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Book ChapterDOI

A Study on Cross-Layer TCP Performance in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

07 Aug 2018-pp 56-70
TL;DR: By exchanging the data among different layers in cross layer design, the performance of wireless networks is improved and cross-layer approaches between network layer and transport layer to improve TCP’s performance are focused on.
Abstract: Transmission control protocol (TCP) performing better in a wired network, but not in wireless ad hoc network. Wireless ad hoc network has special characteristics like as node can move freely and a shared channel. Due to those characteristic, TCP facing some problems in wireless ad-hoc networks like as link failure, channel contention and high BER. The performance of TCP depredates due to these above-mentioned factors. The research community has been suggested some approaches to improve the performance of TCP in wireless ad hoc network. By exchanging the data among different layers in cross layer design, the performance of wireless networks is improved. This paper focuses on cross-layer approaches between network layer and transport layer to improve TCP’s performance.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2023-2
TL;DR: In this paper , the applicability of basalt as a reinforcing agent in polymer composites has been investigated and the results show that basalt is better than glass reinforced composites.
Abstract: Accordingly, many engineering designers have improved the wear friction performance of such materials. Also, the use of polymers as reinforcements in their endeavors has been done to improve intrinsic performance. Intrinsic properties played an important role in intrinsic polymer orientations, improving the cohesion of some reinforcement while at the same time worsening those Effects Woven glass, carbon and amethyst polymeric composites Inter-laminar shear strength and abrasion composites samples. Wear properties are calculated using machine and testing machine in computer aided universal testing. Fracture of composites showed surface modifications for Group bonding. The mechanical properties of basalt are better than glass reinforced composites the result of the study confirms the applicability of basalt as a reinforcing agent in polymer composites. Hybrid Mechanical Processes Ultrasonic assisted laser/water jet machining processes are used to solve machining problems related to insulating ceramics such as ultrasonic assisted discharge machining, discharge milling, electro-chemical discharge machining and powder hybrid discharge machining and discharge diamond grinding. Processes can create complex patterns in spark discharges. An attempt has been made here to compare the convex stability with the above cast iron and polymer impregnated mechanical properties.
References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Feb 1999
TL;DR: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure and the proposed routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic self starting network, as required by users wishing to utilize ad- hoc networks.
Abstract: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure. We present Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), a novel algorithm for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. Each mobile host operates as a specialized router, and routes are obtained as needed (i.e., on-demand) with little or no reliance on periodic advertisements. Our new routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic self starting network, as required by users wishing to utilize ad-hoc networks. AODV provides loop-free routes even while repairing broken links. Because the protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, the demand on the overall bandwidth available to the mobile nodes is substantially less than in those protocols that do necessitate such advertisements. Nevertheless we can still maintain most of the advantages of basic distance vector routing mechanisms. We show that our algorithm scales to large populations of mobile nodes wishing to form ad-hoc networks. We also include an evaluation methodology and simulation results to verify the operation of our algorithm.

11,360 citations

01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a protocol for routing in ad hoc networks that uses dynamic source routing, which adapts quickly to routing changes when host movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which hosts move less frequently.
Abstract: An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. In such an environment, it may be necessary for one mobile host to enlist the aid of other hosts in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile host’s wireless transmissions. This paper presents a protocol for routing in ad hoc networks that uses dynamic source routing. The protocol adapts quickly to routing changes when host movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which hosts move less frequently. Based on results from a packet-level simulation of mobile hosts operating in an ad hoc network, the protocol performs well over a variety of environmental conditions such as host density and movement rates. For all but the highest rates of host movement simulated, the overhead of the protocol is quite low, falling to just 1% of total data packets transmitted for moderate movement rates in a network of 24 mobile hosts. In all cases, the difference in length between the routes used and the optimal route lengths is negligible, and in most cases, route lengths are on average within a factor of 1.01 of optimal.

8,614 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: This paper presents a protocol for routing in ad hoc networks that uses dynamic source routing that adapts quickly to routing changes when host movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which hosts move less frequently.
Abstract: An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. In such an environment, it may be necessary for one mobile host to enlist the aid of other hosts in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile host’s wireless transmissions. This paper presents a protocol for routing in ad hoc networks that uses dynamic source routing. The protocol adapts quickly to routing changes when host movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which hosts move less frequently. Based on results from a packet-level simulation of mobile hosts operating in an ad hoc network, the protocol performs well over a variety of environmental conditions such as host density and movement rates. For all but the highest rates of host movement simulated, the overhead of the protocol is quite low, falling to just 1% of total data packets transmitted for moderate movement rates in a network of 24 mobile hosts. In all cases, the difference in length between the routes used and the optimal route lengths is negligible, and in most cases, route lengths are on average within a factor of 1.01 of optimal.

8,256 citations

15 Feb 1999
TL;DR: A new metric, expected throughput, is introduced for the comparison of throughput in multi-hop networks, and then used to show how the use of explicit link failure notification (ELFN) techniques can significantly improve TCP performance.
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks have gained a lot of attention lately as a means of providing continuous network connectivity to mobile computing devices regardless of physical location. Recently, a large amount of research has focused on the routing protocols needed in such an environment. In this two-part report, we investigate the effects that link breakage due to mobility has on TCP performance. Through simulation, we show that TCP throughput drops significantly when nodes move because of TCP''s inability to recognize the difference between link failure and congestion. We also analyze specific examples, such as a situation where throughput is zero for a particular connection. We introduce a new metric, expected throughput, for the comparison of throughput in multi-hop networks, and then use this metric to show how the use of explicit link failure notification (ELFN) techniques can significantly improve TCP performance. In Part I of this report, we presented the problem and an analysis of the simulation results. In this paper (Part II of the report), we present the simulation in more detail and provide additional results.

880 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the effects that link breakage due to mobility has on TCP performance and show that TCP throughput drops significantly when nodes move, due to TCP's inability to recognize the difference between link failure and congestion.
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks have attracted attention lately as a means of providing continuous network connectivity to mobile computing devices regardless of physical location. Recent research has focused primarily on the routing protocols needed in such an environment. In this paper, we investigate the effects that link breakage due to mobility has on TCP performance. Through simulation, we show that TCP throughput drops significantly when nodes move, due to TCP's inability to recognize the difference between link failure and congestion. We also analyze specific examples, such as a situation where throughput is zero for a particular connection. We introduce a new metric, expected throughput, for the comparison of throughput in multi-hop networks, and then use this metric to show how the use of explicit link failure notification (ELFN) techniques can significantly improve TCP performance.

543 citations