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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/DIAGNOSTICS11030438

A Simple, Affordable, Rapid, Stabilized, Colorimetric, Versatile RT-LAMP Assay to Detect SARS-CoV-2

04 Mar 2021-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 438
Abstract: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced all countries worldwide to rapidly develop and implement widespread testing to control and manage the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) reverse-transcription (RT)-qPCR is the gold standard molecular diagnostic method for COVID-19, mostly in automated testing platforms These systems are accurate and effective, but also costly, time-consuming, high-technological, infrastructure-dependent, and currently suffer from commercial reagent supply shortages The reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) can be used as an alternative testing method Here, we present a novel versatile (real-time and colorimetric) RT-LAMP for the simple (one-step), affordable (~17 €/sample), and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 targeting both ORF1ab and N genes of the novel virus genome We demonstrate the assay on RT-qPCR-positive clinical samples, obtaining most positive results under 25 min In addition, a novel 30-min one-step drying protocol has been developed to stabilize the RT-LAMP reaction mixtures, allowing them to be stored at room temperature functionally for up to two months, as predicted by the Q10 This Dry-RT-LAMP methodology is suitable for potentially ready-to-use COVID-19 diagnosis After further testing and validation, it could be easily applied both in developed and in low-income countries yielding rapid and reliable results

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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13050742
Ali Bektaş, Michael F. Covington, Guy Aidelberg1, Anibal Arce2  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
23 Apr 2021-Viruses
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted bottlenecks in large-scale, frequent testing of populations for infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic tests are expensive, reliant on centralized labs, can take days to deliver results, and are prone to backlogs and supply shortages. Antigen tests that bind and detect the surface proteins of a virus are rapid and scalable but suffer from high false negative rates. To address this problem, an inexpensive, simple, and robust 60-minute do-it-yourself (DIY) workflow to detect viral RNA from nasal swabs or saliva with high sensitivity (0.1 to 2 viral particles/μL) and specificity (>97% true negative rate) utilizing reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed. ALERT (Accessible LAMP-Enabled Rapid Test) incorporates the following features: (1) increased shelf-life and ambient temperature storage, compared to liquid reaction mixes, by using wax layers to isolate enzymes from other reagents; (2) improved specificity compared to other LAMP end-point reporting methods, by using sequence-specific QUASR (quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters); (3) increased sensitivity, compared to methods without purification through use of a magnetic wand to enable pipette-free concentration of sample RNA and cell debris removal; (4) quality control with a nasopharyngeal-specific mRNA target; and (5) co-detection of other respiratory viruses, such as influenza B, by multiplexing QUASR-modified RT-LAMP primer sets. The flexible nature of the ALERT workflow allows easy, at-home and point-of-care testing for individuals and higher-throughput processing for labs and hospitals. With minimal effort, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific primer sets can be swapped out for other targets to repurpose ALERT to detect other viruses, microorganisms, or nucleic acid-based markers.

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7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ANALCHEM.1C03016
Abstract: Short of a vaccine, frequent and rapid testing, preferably at home, is the most effective strategy to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we report on single-stage and two-stage molecular diagnostic tests that can be carried out with simple or no instrumentation. Our single-stage amplification is reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) with custom-designed primers targeting the ORF1ab and the N gene regions of the virus genome. Our new two-stage amplification, dubbed Penn-RAMP, comprises recombinase isothermal amplification (RT-RPA) as its first stage and LAMP as its second stage. We compared various sample preparation strategies aimed at deactivating the virus while preserving its RNA and tested contrived and patient samples, consisting of nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, and saliva. Amplicons were detected either in real time with fluorescent intercalating dye or after amplification with the intercalating colorimetric dye LCV, which is insensitive to sample's PH. Our single RT-LAMP tests can be carried out instrumentation-free. To enable concurrent testing of multiple samples, we developed an inexpensive heat block that supports both the single-stage and two-stage amplification. Our RT-LAMP and Penn-RAMP assays have, respectively, analytical sensitivities of 50 and 5 virions/reaction. Both our single- and two-stage assays have successfully detected SARS-CoV-2 in patients with viral loads corresponding to the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) threshold cycle smaller than 32 while operating with minimally processed samples, without nucleic acid isolation. Penn-RAMP provides a 10-fold better sensitivity than RT-LAMP and does not need thermal cycling like PCR assays. All reagents are amenable to dry, refrigeration-free storage. The SARS-CoV-2 test described herein is suitable for screening at home, at the point of need, and in resource-poor settings.

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3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.02.18.21251793
Ali Bektaş, Michael F. Covington, Guy Aidelberg1, Anibal Arce2  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
20 Feb 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted bottlenecks in large-scale, frequent testing of populations for infections. PCR-based diagnostic tests are expensive, reliant on expensive centralized labs, can take days to deliver results, and are prone to backlogs and supply shortages. Antigen tests, that bind and detect the surface proteins of a virus, are rapid and inexpensive but suffer from high false negative rates. To address this problem, we have created an inexpensive, simple, and robust 60-minute Do-It-Yourself (DIY) workflow to detect viral RNA from nasal swabs or saliva with high sensitivity (0.1 to 2 viral particles/µl) and specificity (>97% True Negative Rate) utilizing reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Our workflow, ALERT (Accessible LAMP-Enabled Rapid Test), incorporates the following features: 1) Increased shelf-life and ambient temperature storage by using wax layers to isolate enzymes from reaction, 2) Improved specificity by using sequence-specific QUASR reporters, 3) Increased sensitivity through use of a magnetic wand to enable pipette-free concentration of sample RNA and cell debris removal, 4) Quality control with a nasopharyngeal-specific mRNA target, and 5) Co-detection of other respiratory viruses, such as Influenza B, by duplexing QUASR-modified RT-LAMP primer sets. The flexible nature of the ALERT workflow allows easy, at-home and point-of-care testing for individuals and higher-throughput processing for centralized labs and hospitals. With minimal effort, SARS-CoV-2-specific primer sets can be swapped out for other targets to repurpose ALERT to detect other viruses, microorganisms or nucleic acid-based markers.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1AY00481F
08 Jul 2021-Analytical Methods
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 currently represents a serious global public health problem. Non-pharmaceutical intervention measures (NPIs) have been widely adopted, and the testing strategy since the beginning of the infection is the most effective tool for tracking, isolating, and minimizing transmission. The high operating costs and the need for sophisticated instrumentation related to gold standard diagnostic for COVID-19, Reverse Transcription quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR), have highlighted the urgency and importance of developing and applying new diagnostic techniques, especially in places with scarce resources. Thus, alternative molecular tests, such as Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP), based on isothermal amplification have been used to detect SARS-CoV-2 using different protocols. The potential for field application of RT-LAMP is due to the lower cost and time and not requiring high-cost instrumentation. Here, we evaluate the colorimetric RT-LAMP to detect SARS-CoV-2 in a hospital environment and correlate its performance with tests performed in a reference laboratory. The analysis performed at the hospital showed high sensitivity (88.89%), specificity (98.55%), accuracy (95.83%), and a Cohen's kappa of 0.895. However, we achieved 100% of agreement when comparing the RT-LAMP results with the gold standard (qRT-PCR) results for samples with Ct < 30 in the hospital-based test. In addition, a similar performance was found in the field compared to the reference laboratory, corroborating the proposal to apply the test directly at point-of-care.

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1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.26.21257488
02 Jun 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemics unfolded due to the widespread SARS-CoV-2 transmission reinforced the urgent need for affordable molecular diagnostic alternative methods for massive testing screening. We present the clinical validation of a pH-dependent colorimetric RT-LAMP (reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification) for SARS-CoV-2 detection. The method revealed a limit of detection of 19.3 {+/-} 2.7 viral genomic copies/L when using RNA extracted samples obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs collected in guanidine-containing viral transport medium. Typical RT-LAMP reactions were performed at 65 {o}C for 30 min. When compared to RT-qPCR, up to Ct value 32, RT-LAMP presented 97% (87.4-99.4% 95% CI) sensitivity and 100% (86.2-100%) specificity for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection targeting N gene. No cross-reactivity was detected when testing other non-SARS-CoV virus, confirming high specificity. The test is compatible with primary RNA extraction free samples. We also demonstrated that colorimetric RT-LAMP can detect SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) and variants of interest (VOI), such as variants occurring in Brazil named P.1, P.2, B.1.1.374 and B.1.1.371. The method meets point-of-care requirements and can be deployed in the field for high-throughput COVID-19 testing campaigns, especially in countries where COVID-19 testing efforts are far from ideal to tackle the pandemics. Although RT-qPCR is considered the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection, it requires expensive equipments, infrastructure and highly trained personnel. In contrast, RT-LAMP emerges as an affordable, inexpensive and simple alternative for SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection that can be applied to massive COVID-19 testing campaigns and save lives.

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1 Citations


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54 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Chaolin Huang1, Yeming Wang2, Xingwang Li3, Lili Ren4  +25 moreInstitutions (8)
24 Jan 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not.

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26,390 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001017
Na Zhu1, Dingyu Zhang, Wenling Wang1, Xingwang Li2  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).

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Topics: Coronavirus (56.99%), Betacoronavirus (56%)

15,285 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2008-3
Fan Wu1, Su Zhao2, Bin Yu3, Yan-Mei Chen1  +17 moreInstitutions (4)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1–3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of the complete viral genome of a new coronavirus from the family Coronaviridae reveal that the virus is closely related to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses found in bats in China.

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Topics: Coronavirus (62%), Betacoronavirus (59%), Zika virus disease (54%) ... show more

6,266 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/28.12.E63
Abstract: We have developed a novel method, termed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), that amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions. This method employs a DNA polymerase and a set of four specially designed primers that recognize a total of six distinct sequences on the target DNA. An inner primer containing sequences of the sense and antisense strands of the target DNA initiates LAMP. The following strand displacement DNA synthesis primed by an outer primer releases a single-stranded DNA. This serves as template for DNA synthesis primed by the second inner and outer primers that hybridize to the other end of the target, which produces a stem–loop DNA structure. In subsequent LAMP cycling one inner primer hybridizes to the loop on the product and initiates displacement DNA synthesis, yielding the original stem–loop DNA and a new stem–loop DNA with a stem twice as long. The cycling reaction continues with accumulation of 109 copies of target in less than an hour. The final products are stem–loop DNAs with several inverted repeats of the target and cauliflower-like structures with multiple loops formed by annealing between alternately inverted repeats of the target in the same strand. Because LAMP recognizes the target by six distinct sequences initially and by four distinct sequences afterwards, it is expected to amplify the target sequence with high selectivity.

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Topics: DNA clamp (61%), Primer (molecular biology) (60%), Base pair (60%) ... show more

5,586 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7326/M20-3012
Daniel P Oran1, Eric J. Topol1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly throughout the world since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were observed in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It has been suspected that infected persons who remain asymptomatic play a significant role in the ongoing pandemic, but their relative number and effect have been uncertain. The authors sought to review and synthesize the available evidence on asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Asymptomatic persons seem to account for approximately 40% to 45% of SARS-CoV-2 infections, and they can transmit the virus to others for an extended period, perhaps longer than 14 days. Asymptomatic infection may be associated with subclinical lung abnormalities, as detected by computed tomography. Because of the high risk for silent spread by asymptomatic persons, it is imperative that testing programs include those without symptoms. To supplement conventional diagnostic testing, which is constrained by capacity, cost, and its one-off nature, innovative tactics for public health surveillance, such as crowdsourcing digital wearable data and monitoring sewage sludge, might be helpful.

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Topics: Asymptomatic (64%), Subclinical infection (61%)

1,325 Citations


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