scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB285

A stripped-companion origin for Be stars: clues from the putative black holes HR 6819 and LB-1

02 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 502, Iss: 3, pp 3436-3455
Abstract: HR 6819 is a bright ($V=536$), blue star recently proposed to be a triple containing a detached black hole (BH) We show that the system is a binary and does not contain a BH Using spectral decomposition, we disentangle the observed composite spectra into two components: a rapidly rotating Be star and a slowly rotating B star with low surface gravity $(\log g \approx 275)$ Both stars show periodic radial velocity (RV) variability, but the RV semi-amplitude of the B star's orbit is $K_{\rm B}= (627 \pm 1)\,\rm km\,s^{-1}$, while that of the Be star is only $K_{\rm Be} = (45\pm 2)\,\rm km\,s^{-1}$ This implies that the B star is less massive by at least a factor of 10 The surface abundances of the B star bear imprints of CNO burning We argue that the B star is a bloated, recently stripped helium star with mass $\approx 05\,M_{\odot}$ that is currently contracting to become a hot subdwarf The orbital motion of the Be star obviates the need for a BH to explain the B star's motion A stripped-star model reproduces the observed luminosity of the system, while a normal star with the B star's temperature and gravity would be more than 10 times too luminous HR 6819 and the binary LB-1 probably formed through similar channels We use MESA models to investigate their evolutionary history, finding that they likely formed from intermediate-mass ($3-7\,M_{\odot}$) primaries stripped by slightly lower-mass secondaries and are progenitors to Be + sdOB binaries such as $\phi$ Persei The lifetime of their current evolutionary phase is on average $2\times 10^5$ years, of order half a percent of the total lifetime of the Be phase This implies that many Be stars have hot subdwarf and white dwarf companions, and that a substantial fraction ($20-100\%$) of field Be stars form through accretion of material from a binary companion

... read more

Topics: Be star (56%), White dwarf (56%), Subdwarf (54%) ... show more
Citations
  More

16 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ABE40D
Abstract: We present the merger rate density of Population (Pop.) III binary black holes (BHs) by means of a widely-used binary population synthesis code BSE with extensions to very massive and extreme metal-poor stars. We consider not only low-mass BHs (lBHs: $5-50 M_\odot$) but also high-mass BHs (hBHs: $130-200 M_\odot$), where lBHs and hBHs are below and above the pair-instability mass gap ($50-130 M_\odot$), respectively. Pop. III BH-BHs can be categorized into three subpopulations: BH-BHs without hBHs (hBH0s: $m_{\rm tot} \lesssim 100 M_\odot$), with one hBH (hBH1s: $m_{\rm tot} \sim 130-260 M_\odot$), and with two hBHs (hBH2s: $m_{\rm tot} \sim 270-400 M_\odot$), where $m_{\rm tot}$ is the total mass of a BH-BH. Their merger rate densities at the current universe are $\sim 0.1$ yr$^{-1}$ Gpc$^{-3}$ for hBH0s, and $\sim 0.01$ yr$^{-1}$ Gpc$^{-3}$ for the sum of hBH1s and hBH2s, provided that the mass density of Pop. III stars is $\sim 10^{13} M_\odot$ Gpc$^{-3}$. These rates are modestly insensitive to initial conditions and single star models. The hBH1 and hBH2 mergers can dominate BH-BHs with hBHs discovered in near future. They have low effective spins $\lesssim 0.2$ in the current universe. The number ratio of the hBH2s to the hBH1s is high, $\gtrsim 0.1$. We also find BHs in the mass gap (up to $\sim 85 M_\odot$) merge. These merger rates can be reduced to nearly zero if Pop. III binaries are always wide ($\gtrsim 100 R_\odot$), and if Pop. III stars always enter into chemically homogeneous evolution. The presence of close Pop. III binaries ($\sim 10 R_\odot$) are crucial for avoiding the worst scenario.

... read more

26 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ABE40D
Abstract: We present the merger rate density of Population (Pop.) III binary black holes (BHs) by means of a widely-used binary population synthesis code BSE with extensions to very massive and extreme metal-poor stars. We consider not only low-mass BHs (lBHs: $5-50 M_\odot$) but also high-mass BHs (hBHs: $130-200 M_\odot$), where lBHs and hBHs are below and above the pair-instability mass gap ($50-130 M_\odot$), respectively. Pop. III BH-BHs can be categorized into three subpopulations: BH-BHs without hBHs (hBH0s: $m_{\rm tot} \lesssim 100 M_\odot$), with one hBH (hBH1s: $m_{\rm tot} \sim 130-260 M_\odot$), and with two hBHs (hBH2s: $m_{\rm tot} \sim 270-400 M_\odot$), where $m_{\rm tot}$ is the total mass of a BH-BH. Their merger rate densities at the current universe are $\sim 0.1$ yr$^{-1}$ Gpc$^{-3}$ for hBH0s, and $\sim 0.01$ yr$^{-1}$ Gpc$^{-3}$ for the sum of hBH1s and hBH2s, provided that the mass density of Pop. III stars is $\sim 10^{13} M_\odot$ Gpc$^{-3}$. These rates are modestly insensitive to initial conditions and single star models. The hBH1 and hBH2 mergers can dominate BH-BHs with hBHs discovered in near future. They have low effective spins $\lesssim 0.2$ in the current universe. The number ratio of the hBH2s to the hBH1s is high, $\gtrsim 0.1$. We also find BHs in the mass gap (up to $\sim 85 M_\odot$) merge. These merger rates can be reduced to nearly zero if Pop. III binaries are always wide ($\gtrsim 100 R_\odot$), and if Pop. III stars always enter into chemically homogeneous evolution. The presence of close Pop. III binaries ($\sim 10 R_\odot$) are crucial for avoiding the worst scenario.

... read more

23 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB907
Abstract: We report the discovery of the closest known black hole candidate as a binary companion to V723 Mon. V723 Mon is a nearby ($d\sim460\,\rm pc$), bright ($V\simeq8.3$~mag), evolved ($T_{\rm eff, giant}\simeq4440$ K, $L_{\rm giant}\simeq173~L_\odot$ and $R_{\rm giant}\simeq22 ~R_\odot$) red giant in a high mass function, $f(M)=1.72\pm 0.01~M_\odot$, nearly circular binary ($P=59.9$ d, $e\simeq 0$). V723 Mon is a known variable star, previously classified as an eclipsing binary, but its ASAS, KELT, and TESS light curves are those of a nearly edge-on ellipsoidal variable. Detailed models of the light curves constrained by the period, radial velocities and stellar temperature give an inclination of $i=87.0^\circ \pm 1.0^\circ$, a mass ratio of $q\simeq0.30\pm0.02$, a companion mass of $M_{\rm comp}=2.91\pm0.08~M_\odot$, a stellar radius of $R_{\rm giant}=23.6\pm1.0~R_\odot$, and a giant mass of $M_{\rm giant}=0.87\pm0.08~ M_\odot$. We identify a likely non-stellar, diffuse veiling component with contributions in the $B$ and $V$-band of ${\sim}64\%$ and ${\sim}23\%$, respectively. The SED and the absence of continuum eclipses imply that the companion mass must be dominated by a compact object. We do observe eclipses of the Balmer lines when the dark companion passes behind the giant, but their velocity spreads are low compared to observed accretion disks. The X-ray luminosity of the system is $L_{\rm X}\simeq1.0\times10^{30}~\rm ergs~s^{-1}$, corresponding to $L/L_{\rm edd}{\sim}10^{-9}$.The simplest explanation for the massive companion is a single compact object, most likely a black hole in the "mass gap", although a double neutron star binary is possible.

... read more

Topics: Continuum (set theory) (69%), Mass ratio (54%)

14 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202140507
J. Bodensteiner1, Hugues Sana, Chen Wang, Norbert Langer  +9 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Observations of massive stars in young open clusters (< ~8 Myr) have shown that a majority of them are in binary systems, most of which will interact during their life. Populations of massive stars older than ~20 Myr allow us to probe the outcome of such interactions after many systems have experienced mass and angular momentum transfer. Using multi-epoch integral-field spectroscopy, we investigate the multiplicity properties of the massive-star population in NGC 330 (~40 Myr) in the Small Magellanic Cloud to search for imprints of stellar evolution on the multiplicity properties. From six epochs of VLT/MUSE observations supported by adaptive optics we extract spectra and measure radial velocities for stars brighter than F814W = 19. We identify single-lined spectroscopic binaries through significant RV variability as well as double-lined spectroscopic binaries, and quantify the observational biases for binary detection. The observed spectroscopic binary fraction is 13.2+/-2.0 %. Considering period and mass ratio ranges from log(P)=0.15-3.5, and q = 0.1-1.0, and a representative set of orbital parameter distributions, we find a bias-corrected close binary fraction of 34 +8 -7 %. This seems to decline for the fainter stars, which indicates either that the close binary fraction drops in the B-type domain, or that the period distribution becomes more heavily weighted towards longer orbital periods. Both fractions vary strongly in different regions of the color-magnitude diagram which probably reveals the imprint of the binary history of different groups of stars. We provide the first homogeneous RV study of a large sample of B-type stars at a low metallicity. The overall bias-corrected close binary fraction of B stars in NGC 330 is lower than the one reported for younger Galactic and LMC clusters. More data are needed to establish whether this result from an age or a metallicty effect.

... read more

Topics: Open cluster (59%), Stars (57%), Metallicity (57%) ... show more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202140507
J. Bodensteiner1, Hugues Sana1, Chen Wang2, Norbert Langer2  +13 moreInstitutions (10)
Abstract: The authors acknowledge support from the FWO_Odysseus program under project G0F8H6N and from the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) through the PRODEX Programme. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement numbers 772225: MULTIPLES). Parts of the analysis in this project are based on the python code photutils.

... read more

Topics: European union (59%), Science policy (52%), Population (52%)

5 Citations


References
  More

103 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/305772
Abstract: We present a full-sky 100 μm map that is a reprocessed composite of the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA maps, with the zodiacal foreground and confirmed point sources removed. Before using the ISSA maps, we remove the remaining artifacts from the IRAS scan pattern. Using the DIRBE 100 and 240 μm data, we have constructed a map of the dust temperature so that the 100 μm map may be converted to a map proportional to dust column density. The dust temperature varies from 17 to 21 K, which is modest but does modify the estimate of the dust column by a factor of 5. The result of these manipulations is a map with DIRBE quality calibration and IRAS resolution. A wealth of filamentary detail is apparent on many different scales at all Galactic latitudes. In high-latitude regions, the dust map correlates well with maps of H I emission, but deviations are coherent in the sky and are especially conspicuous in regions of saturation of H I emission toward denser clouds and of formation of H2 in molecular clouds. In contrast, high-velocity H I clouds are deficient in dust emission, as expected. To generate the full-sky dust maps, we must first remove zodiacal light contamination, as well as a possible cosmic infrared background (CIB). This is done via a regression analysis of the 100 μm DIRBE map against the Leiden-Dwingeloo map of H I emission, with corrections for the zodiacal light via a suitable expansion of the DIRBE 25 μm flux. This procedure removes virtually all traces of the zodiacal foreground. For the 100 μm map no significant CIB is detected. At longer wavelengths, where the zodiacal contamination is weaker, we detect the CIB at surprisingly high flux levels of 32 ± 13 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 μm and of 17 ± 4 nW m-2 sr-1 at 240 μm (95% confidence). This integrated flux ~2 times that extrapolated from optical galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field. The primary use of these maps is likely to be as a new estimator of Galactic extinction. To calibrate our maps, we assume a standard reddening law and use the colors of elliptical galaxies to measure the reddening per unit flux density of 100 μm emission. We find consistent calibration using the B-R color distribution of a sample of the 106 brightest cluster ellipticals, as well as a sample of 384 ellipticals with B-V and Mg line strength measurements. For the latter sample, we use the correlation of intrinsic B-V versus Mg2 index to tighten the power of the test greatly. We demonstrate that the new maps are twice as accurate as the older Burstein-Heiles reddening estimates in regions of low and moderate reddening. The maps are expected to be significantly more accurate in regions of high reddening. These dust maps will also be useful for estimating millimeter emission that contaminates cosmic microwave background radiation experiments and for estimating soft X-ray absorption. We describe how to access our maps readily for general use.

... read more

Topics: Spinning dust (62%), Zodiacal light (57%), Cosmic infrared background (56%) ... show more

15,382 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/305772
Abstract: We present a full sky 100 micron map that is a reprocessed composite of the COBE/DIRBE and IRAS/ISSA maps, with the zodiacal foreground and confirmed point sources removed. Before using the ISSA maps, we remove the remaining artifacts from the IRAS scan pattern. Using the DIRBE 100 micron and 240 micron data, we have constructed a map of the dust temperature, so that the 100 micron map can be converted to a map proportional to dust column density. The result of these manipulations is a map with DIRBE-quality calibration and IRAS resolution. To generate the full sky dust maps, we must first remove zodiacal light contamination as well as a possible cosmic infrared background (CIB). This is done via a regression analysis of the 100 micron DIRBE map against the Leiden- Dwingeloo map of H_I emission, with corrections for the zodiacal light via a suitable expansion of the DIRBE 25 micron flux. For the 100 micron map, no significant CIB is detected. In the 140 micron and 240 micron maps, where the zodiacal contamination is weaker, we detect the CIB at surprisingly high flux levels of 32 \pm 13 nW/m^2/sr at 140 micron, and 17 \pm 4 nW/m^2/sr at 240 micron (95% confidence). This integrated flux is ~2 times that extrapolated from optical galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field. The primary use of these maps is likely to be as a new estimator of Galactic extinction. We demonstrate that the new maps are twice as accurate as the older Burstein-Heiles estimates in regions of low and moderate reddening. These dust maps will also be useful for estimating millimeter emission that contaminates CMBR experiments and for estimating soft X-ray absorption.

... read more

13,819 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/167900
Abstract: The parameterized extinction data of Fitzpatrick and Massa (1986, 1988) for the ultraviolet and various sources for the optical and near-infrared are used to derive a meaningful average extinction law over the 3.5 micron to 0.125 wavelength range which is applicable to both diffuse and dense regions of the interstellar medium. The law depends on only one parameter R(V) = A(V)/E(B-V). An analytic formula is given for the mean extinction law which can be used to calculate color excesses or to deredden observations. The validity of the law over a large wavelength interval suggests that the processes which modify the sizes and compositions of grains are stochastic in nature and very efficient.

... read more

Topics: Extinction (astronomy) (56%)

10,948 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1023/A:1005161325181
Nicolas Grevesse1, A. J. Sauval1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We review the current status of our knowledge of the chemical composition of the Sun, essentially derived from the analysis of the solar photospheric spectrum. The comparison of solar and meteoritic abundances confirms that there is a very good agreement between the two sets of abundances. They are used to construct a Standard Abundance Distribution.

... read more

Topics: Abundance (ecology) (51%)

3,127 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Nov 2010-
Abstract: 1. Accreting neutron stars and black holes: a decade of discoveries D. Psaltis 2. Rapid X-ray variability M. van der Klis 3. New views of thermonuclear bursts T. Strohmayer and L. Bildsten 4. Black hole binaries J. McClintock and R. Remillard 5. Optical, ultraviolet and infrared observations of X-ray binaries P. Charles and M. Coe 6. Fast X-ray transients and X-ray flashes J. Heise and J. in 't Zand 7. Isolated neutron stars V. Kaspi, M. Roberts and A. Harding 8. Globular cluster X-ray sources F. Verbunt and W. Lewin 9. Jets from X-ray binaries R. Fender 10. X-Rays from cataclysmic variables E. Kuulkers, A. Norton, A. Schwope and B. Warner 11. Super soft sources P. Kahabka and E. van den Heuvel 12. Compact stellar X-ray sources in normal galaxies G. Fabbiano and N. White 13. Accretion in compact binaries A. King 14. Soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars: magnetar candidates P. Woods and C. Thompson 15. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts, their afterglows, and their host galaxies K. Hurley, R. Sari and S. Djorgovski 16. Formation and evolution of compact stellar X-ray sources T. Tauris and E. van den Heuvel.

... read more

Topics: Ultraluminous X-ray source (58%), X-ray binary (55%), Anomalous X-ray pulsar (55%) ... show more

3,058 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20219
20206
20141
Network Information