or mechanical power; recovers waste heat for heating, cooling, dehumidification; and integrates a variety of technologies, thermal applications, and fuel types into existing building infrastructure, also known as Key features.

Fuel--cell power systems

  • Technology name: Fuel cells Description: Fuel cells utilize the chemical energy of fuel to generate electricity without combustion.
  • The process is environmentally clean and inherently efficient, varying between 40 and 60% depending on the type of fuel.
  • Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments.
  • Fuel cells have very broad application anywhere electricity is generated or consumed, also known as Applications.

Utility--scale solar

  • Technology name: Utility--scale solar Description: Solar energy uses solar radiation to generate power.
  • Utility--scale solar PV technologies use large arrays of solar panels to convert energy from sunlight directly into electricity, also known as Key features.
  • CSP technologies use mirrors to concentrate the sun's light energy and convert it into heat to create steam, which drives a turbine to generate electric power.
  • Emissions reductions and energy savings depend on the scale of installed capacity and the actual power generated, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.
  • Solar power is seen as renewable energy that has only small life--cycle emissions.

Utility--scale energy storage

  • Technology name: Utility--scale energy storage Description: Energy can be stored by devices or physical media to be used for operations at a later time.
  • Grid energy storage (or large--scale energy storage) lets energy producers send excess electricity over the transmission grid to temporary storage sites that subsequently become energy suppliers when electricity demand increases.

Cost (and/or payback time):

  • The total cost of storage systems includes all subsystem component, installation, and integration costs.
  • A proposed variant of grid energy storage is V2G energy storage, in which modern electric vehicles are plugged into the energy grid and can release the electrical energy stored in their batteries back into the grid when needed.
  • With carbon capture and a 1,300 °C--class gas turbine, it is possible to achieve 42% net thermal efficiency, or 45% with a 1,500 °C--class gas turbine, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.
  • When storage is combined with enhanced oil recovery to extract extra oil from an oil field, however, the storage could yield net benefits of US$10-16 per tonne of CO 2 injected (based on 2003 oil prices).
  • The major costs of ITSs are for installation and maintenance of the camera, electric billboard, control system, or other similar elements.

Microgrids

  • Technology name: Microgrids Description: Microgrids differ from the traditional centralized electricity grid .
  • A microgrid is a localized grouping of electricity sources and loads that normally operates connected to and synchronous with the macrogrid but can disconnect and function autonomously as physical and/or economic conditions dictate.

Integrated gasification combined cycle for electricity generation

  • Technology name: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electricity generation Description: IGCC uses a gasifier to turn coal and other carbon--based fuels into synthesis gas .
  • IGCC first converts coal to syngas, then removes impurities from the syngas before it is combusted, also known as Key features.
  • Some of these impurities, such as sulfur, can be turned into re--usable byproducts.
  • With additional process equipment, the carbon in syngas can be transformed to hydrogen via the water--gas shift reaction, resulting in nearly carbon--free fuel.
  • The CO 2 resulting from the shift reaction can be compressed and stored.

Smart grid

  • Technology name: Smart grid Description: A smart power grid is uses automated communications technology to gather and act on information, for example about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, with the goal of maximizing the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity production and distribution.
  • A smart grid is made possible by two--way communication technologies and computer processing that have been used for decades in other industries, also known as Key features.
  • In the U.S., the city of Austin, Texas' utility has been working on building its smart grid since 2003 when it replaced 1/3 of its analog meters with smart meters that communicate via a wireless mesh network.
  • A Pacific Northwest National Laboratory study shows the combined effect of the direct mechanisms of smart grid application is 12%, and the indirect mechanisms total 6% of energy and emissions for the U.S. electricity sector, also known as Emissions--reduction/energy--savings potential.
  • Carbon intensity of electricity generation, renewable share of total electricity consumption, distributed generation share of total electricity consumption, also known as Related KPIs.

Carbon capture, utilization and storage

  • Technology name: Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) Description: CCUS encompasses methods and technologies to remove CO 2 from flue gas and the atmosphere and recycle captured CO 2 for re--utilization and/or safe, permanent storage.
  • CCUS is designed to achieve that purpose.
  • CCUS is at the early demonstration stage, however the CCS + enhance oil recovery (EOR) offers opportunities for commercially viable applications, also known as Key features.
  • There are three types of technology from the capture side: pre--combustion, post--combustion, and oxyfuel with post-combustion CO 2 capture.
  • Figure 26 shows an example CCUS for an oil sands facility.

Transportation sector

  • The transportation sector, which encompasses the movement of people and goods by cars, trucks, trains, ships, airplanes, and other vehicles, contributes significantly to global GHG emissions.
  • In the U.S., the largest sources of transportation--related GHG emissions include passenger cars and light--duty trucks (sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans).
  • This study focuses on technologies to improve the efficiency of transportation at the individual and system levels.
  • In 2010, with the goal of improving air quality and reducing reliance on fossil fuels, China began a two--year pilot program of subsidizing purchase of alternative--energy cars in five cities: Shanghai, Changchun, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, and Hefei.
  • EVs release almost no air pollutants at the location where they are operated; although electric vehicles use electric power to charge, it is generally easier to add pollution--control systems to centralized power stations than to retrofit large numbers of individual cars.

Hydrogen vehicles

  • Technology name: Hydrogen vehicles Description: Hydrogen--powered vehicles convert hydrogen's chemical energy to mechanical energy either by burning the hydrogen in an internal combustion engine or reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run an electric motor.
  • The concept of a hydrogen economy includes widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation as a key element.

Automatic bike--rent/share system

  • Technology name: Automatic bike rent/share system Description:.
  • Bike shares allow people to travel short distances by bike -for example, solving the "last--kilometer" problem in public transportation -without having to own their own bicycles.

Smart parking systems

  • Technology name: Smart parking system Description: Smart parking systems use low--cost sensors, real--time data, and mobile--phone-enabled automated payment systems that allow customers to reserve parking in advance or accurately predict where they can find a parking spot.
  • Smart parking thus reduces car emissions in urban centers by reducing the need for drivers to circle city blocks searching for parking.
  • The system enables drivers to make intelligent decisions based on real--time data and historical analysis and provides tools to optimize workforce management.
  • Smart parking systems can be used in public garages, parking lots, and street parking and transit, also known as Applications.
  • Municipal fleet improvement, public transportation share of trips, public transportation network penetration, access to public transportation, also known as Related KPIs.

Rapid--transit systems

  • Technology name: Rapid--transit system Description: Rapid--transit systems are high--capacity public transport systems usually found in large cities.
  • Unlike buses and trams, rapid--transit systems operate on an exclusive right--of--way, such as a tunnel or railway, that is usually grade--separated from other traffic.

Water sector

  • The water sector faces significant challenges, including stricter water--quality standards, increasing demand for water, and the need to adapt to climate change while reducing GHG emissions (Rothausen and Conway 2011) .
  • The particular area to which each technology applies is listed in parenthesis in the subsection title.
  • This section reviews the following technologies: 1. Gray--water recycling 2. Water--efficient appliances.
  • The water sector needs to be able to respond to climate alterations such as extreme weather events, sea--level rise, shifting precipitation and runoff patterns, temperature changes, and resulting changes in water quality and availability.
  • Percentage of annual municipal water use sourced from water--reclamation efforts 6.

Gray--water recycling (demand--side efficiency)

  • The United Nations Economic and Social Council proclaimed in 1958 that "No higher quality water, unless there is a surplus of it, should be used for a purpose that can tolerate a lower grade.", also known as Description.
  • This quote could have foreshadowed the practice of gray--water recycling, which uses non--potable water harvested from other processes such as clothes washing for activities that do not require potable water, such as toilet flushing.
  • Most plumbing uses potable water to flush toilets even though it is energy intensive to treat water to potable grade.

Smart water--distribution networks (distribution system)

  • Globally, water utilities spend US$184 billion each year on supplying clean water, US$14 billion of which is to pay for the energy associated with pumping and distribution, also known as Description.
  • Smart water--distribution networks -which utilize controls, smart meters, leak detection, and monitoring, among other technologies -can help minimize leaks and water--distribution costs.
  • Pressure sensors and pressure--regulating valves can allow automated changes to be made to the system without direct human intervention, as seen in Figure 34 .
  • Reducing leaks by 5%, coupled with up to a 10% reduction in pipe bursts, could save utilities up to US$4.6 billion annually worldwide, also known as Cost (or payback time).

Reverse osmosis (industrial treatment)

  • Wastewater reclamation has become a viable option for supplementing water supplies in areas where there are water shortages or high discharge costs or requirements, also known as Description.
  • Membrane treatments are playing a growing role in treating industrial wastewater.
  • One membrane treatment is reverse osmosis (RO).
  • RO membranes have been shown to significantly reduce total dissolved solids, heavy metals, organic pollutants, viruses, bacteria, and other dissolved contaminants in industrial wastewater.

Controlled--atmosphere separation technology (Industrial water recycling and reuse)

  • Controlled--atmosphere separation technology can be used at industrial chemical facilities to treat wastewater up to standards suitable for industrial reuse or agricultural (but not potable) uses, also known as Description.
  • For industrial processes that produce a large amount of effluent, this technology can help reduce costs for the treatment and disposal of that effluent.
  • The treatment technology is also designed to capture valuable nutrients or materials from the wastewater.
  • The technology can also be used for municipal wastewater treatment, especially where effluent standards are very high (with respect to nitrogen, for example).

Waste sector

  • Approximately 42% of U.S. GHG emissions are associated with the energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of the food the authors eat and the goods they use (EPA 2009) .
  • This energy mostly comes from fossil fuels, which are the largest global source of GHG emissions.
  • This study focuses on the technologies that city policy makers can adopt to improve municipal waste management and treatment.
  • The authors categorize them by waste--sector treatment or processing methods: "Reduce--reuse--recycle" management Thermal treatment Digestion treatment Hydrolysis treatment Chemical processing Mechanical processing Urbanization and growing urban populations along with increasing affluence drive the increasing volume of urban waste.

Integrated Solid--Waste Management

  • Technology name: Integrated solid--waste management (reduce--reuse--recycle) Description: Integrated solid--waste management involves all key stakeholders in planning the elements of a waste--management system, from source--waste generation to ultimate disposal.
  • Integrated solid waste management is commonly known as "reduce--reuse--recycle" which means: buy and use less, use elements of the discarded items again, and separate discarded materials into components that can be incorporated into new products.
  • This management approach, sometimes referred to as the "3R" approach, addresses all supporting aspects of such a system, including institutional, financial, regulatory, social, and environmental.

Hydrolysis treatment

  • Technology name: Hydrolysis Description: Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which water reacts with another substance to form two or more new substances.
  • For treating MSW, hydrolysis refers to an acid--catalyzed reaction of the cellulose fraction of the waste (e.g., paper, food waste, yard waste) with water to produce sugars.

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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Recent Work
Title
A Review of Commercially Available Technologies in Developing Low Carbon Eco-cities:
Permalink
https://escholarship.org/uc/item/4190g4fx
Authors
Zhou, Nan
He, Gang
Romankiewicz, John
et al.
Publication Date
2015-05-01
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University of California

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings support that the CMV criteria are a promising model for accurate endoscopic diagnosis of distal gastric diseases manifested as red mucosal lesions under endoscopy in a cohort of 62 patients.
Abstract: Gastric diseases are common in China, and gastroduodenoscopy could provide accurate diagnoses. Our previous study verified that linked colour imaging (LCI) can improve endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. This study aimed for the first time to establish an LCI-based endoscopic model called colour-microstructure-vessel (CMV) criteria and validated its clinical feasibility for detecting distal gastric diseases manifested as red mucosal lesions under endoscopy in a cohort of 62 patients. Colour features were extracted from the endoscopic images and categorized into 3 types. Colour type 1 was a typical red; Colour type 2 was red ringed with purple and Colour type 3 was red with yellow in the centre and purple around the periphery, allowing for predicting chronic nonatrophic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and Youden index of Colour type 3 with abnormal M or V for gastric cancer were 100.0%, 98.2% and 98.2%. The kappa values for intra-observer and inter-observer agreement for predicting the pathology were 0.834 and 0.791 for experienced endoscopists and 0.788 and 0.732 for endoscopy learners, and these values were comparable regardless of the experience of the endoscopists (P > 0.05). These findings support that the CMV criteria are a promising model for accurate endoscopic diagnosis.

15 citations


Dissertation
01 Jan 2018
Abstract: Although companies are continuously implementing the environmental discourse in their external reporting, yet, very fewer studies talk about how management control systems (MCS) support sustainability and environmental performance within organizations and embed in the organization. As a consequence of the worldwide environmental issues, companies are trying to start the environmental friendly practices. In response to the threats created by climate change and other environmental issues, companies are trying to prioritize sustainability as a core business issue. Many companies have already learned that sustainability can be a competitive advantage; however, in developing countries, the majority of companies in manufacturing industry have been failed to address these challenges. Therefore, the role of MCS is critical for the contemporary business arena as a source of controlling the behavior of employees and evaluating organizational resources for implementing strategies efficiently and effectively. Despite the fact that organizations continuously recognize environmental discourse in their external reporting, yet, a countable have discussed the importance of MCS that support sustainability and environmental performance within organizations. Existing literature reveals that organizational culture plays a vital role for successful implementation, yet little empirical research has been done to describe the relationship between organizational culture and MCA. In this context, this research fills this gap by investigating the role of organizational culture (OC) for development of environmental management control systems (EMCS) for better firm performance. Using survey data from a sample of Pakistan manufacturing firms, 314 responses were collected and analyzed by using Smart-PLS 3.2.6. Results suggest that flexible values of OC led to the development of the informal EMC, and stable values led to development of formal EMC. The formal and informal EMCS result in better firm performance. The results reveal that mediation of formal EMCS with the mission and environmental performance, and formal EMCS with the mission and social performance were not significant. The full mediation has been observed for consistency in its relationship with formal EMCS and economic and social performance and partial mediation in the relationship between formal EMCS and environmental performance. The most surprising aspect of an indirect impact of the mission on the environment and social performance which is not significant without any mediation and the only direct effect is significant. The relationship of involvement with economic and social performance is significant and positive. The relationship of involvement with environmental performance is not significant. The findings show that there is no significant impact of adaptability on economic, environmental and social performance. The consistency is also not significant with the relationship of firm performance. The findings reveal that mission is significantly associated with the environmental and social performance. The findings of this empirical research make three contributions. First, it demonstrates how companies align OC to develop an environmental culture that supports the development of EMCS, and that as a result improves firm’s performance. Based on the contingency theory, this study provides evidence that OC directly affects the design and use of MCS. The results further reveal that EMCS fully mediate the effect of OC on economic performance. Thus, EMCS can be used to translate environmental strategies into high firm performance, supporting earlier research with broad empirical evidence. Furthermore, this study contributes to the literature regarding environmental practices and sustainability. This study extends previous research on the effect of EMCS into a more traditional MCS. The current study’s results revealed that firm performance including the environmental performance is much higher when environmental aspects are integrated into a more traditional MCS. Third, the study demonstrates that integration of an environmental culture leads to more developed EMCS. Companies with substantial environmental issues (i.e., manufacturing industry in Pakistan) may develop strategies that seriously address environmental concerns and implement additional measures to improve their environmental performance.

11 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings support that the CMV criteria are a promising model for accurate endoscopic diagnosis of distal gastric diseases manifested as red mucosal lesions under endoscopy in a cohort of 62 patients.
Abstract: Gastric diseases are common in China, and gastroduodenoscopy could provide accurate diagnoses. Our previous study verified that linked colour imaging (LCI) can improve endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. This study aimed for the first time to establish an LCI-based endoscopic model called colour-microstructure-vessel (CMV) criteria and validated its clinical feasibility for detecting distal gastric diseases manifested as red mucosal lesions under endoscopy in a cohort of 62 patients. Colour features were extracted from the endoscopic images and categorized into 3 types. Colour type 1 was a typical red; Colour type 2 was red ringed with purple and Colour type 3 was red with yellow in the centre and purple around the periphery, allowing for predicting chronic nonatrophic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and Youden index of Colour type 3 with abnormal M or V for gastric cancer were 100.0%, 98.2% and 98.2%. The kappa values for intra-observer and inter-observer agreement for predicting the pathology were 0.834 and 0.791 for experienced endoscopists and 0.788 and 0.732 for endoscopy learners, and these values were comparable regardless of the experience of the endoscopists (P > 0.05). These findings support that the CMV criteria are a promising model for accurate endoscopic diagnosis.

15 citations


Dissertation
01 Jan 2018
Abstract: Although companies are continuously implementing the environmental discourse in their external reporting, yet, very fewer studies talk about how management control systems (MCS) support sustainability and environmental performance within organizations and embed in the organization. As a consequence of the worldwide environmental issues, companies are trying to start the environmental friendly practices. In response to the threats created by climate change and other environmental issues, companies are trying to prioritize sustainability as a core business issue. Many companies have already learned that sustainability can be a competitive advantage; however, in developing countries, the majority of companies in manufacturing industry have been failed to address these challenges. Therefore, the role of MCS is critical for the contemporary business arena as a source of controlling the behavior of employees and evaluating organizational resources for implementing strategies efficiently and effectively. Despite the fact that organizations continuously recognize environmental discourse in their external reporting, yet, a countable have discussed the importance of MCS that support sustainability and environmental performance within organizations. Existing literature reveals that organizational culture plays a vital role for successful implementation, yet little empirical research has been done to describe the relationship between organizational culture and MCA. In this context, this research fills this gap by investigating the role of organizational culture (OC) for development of environmental management control systems (EMCS) for better firm performance. Using survey data from a sample of Pakistan manufacturing firms, 314 responses were collected and analyzed by using Smart-PLS 3.2.6. Results suggest that flexible values of OC led to the development of the informal EMC, and stable values led to development of formal EMC. The formal and informal EMCS result in better firm performance. The results reveal that mediation of formal EMCS with the mission and environmental performance, and formal EMCS with the mission and social performance were not significant. The full mediation has been observed for consistency in its relationship with formal EMCS and economic and social performance and partial mediation in the relationship between formal EMCS and environmental performance. The most surprising aspect of an indirect impact of the mission on the environment and social performance which is not significant without any mediation and the only direct effect is significant. The relationship of involvement with economic and social performance is significant and positive. The relationship of involvement with environmental performance is not significant. The findings show that there is no significant impact of adaptability on economic, environmental and social performance. The consistency is also not significant with the relationship of firm performance. The findings reveal that mission is significantly associated with the environmental and social performance. The findings of this empirical research make three contributions. First, it demonstrates how companies align OC to develop an environmental culture that supports the development of EMCS, and that as a result improves firm’s performance. Based on the contingency theory, this study provides evidence that OC directly affects the design and use of MCS. The results further reveal that EMCS fully mediate the effect of OC on economic performance. Thus, EMCS can be used to translate environmental strategies into high firm performance, supporting earlier research with broad empirical evidence. Furthermore, this study contributes to the literature regarding environmental practices and sustainability. This study extends previous research on the effect of EMCS into a more traditional MCS. The current study’s results revealed that firm performance including the environmental performance is much higher when environmental aspects are integrated into a more traditional MCS. Third, the study demonstrates that integration of an environmental culture leads to more developed EMCS. Companies with substantial environmental issues (i.e., manufacturing industry in Pakistan) may develop strategies that seriously address environmental concerns and implement additional measures to improve their environmental performance.

11 citations