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Journal ArticleDOI

A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

01 Jun 2004-Energy Conversion and Management (Pergamon)-Vol. 45, Iss: 9, pp 1597-1615

Abstract: Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed.
Topics: Thermal energy storage (60%), Energy storage (60%), Thermal energy (58%), Heat transfer (57%), Thermal conductivity (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Chang Liu1, Feng Li1, Lai-Peng Ma1, Hui-Ming Cheng1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This Review introduces several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage, and the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemicals for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors.
Abstract: [Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming] Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Met Res, Shenyang Natl Lab Mat Sci, Shenyang 110016, Peoples R China.;Cheng, HM (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Met Res, Shenyang Natl Lab Mat Sci, 72 Wenhua Rd, Shenyang 110016, Peoples R China;cheng@imr.ac.cn

3,670 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Dan Zhou1, Changying Zhao2, Yuan Tian1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) offers a high thermal storage density with a moderate temperature variation, and has attracted growing attention due to its important role in achieving energy conservation in buildings with thermal comfort. Various methods have been investigated by previous researchers to incorporate PCMs into the building structures, and it has been found that with the help of PCMs the indoor temperature fluctuations can be reduced significantly whilst maintaining desirable thermal comfort. This paper summarises previous works on latent thermal energy storage in building applications, covering PCMs, the impregnation methods, current building applications and their thermal performance analyses, as well as numerical simulation of buildings with PCMs. Over 100 references are included in this paper.

1,336 citations


Cites background from "A review on phase change energy sto..."

  • ...[11] Energy Conversion and Management 2004 The materials in general for thermal energy storage and main applications of PCMs were presented....

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  • ...Most reviews [8, 10, 11, 14, 17] mainly focused on the PCMs rather than the building applications....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In recent years the use of thermal energy storage with phase change materials has become a topic with a lot of interest within the research community, but also within architects and engineers. Many publications have appeared, and several books, but the information is disseminated and not very much organised. This paper shows a review of the latest publications on the use of phase change materials (PCM) in buildings. The paper compiles information about the requirements of the use of this technology, classification of materials, materials available and problems and possible solutions on the application of such materials in buildings.

1,148 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yuan Tian1, Changying Zhao2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Thermal applications are drawing increasing attention in the solar energy research field, due to their high performance in energy storage density and energy conversion efficiency. In these applications, solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems are the two core components. This paper focuses on the latest developments and advances in solar thermal applications, providing a review of solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems. Various types of solar collectors are reviewed and discussed, including both non-concentrating collectors (low temperature applications) and concentrating collectors (high temperature applications). These are studied in terms of optical optimisation, heat loss reduction, heat recuperation enhancement and different sun-tracking mechanisms. Various types of thermal energy storage systems are also reviewed and discussed, including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, chemical storage and cascaded storage. They are studied in terms of design criteria, material selection and different heat transfer enhancement technologies. Last but not least, existing and future solar power stations are overviewed.

1,132 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...[7] Farid MM, Khudhair AM, Razack SAK, Al-Hallaj S....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Murat Kenisarin1, Khamid Mahkamov1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the climb in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind efforts to more effectively utilise various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. However, the large-scale utilisation of this form of energy is possible only if the effective technology for its storage can be developed with acceptable capital and running costs. One of prospective techniques of storing solar energy is the application of phase change materials (PCMs). Unfortunately, prior to the large-scale practical application of this technology, it is necessary to resolve numerous problems at the research and development stage. This paper looks at the current state of research in this particular field, with the main focus being on the assessment of the thermal properties of various PCMs, methods of heat transfer enhancement and design configurations of heat storage facilities to be used as a part of solar passive and active space heating systems, greenhouses and solar cooking.

1,055 citations


Cites background from "A review on phase change energy sto..."

  • ...The analysis of properties of PCMs and possibilities of application in the form of a hermetic encapsulation were the focus in [15]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Thermal energy storage in general, and phase change materials (PCMs) in particular, have been a main topic in research for the last 20 years, but although the information is quantitatively enormous, it is also spread widely in the literature, and difficult to find. In this work, a review has been carried out of the history of thermal energy storage with solid–liquid phase change. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: materials, heat transfer and applications. The paper contains listed over 150 materials used in research as PCMs, and about 45 commercially available PCMs. The paper lists over 230 references.

3,637 citations


"A review on phase change energy sto..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Insufficient long term stability of the storage materials is due to two factors: poor stability of the materials properties and/or corrosion between the PCM and the container [29]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
A. Abhat1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Heat-of-fusion storage materials for low temperature latent heat storage in the temperature range 0–120°C are reviewed. Organic and inorganic heat storage materials classified as paraffins, fatty acids, inorganic salt hydrates and eutectic compounds are considered. The melting and freezing behaviour of the various substances is investigated using the techniques of Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The importance of thermal cycling tests for establishing the long-term stability of the storage materials is discussed. Finally, some data pertaining to the corrosion compatibility of heat-of-fusion substances with conventional materials of construction is presented.

1,294 citations


"A review on phase change energy sto..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(b) Latent heat of melting of non-paraffin organic compounds [4]....

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  • ...(c) Latent heat of melting/mass of inorganic compounds [4]....

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  • ...1(a–e), as reported by Abhat [4]....

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  • ...(a) Latent heat of melting of paraffin compounds [4]....

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  • ...(d) Latent heat of melting/volume of inorganic compounds [4]....

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Book
29 Apr 2002
Abstract: List of Contributors.Acknowledgements.Preface.General Introductory Aspects for Thermal Engineering. Energy Storage Systems. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Methods. Thermal Energy Storage and Environmental Impact. Thermal Energy Storage and Energy Savings. Heat Transfer and Stratification in Sensible Heat Storage Systems. Modeling of Latent Heat Storage Systems. Heat Transfer with Phase Change in Simple and Complex Geometries. Thermodynamic Optimization of Thermal Energy Storage Systems. Energy and Exergy Analyses of Thermal Energy Storage Systems. Thermal Energy Storage Case Studies.Appendix A -- Conversion Factors.Appendix B -- Thermophysical Properties.Appendix C -- Glossary.Subject Index.

1,269 citations


Book
01 Jan 1974

1,198 citations


"A review on phase change energy sto..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The design of sensible heat storage units is well described in textbooks [1,2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
S.M. Hasnain1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper reviews the development of available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies and their individual pros and cons for space and water heating applications. Traditionally, available heat has been stored in the form of sensible heat (typically by raising the temperature of water, rocks, etc.) for later use. In most of the low temperature applications, water is being used as a storage medium. Latent heat storage on the other hand, is a young and developing technology which has found considerable interest in recent times due to its operational advantages of smaller temperature swing, smaller size and lower weight per unit of storage capacity. It has been demonstrated that, for the development of a latent heat thermal energy storage system, the choice of the phase change material (PCM) plays an important role in addition to heat transfer mechanisms in the PCM. Attempts have also been made to utilize technical grade phase change materials as storage media and embedded heat exchange tubes/heat pipes with extended surfaces in order to enhance the heat transfer rate to/from the PCM.

1,024 citations


Performance
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202210
2021215
2020213
2019213
2018209
2017223