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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13561820.2020.1732312

A scoping review of community paramedicine: evidence and implications for interprofessional practice.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Interprofessional Care (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 35, Iss: 2, pp 229-239
Abstract: Community paramedicine (CP) is an evolving method of providing community-based health care in which paramedics function outside of their traditional emergency response roles in order to improve access to primary and preventive health care and to basic social services. Early evidence indicates that CP programs have contributed to reducing health care utilization and improving patient outcomes leading some to call for a transformation of EMS into value-based mobile healthcare fully integrated within an interprofessional care team. The purpose of this scoping review was to understand the evidence base of CP in order to inform the further evolution of this model of care. Following the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews, 1,163 titles were screened by our research team. Eligibility criteria were publication in English after January 1, 2000; description of a CP program located in a Western nation; and inclusion of a discussion of outcomes. Twenty-nine publications met the criteria for inclusion. The literature was varied in terms of study design, program purpose, and target audience. The lack of rigorous, longitudinal studies with control groups makes rendering conclusions as to the value and effectiveness of CP programs difficult. Further, the extent to which community paramedics operate within interprofessional teams remains unclear. However, some programs demonstrated improvement in both health services and patient outcomes. As stakeholders continue to explore the potential of CP, results of this review highlight the importance of further investigation of outcomes, the professional identity of the community paramedic, and the role of the community paramedic on interprofessional teams.

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Topics: Paramedicine (60%), Health care (56.99%)
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Open access
01 Jan 2018-
Abstract: Background: Mobile Integrated Health (MIH) leverages specially trained paramedics outside of emergency response to bridge gaps in local health care delivery. Study objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a MIH led transitional care strategy to reduce acute care utilization. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of a quality improvement pilot of patients from an urban, single county EMS, MIH transitional care initiative. We utilized a paramedic/social worker (or social care coordinator) dyad to provide in home assessments, medication review, care coordination, and improve access to care. The primary outcome compared acute care utilization (ED visits, observation stays, inpatient visits) 90 days before MIH intervention to 90 days after. Results: Of the 203 patients seen by MIH teams, inpatient utilization decreased significantly from 140 hospitalizations pre‐MIH to 26 post‐MIH (83% reduction, p = 0.00). ED and observation stays, however, increased numerically, but neither was significant. (ED 18 to 19 stays, p = 0.98; observation stays 95 to 106, p = 0.30) Primary care visits increased 15% (p = 0.11). Conclusion: In this pilot before/after study, MIH significantly reduces acute care hospitalizations.

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Topics: Acute care (65%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S43678-021-00153-4
Abstract: The aim for this study was to provide information about how community paramedicine home visit programs best “navigate” their role delivering preventative care to frequent 9-1-1 users by describing demographic and clinical characteristics of their patients and comparing them to existing community care populations. Our study used secondary data from standardized assessment instruments used in the delivery of home care, community support services, and community paramedicine home visit programs in Ontario. Identical assessment items from each instrument enabled comparisons of demographic, clinical, and social characteristics of community-dwelling older adults using descriptive statistics and z-tests. Data were analyzed for 29,938 home care clients, 13,782 community support services clients, and 136 community paramedicine patients. Differences were observed in proportions of individuals living alone between community paramedicine patients versus home care clients and community support clients (47.8%, 33.8%, and 59.9% respectively). We found higher proportions of community paramedicine patients with multiple chronic disease (87%, compared to 63% and 42%) and mental health-related conditions (43.4%, compared to 26.2% and 18.8% for depression, as an example). When using existing community care populations as a reference group, it appears that patients seen in community paramedicine home visit programs are a distinct sub-group of the community-dwelling older adult population with more complex comorbidities, possibly exacerbated by mental illness and social isolation from living alone. Community paramedicine programs may serve as a sentinel support opportunity for patients whose health conditions are not being addressed through timely access to other existing care providers. ISRCTN 58273216.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12916-021-02019-Z
Georgette Eaton1, Geoff Wong1, Stephanie Tierney1, Nia Roberts1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
25 Jun 2021-BMC Medicine
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Since 2002, paramedics have been working in primary care within the United Kingdom (UK), a transition also mirrored within Australia, Canada and the USA. Recent recommendations to improve UK NHS workforce capacities have led to a major push to increase the numbers of paramedics recruited into primary care. However, gaps exist in the evidence base regarding how and why these changes would work, for whom, in what context and to what extent. To understand the ways in which paramedics impact (or not) the primary care workforce, we conducted a realist review. METHODS: A realist approach aims to provide causal explanations through the generation and articulation of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. Our search of electronic databases was supplemented with Google and citation checking to locate grey literature including news items and workforce reports. Included documents were from the UK, Australia, Canada and the Americas-countries within which the paramedic role within primary care is well established. RESULTS: Our searches resulted in 205 included documents, from which data were extracted to produce context-mechanism-outcome configurations (CMOCs) within a final programme theory. Our results outline that paramedics are more likely to be effective in contributing to primary care workforces when they are supported to expand their existing role through formal education and clinical supervision. We also found that unless paramedics were fully integrated into primary care services, they did not experience the socialisation needed to build trusting relationships with patients or physicians. Indeed, for patients to accept paramedics in primary care, their role and its implications for their care should be outlined by a trusted source. CONCLUSIONS: Our realist review highlights the complexity surrounding the introduction of paramedics into primary care roles. As well as offering an insight into understanding the paramedic professional identity, we also discuss the range of expectations this professional group will face in the transition to primary care. These expectations come from patients, general practitioners (family physicians) and paramedics themselves. This review is the first to offer insight into understanding the impact paramedics may have on the international primary care workforce and shaping how they might be optimally deployed.

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Topics: Ambulatory care (54%), Workforce (53%), Clinical supervision (51%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEDT.2021.105181
Abstract: Paramedics provide care in medical emergencies to patients with varying ages and from a range of settings, cultures, backgrounds and experiences. As such, the paramedic needs a very diverse skill set which is difficult to obtain at university. For this reason, undergraduate paramedic students often engage in clinical placements to apply their knowledge to real world experiences. Most of these placements, however, are in hospitals or ambulance settings, but part of the diverse community that paramedics treat are children with special needs, including children with disabilities. This study measured the attitudes of paramedic students to people with disabilities and explored the effectiveness of paramedic student clinical placements in special needs schools. 109 paramedic students enrolled in their first year of the Bachelor of Paramedicine at Monash University undertook placements in special needs schools across Victoria, Australia. These students completed the Interactions with Disabled Persons Scale. Of these students, 5 participated in two focus groups to gain a deeper understanding of their placement experience. The results showed that paramedic students enjoyed their placements and gained a more positive attitude towards special needs students, but also felt challenged and overwhelmed. Also found were four main characteristics that students believed paramedics needed to be effective; empathy, being genuine, the ability to listen to someone even though they are not speaking to you verbally, and the ability to gain the trust of someone quickly where gaining trust is difficult. This study was the first time an entire cohort of paramedic students have undertaken placements at special needs schools. The findings provide a baseline and incentive for further exploration of the benefits of the placement of paramedic students (and student from a variety of healthcare professions) in special needs schools, as well as other marginalised communities.

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Topics: Special needs (56.99%), Paramedicine (51%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/1475-6773.13773
Abstract: OBJECTIVE To measure the effect of a mobile integrated health community paramedicine (MIH-CP) transitional care program on hospital utilization, emergency department visits, and charges. DATA SOURCES Retrospective secondary data from the electronic health record and regional health information exchange were used to analyze patients discharged from a large academic medical center and an affiliated community hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, May 2018-October 2019. STUDY DESIGN We performed an observational study comparing patients enrolled in an MIH-CP program to propensity-matched controls. Propensity scores were calculated using measures of demographics, clinical characteristics, social determinants of health, and prior health care utilization. The primary outcome is inpatient readmission within 30 days of discharge. Secondary outcomes include excess days in acute care 30 days after discharge and emergency department visits, observation hospitalizations, and total health care charges within 30 and 60 days of discharge. DATA COLLECTION Included patients were over 18 years old, discharged to home from internal/family medicine services, and live in eligible ZIP codes. The intervention group was enrolled in the MIH-CP program; controls met inclusion criteria but were not enrolled during the study period. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The adjusted model showed no difference in 30-day inpatient readmission between 464 enrolled patients and propensity-matched controls (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.89, 1.60]). There was a higher rate of observation hospitalizations within 30 days of index discharge for MIH-CP patients (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.78, 95% CI = [1.01, 3.14]). This difference did not persist at 60 days, and there were no differences in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS We found no significant difference in short-term health care utilization or charges between patients enrolled in an MIH-CP transitional care program and propensity-matched controls. This highlights the importance of well-controlled, robust evaluations of effectiveness in novel care-delivery systems.

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Topics: Transitional care (64%), Acute care (63%), Health care (60%) ... show more

References
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47 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7326/M18-0850
Andrea C. Tricco1, Erin Lillie2, Wasifa Zarin2, Kelly K O'Brien1  +24 moreInstitutions (20)
Abstract: Scoping reviews, a type of knowledge synthesis, follow a systematic approach to map evidence on a topic and identify main concepts, theories, sources, and knowledge gaps. Although more scoping reviews are being done, their methodological and reporting quality need improvement. This document presents the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) checklist and explanation. The checklist was developed by a 24-member expert panel and 2 research leads following published guidance from the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network. The final checklist contains 20 essential reporting items and 2 optional items. The authors provide a rationale and an example of good reporting for each item. The intent of the PRISMA-ScR is to help readers (including researchers, publishers, commissioners, policymakers, health care providers, guideline developers, and patients or consumers) develop a greater understanding of relevant terminology, core concepts, and key items to report for scoping reviews.

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Topics: Systematic review (55%), Checklist (54%)

4,204 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1207/S15324796ABM2601_01
Kate Lorig1, Halsted R. Holman1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Self-management has become a popular term for behavioral interventions as well as for healthful behaviors. This is especially true for the management of chronic conditions. This article offers a short history of self-management. It presents three self-management tasks—medical management, role management, and emotional management—and six self-management skills—problem solving, decision making, resource utilization, the formation of a patient-provider partnership, action planning, and self-tailoring. In addition, the article presents evidence of the effectiveness of self-management interventions and posits a possible mechanism, self-efficacy, through which these interventions work. In conclusion the article discusses problems and solutions for integrating self-management education into the mainstream health care systems.

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2,996 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2010-
Abstract: At a time when the world is facing a shortage of health workers, policymakers are looking for innovative strategies that can help them develop policy and programmes to bolster the global health workforce. The Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice highlights the current status of interprofessional collaboration around the world, identifies the mechanisms that shape successful collaborative teamwork and outlines a series of action items that policy-makers can apply within their local health system. The goal of the Framework is to provide strategies and ideas that will help health policy-makers implement the elements of interprofessional education and collaborative practice that will be most beneficial in their own jurisdiction.

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Topics: Interprofessional education (72%), Teamwork (52%)

1,550 Citations



Open access
01 Jun 2007-
Abstract: Context Quality problems and spiraling costs have resulted in widespread interest in solutions that improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care system. Care coordination has been identified by the Institute of Medicine as one of the key strategies for potentially accomplishing these improvements. Objectives The objectives of this project were to develop a working definition of care coordination, apply it to a review of systematic reviews, and identify theoretical frameworks that might predict or explain how care coordination mechanisms are influenced by factors in the health care setting and how they relate to patient outcomes and health care costs. Data Sources and Review Methods We used literature databases, Internet searches, and personal contacts to assemble background information on ongoing care coordination programs; potential definitions; conceptual frameworks and related empirical evidence; and care coordination measures. We also conducted literature searches through September 30, 2006 of MEDLINE®, and November 15, 2006 for CINAHL®, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, American College of Physicians Journal Club, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Services Abstracts to identify systematic reviews of care coordination interventions. We excluded systematic reviews with a narrow focus, namely those conducted solely in the inpatient setting, or where the only two participants involved in care were the patient and a health care provider. Results We identified numerous ongoing programs in the private and public sector, most of which have not yet been evaluated. We identified over 40 definitions of care coordination and related terminology, and developed a working definition drawing together common elements: Care coordination is the deliberate organization of patient care activities between two or more participants (including the patient) involved in a patient's care to facilitate the appropriate delivery of health care services. Organizing care involves the marshalling of personnel and other resources needed to carry out all required patient care activities, and is often managed by the exchange of information among participants responsible for different aspects of care. We used this definition to develop our inclusion/exclusion criteria for selecting potentially relevant systematic reviews. Our literature search yielded 4,730 publications, of which 75 systematic reviews evaluating care coordination interventions, either fully or as a part of the review, met inclusion criteria. From these, we identified 20 different coordination interventions (e.g., multidisciplinary teams, case management, disease management) covering 12 clinical populations (e.g., mental health, heart disease, diabetes) and conducted in multiple settings (e.g., outpatient, community, home). Finally, we identified four conceptual frameworks (Andersen's behavioral framework, Donabedian's structure-process-outcome framework, Nadler/Tushman and others' Organizational design framework with Wagner's Chronic Care Model provided as an example of such design, and Gittell's Relational coordination framework) with potential applicability to studying care coordination by assessing baseline characteristics of the environment, specific coordination mechanism alternatives, and outcomes. The strongest evidence shows benefit of care coordination interventions for patients who have congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, severe mental illness, a recent stroke, or depression, though evidence about key intervention components is lacking. Conclusions Care coordination interventions represent a wide range of approaches at the service delivery and systems level. Their effectiveness is most likely dependent upon appropriate matching between intervention and care coordination problem, though more conceptual, empirical and experimental research is required to explore this hypothesis.

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Topics: Chronic care (65%), Health care (65%), Systematic review (56.99%) ... show more

620 Citations