A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues.
01 May 1957-Journal of Biological Chemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)-Vol. 226, Iss: 1, pp 497-509
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors described a simplified version of the method and reported the results of a study of its application to different tissues, including the efficiency of the washing procedure in terms of the removal from tissue lipides of some non-lipide substances of special biochemical interest.
About: This article is published in Journal of Biological Chemistry.The article was published on 1957-05-01 and is currently open access. It has received 59550 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Triglyceride transport.
TL;DR: The lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials that has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.
Abstract: Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can...
TL;DR: The procedure developed is simple, rapid, and generally applicable t o lipids, and the results did not affect the validity of the method.
TL;DR: Kinetic analysis indicates that TPA can substitute for diacylglycerol and greatly increases the affinity of the enzyme for Ca2+ as well as for phospholipid, and various phorbol derivatives which have been shown to be active in tumor promotion are also capable of activating this protein kinase in in vitro systems.
TL;DR: The effects of the ionic strength and pH of the hemolyzing solution on the hemoglobin content of human erythrocyte ghosts were studied in phosphate buffers and suggest an electrophysical interaction of hemoglobin with membrane constituents.
TL;DR: Discovery of a relationship between gut-flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease.
Abstract: Metabolomics studies hold promise for the discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Here we used a metabolomics approach to generate unbiased small-molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine—choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine—were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. Dietary supplementation of mice with choline, TMAO or betaine promoted upregulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or TMAO promoted atherosclerosis. Studies using germ-free mice confirmed a critical role for dietary choline and gut flora in TMAO production, augmented macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Suppression of intestinal microflora in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibited dietary-choline-enhanced atherosclerosis. Genetic variations controlling expression of flavin monooxygenases, an enzymatic source of TMAO, segregated with atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice. Discovery of a relationship between gut-flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease.
TL;DR: A simple method is described for the preparation of extracts of total pure lipides from brain tissue by homogenizing the tissue with a chloroform-methanol mixture and washing free of non-lipide contaminants.
TL;DR: The values for cerebrosides found in the current literature include gangliosides, and other investigators (JOHNSON, MCNABB, and ROSSITER, 1950; CUMINGS, 1953; BLACKWOOD and CUMings, 1954) have neglected the ganglariosides.
Abstract: THE extensive research work in the physiological and pathological processes in which lipids are involved has increased the necessity for accurate micromethods for their quantitative estimation. BRANTE (1949) reviewed modern micromethods for the determination of the lipids in nervous tissue, and made a thorough investigation of the various factors which may influence them. Like most other investigators, BRANTE determined the cerebroside content only by estimating the reducing substances in a lipid extract before and after hydrolysis. From the important work of KLENK and collaborators (KLENK, 1941, 1942; KLENK and LANGERBEINS, 1941 ; SCHUWIRTH. 1940) we know that cerebrosides are not the only lipids containing carbohydrates in the central nervous system. They have isolated gangliosides from the brain and determined their amount in different nervous tissues. Besides these two glycolipids, a third has been described by ARSOVE, FOLCH, and MEATH (1951a). They named the new lipid strandin, but my preparations like DAWN'S (1952), showed that strandin consisted of gangliosides in a different physico-chemical state contaminated with low-molecular substances and mucopolysaccharides. CHATAGNON and CHATAGNON (1953, 1954) have suggested that sphingomyelin is also a part of the complex. BRANTE (1949) discussed the interference of gangliosides on the cerebroside values, and we (BRANTE and SVENNERHOLM, 1949, 1951) determined both total glycolipids and gangliosides in some foetuses. Other investigators (JOHNSON, MCNABB, and ROSSITER, 1950; CUMINGS, 1953; BLACKWOOD and CUMINGS, 1954) have neglected the gangliosides. Therefore the values for cerebrosides found in the current literature include gangliosides. EDGAR (1955) who has thoroughly discussed the problem, used the term glyco-sphingosides instead of cerebrosides. He has also made some estimations of both gangliosides and cerebrosides. Consequently, the carbohydrates in a lipid extract are derived from at least two lipid sources. But lipid extracts are contaminated to some extent with low-molecular substances, partly of carbohydrate nature. It is impossible to remove them completely by the methods generally used, i.e., precipitation of the lipids before extraction or re-extraction of a primary lipid extract. Generally, the error introduced by the contaminants is negligible i n the determination of glycolipids in adult nervous tissue, but this is not so in foetal tissue, where the amount of glycolipids is low and that of the contaminants is both relatively and absolutely higher. FOLCH, ASCOLI, LEES. MEATH, and LEBARON (1951b), however, succeeded in removing these substanccs by partition dialysis. By this procedure the gangliosides too are separated from the other lipids. It therefore appeared that it might be possible to use this method to separate cerebrosides from other substances containing carbohydrates.
TL;DR: The isolation from brain tissue of a substance to which the name of strandin has been given for descriptive purposes is reported, which has the property of forming long strands that show perfect orientation under polarized light.
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