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Journal ArticleDOI

A Sociopsychological Conception of Collective Identity: The Case of National Identity as an Example

21 Aug 2009-Personality and Social Psychology Review (Pers Soc Psychol Rev)-Vol. 13, Iss: 4, pp 354-379
TL;DR: The present article delineates the complex structure of collective identity by incorporating two levels of analysis: the micro level and the macro level, which relates to individual society members’ recognition of and categorization as belonging to a group, with the accompanying cognitive, emotional, and behavioral consequences.
Abstract: The present article delineates the complex structure of collective identity by incorporating two levels of analysis. The first, the micro level, pertains to individual society members' recognition of and categorization as belonging to a group, with the accompanying cognitive, emotional, and behavioral consequences. The second, the macro level, pertains to the notion of collective identity that denotes the shared awareness by constituents of a society of being members of a collective. This level is founded on two pillars: One pillar consists of generic features that characterize the collective identity. These features apply to macro-level collectives and allow a comparison among them. The other pillar is particular and consists of content characteristics that provide the unique features of the collective identity. The conceptual framework is applied to the analysis of the national collective identity as a case example. The contributions and implications of the described conception are discussed.
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Book
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a typology of nationalisms in industrial and agro-literature societies, and a discussion of the difficulties of true nationalism in industrial societies.
Abstract: Series Editor's Preface. Introduction by John Breuilly. Acknowledgements. 1. Definitions. State and nation. The nation. 2. Culture in Agrarian Society. Power and culture in the agro-literature society. The varieties of agrarian rulers. 3. Industrial Society. The society of perpetual growth. Social genetics. The age of universal high culture. 4. The Transition to an Age of Nationalism. A note on the weakness of nationalism. Wild and garden culture. 5. What is a Nation. The course of true nationalism never did run smooth. 6. Social Entropy and Equality in Industrial Society. Obstacles to entropy. Fissures and barriers. A diversity of focus. 7. A Typology of Nationalisms. The varieties of nationalist experience. Diaspora nationalism. 8. The Future of Nationalism. Industrial culture - one or many?. 9. Nationalism and Ideology. Who is for Nuremberg?. One nation, one state. 10. Conclusion. What is not being said. Summary. Select bibliography. Bilbliography of Ernest Gellner's writing: Ian Jarvie. Index

2,912 citations

Book
01 Jan 1901

2,681 citations

Book
01 Jan 1985

1,861 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

958 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A book can be the best thing to discover and it seems to be greater when a book is the best book to discover as mentioned in this paper, however, many people sometimes have no space to bring the book for them; this is why they can't read the book wherever they want.
Abstract: Imagine that you get such certain awesome experience and knowledge by only reading a book. How can? It seems to be greater when a book can be the best thing to discover. Books now will appear in printed and soft file collection. One of them is this book human territoriality its theory and history. It is so usual with the printed books. However, many people sometimes have no space to bring the book for them; this is why they can't read the book wherever they want.

316 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of self as independent and a construpal of the Self as interdependent as discussed by the authors, and these divergent construals should have specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation.
Abstract: People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. Focusing on differences in self-construals enables apparently inconsistent empirical findings to be reconciled, and raises questions about what have been thought to be culture-free aspects of cognition, emotion, and motivation.

18,178 citations


"A Sociopsychological Conception of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Thus, for example, the behavioral expression of each of the collective identity’s components may be different in collectivist versus individualistic societies (e.g., Triandis, 1995) or in societies that focus on an interdependent versus independent construction of selfhood (Markus & Kitayama, 1991)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation, and people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds.
Abstract: A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.

17,492 citations


"A Sociopsychological Conception of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The first is called explicit, or “psychological centrality” (Stryker & Serpe, 1994), which refers to the individuals’ conscious appraisal of the importance (centrality) of their membership in the collective (Baumeister & Leary, 1995)....

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  • ...This need represents a person’s aspiration to create interpersonal relationships that are accompanied by positive emotions and that have some continuity over time (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Mack, 1983)....

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Book
01 Jan 1968
TL;DR: Erikson as mentioned in this paper describes a process that is located both in the core of the individual and in the inner space of the communal culture, and discusses the connection between individual struggles and social order.
Abstract: Identity, Erikson writes, is an unfathomable as it is all-pervasive. It deals with a process that is located both in the core of the individual and in the core of the communal culture. As the culture changes, new kinds of identity questions arise-Erikson comments, for example, on issues of social protest and changing gender roles that were particular to the 1960s. Representing two decades of groundbreaking work, the essays are not so much a systematic formulation of theory as an evolving report that is both clinical and theoretical. The subjects range from "creative confusion" in two famous lives-the dramatist George Bernard Shaw and the philosopher William James-to the connection between individual struggles and social order. "Race and the Wider Identity" and the controversial "Womanhood and the Inner Space" are included in the collection.

14,906 citations

01 Jan 2001

14,106 citations


"A Sociopsychological Conception of ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...As we begin this analysis, the theory of social identity (R. Brown, 2000b; Tajfel, 1981; Tajfel & Turner, 1979) is our starting point....

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  • ...Social identity theory claims that individuals draw their positive esteem from membership in groups (Tajfel & Turner, 1979)....

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Book
01 Dec 1934

10,737 citations