Abstract: The different approaches to noise impact assessment adopted by the individual countries and the scientific community have led to the development of a certain number of indicators, mainly focused on specific transport modes. However, in practice, technicians and decision-makers alike may fail to identify the most appropriate indicators, if they have no specific expertise on environmental noise. This paper presents a review of the main transport noise indicators, both the general acoustic ones and those used for specific transport modes. A critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of these indicators is provided, as well as a section discussing the framework in which they work, and suggestions for their best use, aimed at assisting decision-makers to ascertain their role in the evaluation process of the transport systems. To this extent, a classification is proposed, supplemented by the DPSIR (driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, responses) approach, in an effort to assess the cause–effect re...
Abstract: Mit der Veroeffentlichung im Amtsblatt der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften ist die "Richtlinie des Europaeischen Parlaments und des Rates ueber die Bewertung und die Bekaempfung von Umgebungslaerm" in Kraft getreten. Die Europaeische Gemeinschaft hat damit erstmalig eine rechtliche Regelung hinsichtlich der Geraeuschimmissionen in der Umwelt erlassen. Die Richtlinie soll ein gemeinsames Konzept festlegen, um schaedliche Auswirkungen, einschliesslich Belaestigung, durch Umgebungslaerm zu verhindern, ihnen vorzubeugen oder sie zu mindern. Sie soll weiterhin eine Grundlage fuer die Einfuehrung von Gemeinschaftsmassnahmen zur Laermminderung bei den wichtigsten Laermquellen darstellen. Die Anforderungen der Richtlinie werden vorgestellt und erklaert, und es werden erste Ansaetze fuer ein Umsetzungskonzept dargestellt. (A) ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH: The "Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise" has been published in the Official Journal of the European Communities and thus entered into force. The aim of this Directive shall be to define a common approach intended to avoid, prevent or reduce the harmful effects, including annoyance, due to exposure to environmental noise. It shall also aim at providing a basis for developing Community measures to reduce noise emitted by the major sources. The requirements of the Directive are presented and discussed and first ideas concerning the transposition in national legislation are given. (A)
Abstract: The Network Design Problem (NDP) is a strategical decision-making problem in planning, designing, and managing road networks with the aim to make efficient use of limited resources for optimizing the road network performance. Sustainability development is a major concern of various social-economic systems throughout the world. As a critical component of sustainable development, transportation systems should be designed to make positive contributions to the economic, environmental, and social sustainability of the served regions and communities. This requirement significantly uplifts the challenges on the modeling and the analysis of NDP. In this paper, we provide a review on the sustainable road NDP. Specifically, an overview on the three dimensions of sustainable development (i.e., economic, environmental, and social) is first provided, focusing on their representative performance measures relevant to road NDP. Then, we review the existing studies with the classification system of economy and environmentoriented sustainable NDP, economy and equity-oriented sustainable NDP, and three-dimensional sustainable NDP. Future research directions are suggested for advancing the methodological advancement and practical applications of sustainable transportation NDP.
Abstract: The paper intends to analyse the different attitudes of residents in urban areas in regard to annoyance induced by traffic noise, account taken of the effects of the street configuration and of the presence of specific public transport modes in the definition of the dose-response curves. People’s annoyance was investigated through a campaign of noise and traffic measurements and an epidemiological survey, administered to a sample of 830 residents in the buildings close to the measurement points. An ordinal regression model taking into account environmental and urban characteristics was used to identify a dose-response relationship. The cumulative probabilities allowed to define two cut points on the dose-response curves (60 and 75 dB(A)), grouping people in three classes and making the representation of the dose-response relationships different from those traditionally defined that use only the percentage of highly annoyed people. The results show different people’s attitudes towards the annoyance in the urban sites while the dose-response relationship shows that the correlation between annoyance and noise is low. For the same value of day equivalent level, 10% more people are annoyed in L sections (broad streets) than in U sections (narrow streets). Furthermore, all the dose-response curves show a higher sensitivity of people living in L sections; this difference can be measured as a shift of about 4 dB(A). Noise levels are, arguably, a useful indicator, but they are not reliable enough to define the discomfort of the residents, while the site characteristics could shed light on annoyance variability.
Abstract: In this chapter, we recommend that the development of equity indicators should account for three components: (i) the benefits and burdens of interest, (ii) the population groups over which they are distributed; and (iii) a clear conception of what a “morally proper distribution” of benefit or burden should be. We present a simple framework of how to move from a general conceptualization of a benefit or burden to a more precise definition of suitable individual variables that can be subjected to an equity analysis. The assessment of equity also hinges on the identification of different population groups, along multiple dimensions that can represent advantage or disadvantage: income, gender, age, ethnicity, ability, and residential location. We end the chapter with an overview of the linchpin of an equity indicator: an explicit normative standard specifying what is desirable and what is not. Taken together, these three components are the ingredients of the equity indicators presented in the remaining chapters of this book.
Abstract: Reliability of transit service has been recognized as a significant determinant of quality of service. Numerous indicators have been proposed by individual operational organizations and the research community dependent on specific objectives and resource constraints. Buffer time based indicators are highly desirable since they enable evaluation of the reliability impacts on passengers from an operational approach. However, buffer time indicators can underestimate passengers perceived reliability performance and hide the sources of observed changes in reliability if the buffer time is based on the total travel time distribution. Large samples of disaggregated data, benefiting from Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) system, provide great potential to measure reliability at very high levels of resolution. The paper proposes a buffer time concept based reliability measurement framework using AVL data, which can disaggregate service performance to a high level of detail. The framework working procedure is illustrated in the case of AVL data from Brisbane. Three example indicators for applications of reliability assessment (operators), journey planning (passenger) and value of time (agencies) are developed to fulfil different stakeholders’ requirements.
Abstract: 1.2 The EESC agrees that the 2050 vision goal of a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of 60 % in the transport sector, although very challenging, is in line with the EU's overall climate policy aims and that it strikes a reasonable balance between the need for quick reductions of greenhouse gases and the time needed to optimise energy efficiency in a single European Transport Area and develop new and sustainable fuels and propulsion systems in order to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
Abstract: Using an expanded version of a psychological theory of attitude-behaviour relations, namely the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), scores on factor analysed multi-dimensional attitude statements were used to segment a population of day trip travellers into potential ‘mode switchers’ using cluster analysis. Six distinct psychographic groups were extracted, each with varying degrees of mode switching potential. Each group represents a unique combination of preferences, worldviews and attitudes, indicating that different groups need to be serviced in different ways to optimise the chance of influencing mode choice behaviour. Socio-demographic factors had little bearing on the travel profiles of the segments, suggesting that attitudes largely cut across personal characteristics. The evidence clearly shows that the same behaviour can take place for different reasons and that the same attitudes can lead to different behaviours. The paper asserts that commonly used a priori classifications used to segment populations based on demographic variables or simple behavioural measures may oversimplify the structure of the market. Cluster analysis is rarely used in studies of travel behaviour but this study demonstrates its utility in providing a way of extracting naturally occurring, relatively homogenous and meaningful groups to be used in designing targeted hard and ‘soft’ transport policies.
TL;DR: Better estimates of the confidence intervals due to the improved model of the relationship between annoyance and noise exposure are provided, which is easier to use for practical calculations than the model itself.
Abstract: We present a model of the distribution of noise annoyance with the mean varying as a function of the noise exposure. Day-night level (DNL) and day-evening-night level (DENL) were used as noise descriptors. Because the entire annoyace distribution has been modeled, any annoyance measure that summarizes this distribution can be calculated from the model. We fitted the model to data from noise annoyance studies for aircraft, road traffic, and railways separately. Polynomial approximations of relationships implied by the model for the combinations of the following exposure and annoyance measures are presented: DNL or DENL, and percentage "highly annoyed" (cutoff at 72 on a scale of 0-100), percentage "annoyed" (cutoff at 50 on a scale of 0-100), or percentage (at least) "a little annoyed" (cutoff at 28 on a scale of 0-100). These approximations are very good, and they are easier to use for practical calculations than the model itself, because the model involves a normal distribution. Our results are based on the same data set that was used earlier to establish relationships between DNL and percentage highly annoyed. In this paper we provide better estimates of the confidence intervals due to the improved model of the relationship between annoyance and noise exposure. Moreover, relationships using descriptors other than DNL and percentage highly annoyed, which are presented here, have not been established earlier on the basis of a large dataset.
TL;DR: Policy-makers and their advisers are provided with technical support in their quantitative risk assessment of environmental noise and can use the procedure for estimating burdens presented here to prioritize and plan environmental and public health policies.
Abstract: The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern. At least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic-related noise in the western part of Europe. This publication summarises the evidence on the relationship between environmental noise and health effects, including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, and annoyance. For each one, the environmental burden of disease methodology, based on exposure-response relationship, exposure distribution, background prevalence of disease and disability weights of the outcome, is applied to calculate the burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life-years. Data are still lacking for the rest of the WHO European Region. This publication provides policy-makers and their advisers with technical support in their quantitative risk assessment of environmental noise. International, national and local authorities can use the procedure for estimating burdens presented here to prioritize and plan environmental and public health policies.
Abstract: This article presents synthesis curves for the relationship between DNL and percentage highly annoyed for three transportation noise sources. The results are based on all 21 datasets examined by Schultz [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 377-405 (1978)] and Fidell et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 221-233 (1991)] for which acceptable DNL and percentage highly annoyed measure could be derived, augmented with 34 datasets. Separate, nonidentical curves were found for aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. A difference between sources was found using data for all studies combined and for only those studies in which respondents evaluated two sources. The latter outcome strengthens the conclusion that the differences between sources cannot be explained by differences in study methodology.