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Journal ArticleDOI

A Search for Scintillation in Doped Cubic Lead Fluoride Crystals

18 Oct 2010-IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (IEEE)-Vol. 57, Iss: 6, pp 3841-3845
TL;DR: In this article, it was found that rare earth ions doped in the lead fluoride crystal may serve as luminescence centers, and the photo-and X-luminescence spectra, the decay time constants and the light outputs were measured for these doped samples.
Abstract: An effort was made to introduce scintillation light in lead fluoride crystals by selective doping. It was found that some rare earth ions doped in the lead fluoride crystal may serve as luminescence centers. The photo- and X- luminescence spectra, the decay time constants and the light outputs were measured for these doped samples. The decay time was found to be at a few milliseconds for these rare earth doped lead fluoride samples, which is too long to be useful for the homogeneous hadronic calorimeter detector concept with dual readout for future high energy physics experiments. Work to introduce scintillation in lead fluoride will continue.

Summary (2 min read)

Introduction

  • Crystals have recently also been proposed to construct a homogeneous calorimeter, including both ECAL and hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) [1] for detectors at the international linear collider (ILC).
  • While classical platinum crucible was used at SIC for the crystal growth, graphite crucible was used at Scintibow.

II. PHOTO-AND X- LUMINESCENCE SPECTRA

  • Photo- and X-ray luminescence spectra were measured by using a Hitachi F-4500 fluorescence spectrophotometer.
  • Fig. 2 shows the setup used for this measurement.
  • For the X-ray luminescence measurement an Amptek E3-T X-ray tube was run at 25 kV and A. Fig. 3 shows the excitation (red dots), the photo-luminescence (blue dashes) and the X-luminescence (black lines) spectra for the PbF samples doped with Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, Pr, Sm and Tb as well as a reference CsI(Tl) sample.
  • The observed photo- and X- luminescence spectra are consistent for all samples.
  • The spectra of PbF samples doped with Eu, Pr and Sm were carefully checked, and no fast emission from , and were identified.

III. PHOTO-LUMINESCENCE DECAY TIME CONSTANT

  • The photo-luminescence decay time constant of these doped PbF samples was measured by using a pulsed laser as the excitation source.
  • Fig. 4 shows the setup used in this measurement.
  • The wavelengths of the monochromator was set at the peak values of the emission spectra shown in Fig.
  • Table I summarizes the decay time constants for the PbF samples doped with Er, Ho, Eu, Sm and Tb, which were found at a millisecond scale.
  • These time constants are too long to be useful for high energy physics experiments.

IV. -RAY INDUCED ANODE PHOTO-CURRENT

  • Measurements of the absolute light yield by using the classical -ray pulse hight spectrum approach suffers from a large noise for doped PbF samples with millisecond decay time.
  • Fig. 7 shows histories of the anode photo-current measured for an undoped PbF sample and a reference PWO sample which has a light output of 20 p.e./MeV.
  • The increase of the current for the undoped PbF sample is caused by the contamination of various impurities in the raw material, which can be seen as the background.
  • They are marked as the open circles in Fig.
  • The authors also note that all six samples are featured with Eu doping, and were grown at Scintibow.

V. -RAY EXCITED PULSE HEIGHT SPECTRUM

  • The -ray induced anode current measurement has basically ruled out any significant -ray induced scintillation light in these doped samples.
  • A Hamamatsu R2059 PMT was used as the readout device.
  • Figs. 9 and 10 show the pulse height spectra (red solid lines) for samples Scintibow-1 and Scintibow-B21 respectively for an integration time of s. the doped and the undoped PbF samples, indicating that the amount of the luminescence light observed in the s gate is too weak to show a peak.
  • This observation further confirmed the result obtained with the -ray induced anode current measurement described in the previous section.

VI. SUMMARY

  • Because of its potential low cost, PbF crystal is an attractive material for the HHCAL detector concept proposed for future high energy physics experiments.
  • A search for scintillation was carried out in a set of doped cubic PbF crystal samples.
  • Consistent photo- and x-ray luminescence spectra were found in the PbF samples doped with Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, Pr, Sm and Tb.
  • Eu doped samples show -ray induced anode photo-current larger than the undoped sample the numerical result indicates that the scintillation light, if any, is less than 3 p.e./MeV measured by a PMT with bi-alkali photo-cathode.
  • The work will concentrate on selective rare earth doping, other PbF phases and mixtures [14].

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 57, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2010 3841
A Search for Scintillation in Doped Cubic
Lead Fluoride Crystals
Rihua Mao, Member, IEEE, Liyuan Zhang, Member, IEEE, and Ren-Yuan Zhu, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—An effort was made to introduce scintillation light in
lead fluoride crystals by selective doping. It was found that some
rare earth ions doped in the lead fluoride crystal may serve as lu-
minescence centers. The photo- and X- luminescence spectra, the
decay time constants and the light outputs were measured for these
doped samples. The decay time was found to be at a few millisec-
onds for these rare earth doped lead fluoride samples, which is too
long to be useful for the homogeneous hadronic calorimeter de-
tector concept with dual readout for future high energy physics
experiments. Work to introduce scintillation in lead fluoride will
continue.
Index Terms—Crystals, luminescence, particle measurements,
solid scintillation detectors.
I. INTRODUCTION
I
NORGANIC crystal scintillators have played an important
role in the construction of total absorption electromagnetic
calorimeter (ECAL) for high energy physics experiments.
Crystals have recently also been proposed to construct a ho-
mogeneous calorimeter, including both ECAL and hadronic
calorimeter (HCAL) [1] for detectors at the international
linear collider (ILC). This homogeneous hadronic calorimeter
(HHCAL) detector concept removes the traditional boundary
between ECAL and HCAL, so eliminates the dead materials
in the middle of the hadronic shower development. It also
takes advantage of the recently implemented dual readout
approach to achieve good energy resolutions for hadronic jets
by measuring both Cerenkov and scintillation light [2].
Because of the unprecedent volume (70 to
m ) foreseen
for such calorimeter [1], the crystal material must be dense (to
reduce the volume), UV transparent (to effectively collecting
the Cerenkov light) and allow a clear discrimination between
the Cerenkov light and the scintillation light [3].
Cubic lead fluoride (
-PbF ) crystal has a high density of
7.77 g/cm
, a short radiation length cm and a
short nuclear interaction length
cm . It has good UV
transparency down to 250 nm. Its low melting point
C
and low material cost (1/3 of BGO) make it a potential cost-
Manuscript received December 16, 2009; revised July 21, 2010; accepted
September 01, 2010. Date of publication October 18, 2010; date of current ver-
sion December 15, 2010. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Depart-
ment of Energy under Grant DE-FG03-92-ER-40701 and in part by the U.S.
National Science Foundation Award PHY-0612805.
The authors are with the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,
CA 91125 USA (e-mail: maorh@hep.caltech.edu; liyuan@hep.caltech.edu;
zhu@hep.caltech.edu).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TNS.2010.2076372
Fig. 1. A photo showing four lead fluoride crystal samples doped with various
rare earth elements from SIC (left two cubes) and Scintibow (right two cylin-
ders).
Fig. 2. The setup used for the photo- and x- luminescence measurement.
effective material for the HHCAL detector concept. Large size
(20 cm long) PbF
crystals are available in the market. They
were used as a Cerenkov material to construct an ECAL for the
A4 experiment at the MAinzer MIcrotron (MAMI) facility at
Mainz. Excellent energy resolutions were reported [4].
As a Cerenkov material cubic PbF
has been studied in details
[5]. The only issue for the HHCAL application is that it is not a
scintillator at room temperature. Luminescence was observed
in PbF
single crystals at low temperature by several groups
[6]–[8] for both orthorhombic (
-PbF ) and cubic phases. Scin-
tillation at room temperature was first reported by Derenzo et al.
for orthorhombic powers [9], but with a very small intensity. Ef-
fort was made to introduce scintillation light into PbF
through
phase transition (cubic to orthorhomic) during growth. Positive
result was reported by Klassen et al. [10], but was not confirmed
by Anderson et al. [11]. Observation of a fast photo- and x- lumi-
nescence in Gd doped PbF
crystals was first reported by Shen
et al. [12], and was later confirmed by Woody et al. in a beam
test at AGS [13].
In this work lead fluoride samples doped with various rare
earth elements were grown by a modified Bridgman method.
0018-9499/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE

3842 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 57, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2010
Fig. 3. The excitation (red dots) and Photo- (blue dashes) and X- (black lines) luminescence spectra are shown as a function of wavelength for the PbF samples
doped with Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, Pr, Sm and Tb as well as a reference CsI(Tl) sample.
The photo- and X- luminescence spectra, the decay kinetics and
the
-ray excited anode current and the pulse height spectra
were measured for these samples.
A total of 116 PbF
samples doped with various rare earth ele-
ments were grown by a modified Bridgman method at Shanghai
Institute of Ceramics (SIC) and Shanghai Scintibow Crystal Co.,
LTD. While classical platinum crucible was used at SIC for the
crystal growth, graphite crucible was used at Scintibow. The
SIC samples are cubes of 1.5 radiation length with six faces pol-
ished as shown in the left two samples in Fig. 1. Most Scintibow
samples are cylinders with two end faces polished and have a di-
mension of
22 15 mm as shown in the right two samples in
Fig. 1. Because of the contaminations the crystal samples grown
in the graphite crucible are less transparent than that in the plat-
inum crucible. All samples are of cubic phase (
-PbF ) as ver-
ified by the X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD).
II. P
HOTO-AND X- LUMINESCENCE SPECTRA
Photo- and X-ray luminescence spectra were measured by
using a Hitachi F-4500 fluorescence spectrophotometer. Fig. 2
shows the setup used for this measurement. For the X-ray lu-
minescence measurement an Amptek E3-T X-ray tube was run
at 25 kV and
A. Fig. 3 shows the excitation (red dots),
the photo-luminescence (blue dashes) and the X-luminescence
(black lines) spectra for the PbF
samples doped with Er, Eu,
Gd, Ho, Pr, Sm and Tb as well as a reference CsI(Tl) sample.
Although spectroscopic resolutions are different, the observed
photo- and X- luminescence spectra are consistent for all sam-
ples. The spectra of PbF
samples doped with Eu, Pr and Sm
were carefully checked, and no fast emission from
,
and were identified. The photo- and x- luminescence
spectra observed in the Gd doped PbF
samples are consistent
with previous publications by Shen [12] and Woody [13].
Fig. 4. The setup used for the photo-luminescence pulse shape and the decay
time measurement.
III. PHOTO-LUMINESCENCE DECAY
TIME CONSTANT
The photo-luminescence decay time constant of these doped
PbF
samples was measured by using a pulsed laser as the exci-
tation source. Fig. 4 shows the setup used in this measurement.
The UV light pulses of 6–8 ns width from an Opotek Opolette
355 II + UV tunable laser was used as the excitation source. The
wavelength of the laser was set at the peak values of the excita-
tion spectra shown in Fig. 3. The photo-luminescence light from
these samples went first through an Oriel MS257 monochro-
mator then to a Hamamatsu R2059 PMT. The wavelengths of
the monochromator was set at the peak values of the emission
spectra shown in Fig. 3. The decay time constants were deter-
mined by an exponential fit to the pulse shape. Fig. 5 shows
the photo-luminescence pulse shape (blue circles), the corre-
sponding exponential fit (red lines) and the decay time constant
for the PbF
samples doped with Er, Ho, Eu, Sm and Tb as well
as a reference CsI(Tl) sample. The photoluminescence intensity

MAO et al.: A SEARCH FOR SCINTILLATION IN DOPED CUBIC LEAD FLUORIDE CRYSTALS 3843
Fig. 5. The photo-luminescence pulse shape (blue circles), corresponding fit to an exponential (red lines) and the decay time constant are shown for the PbF
samples doped with Er, Ho, Eu, Sm and Tb as well as a reference CsI(Tl) sample.
TABLE I
D
ECAY TIME CONSTANT FOR
DOPED LEAD FLUORIDE
CRYSTALS.
of PbF samples doped with Pr and Gd are too weak to be useful
to extract the decay time constant.
Table I summarizes the decay time constants for the PbF
samples doped with Er, Ho, Eu, Sm and Tb, which were found
at a millisecond scale. These time constants are too long to be
useful for high energy physics experiments.
IV.
-RAY INDUCED
ANODE PHOTO-CURRENT
Measurements of the absolute light yield by using the clas-
sical
-ray pulse hight spectrum approach suffers from a large
noise for doped PbF
samples with millisecond decay time.
An alternative approach was taken to measure the DC anode
photo-current induced by a
-ray source at a fixed distance. The
result of this measurement contains contributions from both the
scintillation and the radiation induced phosphorescence. The
latter, however, is negligible because of the weak source used
and the small size of the PbF
samples. Fig. 6 shows the setup
used for this measurement. A
source of -curie was
used to excite the sample. A Hamamatsu R2059 PMT was used
to measure the DC anode photo-current. The bias voltage of the
PMT was fixed at 2,000 V, and the distance between the source
and the samples was fixed at 2 cm as shown in the figure. The
PMT anode current was measured by using a digital multi-meter
before and after turning on the
-ray source.
Fig. 7 shows histories of the anode photo-current measured
for an undoped PbF
sample and a reference PWO sample
which has a light output of 20 p.e./MeV. The anode photo-cur-
rent after turning on the
-ray source was found to be 42 nA and
Fig. 6. The setup used to measure the
-ray induced anode photo-current for
PbF
samples. The distance between source and samples was fixed at 2 cm.
240 nA respectively for these two samples. The increase of the
current for the undoped PbF
sample is caused by the contami-
nation of various impurities in the raw material, which can be
seen as the background. Fig. 8 shows the anode photo-current
measured for all doped PbF
samples (solid dots and open
circles) and the undoped PbF
sample (solid red square) when
the source was turned on. A total of six doped PbF
samples
showed an anode photo-current of larger than 50 nA. They are
marked as the open circles in Fig. 8.
Table II lists their ID, dimension and dopant. By using the
PWO sample as the reference, these numerical result indicates
that the upper limit of their light output is 3 p.e./MeV. We also
note that all six samples are featured with Eu doping, and were
grown at Scintibow.
V.
-RAY EXCITED PULSE HEIGHT SPECTRUM
The -ray induced anode current measurement has basically
ruled out any significant
-ray induced scintillation light in these

3844 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 57, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2010
Fig. 7. The PMT anode current measured for an undoped PbF sample (red
dashes) and a reference small PWO sample (blue lines) with light output of
20 p.e./MeV.
Fig. 8. The PMT anode photo-current measured for all doped PbF samples
(black solid dots and open circles) and the undoped PbF
sample (red solid
square).
doped samples. To further confirm this observation and to look
for any fast scintillation component with decay time of less than
afew
s the -ray excited pulse height spectrum was
measured for those doped PbF
samples listed in Table II. A
Hamamatsu R2059 PMT was used as the readout device. Figs. 9
and 10 show the pulse height spectra (red solid lines) for samples
Scintibow-1 and Scintibow-B21 respectively for an integration
time of
s. Also shown in these figures is the pulse height spec-
trum for an undoped PbF
sample (blue dashes). As expected
that there is very little difference between spectra obtained from
TABLE II
T
HE
PMT ANODE
CURRENT FOR
DOPED
PbF
SAMPLES.
Fig. 9.
Cs
-ray excited pulse height spectrum for doped PbF samples
Scintibow-1.
Fig. 10.
Cs
-ray excited pulse height spectrum for doped PbF samples
Scintibow-B21.
the doped and the undoped PbF samples, indicating that the
amount of the luminescence light observed in the
s gate is
too weak to show a peak. The result obtained with an integra-
tion gate up to
s is the same for all samples. This observa-
tion further confirmed the result obtained with the
-ray induced
anode current measurement described in the previous section.

MAO et al.: A SEARCH FOR SCINTILLATION IN DOPED CUBIC LEAD FLUORIDE CRYSTALS 3845
VI. SUMMARY
Because of its potential low cost, PbF
crystal is an attractive
material for the HHCAL detector concept proposed for future
high energy physics experiments. A search for scintillation was
carried out in a set of doped cubic PbF
crystal samples. Con-
sistent photo- and x-ray luminescence spectra were found in the
PbF
samples doped with Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, Pr, Sm and Tb. The
decay time of the Er, Eu, Ho, Sm and Tb doped samples was
found to be at a millisecond scale as expected from the f-f tran-
sition of these rare earth elements [11]. While some Eu doped
samples show
-ray induced anode photo-current larger than the
undoped sample the numerical result indicates that the scintil-
lation light, if any, is less than 3 p.e./MeV measured by a PMT
with bi-alkali photo-cathode. Their
-ray excited pulse
height spectra measured with up to
s integration gate were
also found identical to that of the undoped sample, confirming
that their luminescence is too weak to show a peak. Investiga-
tion will continue to search for scintillation in doped PbF
for
the HHCAL detector concept. The work will concentrate on se-
lective rare earth doping, other PbF
phases and mixtures [14].
A
CKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank Prof. Dingzhong Shen of
Scintibow and Prof. Guohao Ren of SIC for providing doped
PbF
samples used in this study.
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01 Aug 1993
TL;DR: In this paper, the properties of lead fluoride as a Cerenkov material for use in electromagnetic calorimetry were studied and a prototype calorimeter module consisting of a 5*5 array of 2.1-cm*2.5-cm crystals was built and tested in a test beam.
Abstract: The properties of lead fluoride as a Cerenkov material for use in electromagnetic calorimetry were studied. A prototype calorimeter module consisting of a 5*5 array of 2.1-cm*2.1-cm*18.5-cm crystals was built and tested in a test beam. Results are given on energy resolution, shower size, and e/ pi separation for electrons and pions in the range of 1-4 GeV. The light output was found to give >or=1000 photoelectrons per MeV in good quality crystals and to provide useful signals down to as low as 32 MeV. Measurements were made on radiation damage in lead fluoride using /sup 60/Co gamma rays and high energy ionizing particles, as well as on thermoluminescence after irradiation. It was found that only modest damage occurs up to a level of approximately 30 krad in large, calorimeter size crystals, and that the damage can be easily removed by optical bleaching. >

20 citations


"A Search for Scintillation in Doped..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Luminescence was observed in PbF single crystals at low temperature by several groups [6]–[8] for both orthorhombic ( -PbF ) and cubic phases....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a hybrid dual-readout calorimeter was used for the detection of hadronic showers induced by single hadrons and by multi-particle jets, and the effects of side leakage on the detector performance were investigated.
Abstract: Beam tests of a hybrid dual-readout calorimeter are described. The electromagnetic section of this instrument consists of 100 BGO crystals and the hadronic section is made of copper in which two types of optical fibers are embedded. The electromagnetic fraction of hadronic showers developing in this calorimeter system is estimated event by event from the relative amounts of Cherenkov light and scintillation light produced in the shower development. The benefits and limitations of this detector system for the detection of showers induced by single hadrons and by multiparticle jets are investigated. Effects of side leakage on the detector performance are also studied.

19 citations


"A Search for Scintillation in Doped..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It also takes advantage of the recently implemented dual readout approach to achieve good energy resolutions for hadronic jets by measuring both Cerenkov and scintillation light [2]....

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Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "A search for scintillation in doped cubic lead fluoride crystals" ?

In this paper, it was found that rare earth ions doped in the lead fluoride crystal may serve as luminescence centers.