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Journal ArticleDOI

A Study on depression among transgenders residing in Chennai district, Tamil Nadu.

TL;DR: A Study on Depression among Transgender Residing In Chennai District, Tamil Nadu and how to cite this article: Prasanth BK, Mahalakshmi K, Umadevi R, Anantha Eashwar VM; Natl J Community Med 2022;13(2):96-99.
Abstract: Financial Support: None declared Conflict of Interest: None declared Date of Submission: 02-01-2022 Date of Acceptance: 28-01-2022 Date of Publication: 28-02-2022 Correspondence: Dr.VM Anantha Eashwar (Email: eashwaranand@yahoo.in) Copy Right: The Journal retains the copyrights of this article. However, reproduction is permissible with due acknowledgement of the source. National Journal of Community Medicine│Volume 13│Issue 02│February 2022 Page 96 How to cite this article: Prasanth BK, Mahalakshmi K, Umadevi R, Anantha Eashwar VM. A Study on Depression among Transgender Residing In Chennai District, Tamil Nadu. Natl J Community Med 2022;13(2):96-99. DOI: 10.5455/njcm.20220102030123 ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE pISSN 0976 3325│eISSN 2229 6816 Open Access Article (CC BY-SA) www.njcmindia.org DOI: 10.5455/njcm.20220102030123 A Study on Depression among Transgender Residing In Chennai District, Tamil Nadu Krishna Prasanth B1, Mahalakshmi K2, Umadevi R3, Anantha Eashwar VM4 1Research Scholar, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai 2Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College & Hospital, Chennai 3Professor & Head, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai 4Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical and Hospital, Chrompet, Chennai

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings support the minority stress model and suggest that prevention needs to confront social structures, norms, and attitudes that produce minority stress for gender-variant people and enhance peer support; and improve access to mental health and social services that affirm transgender identity and promote resilience.
Abstract: Objectives. We assessed the association between minority stress, mental health, and potential ameliorating factors in a large, community-based, geographically diverse sample of the US transgender population.Methods. In 2003, we recruited through the Internet a sample of 1093 male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons, stratified by gender. Participants completed an online survey that included standardized measures of mental health. Guided by the minority stress model, we evaluated associations between stigma and mental health and tested whether indicators of resilience (family support, peer support, identity pride) moderated these associations.Results. Respondents had a high prevalence of clinical depression (44.1%), anxiety (33.2%), and somatization (27.5%). Social stigma was positively associated with psychological distress. Peer support (from other transgender people) moderated this relationship. We found few differences by gender identity.Conclusions. Our findings support the minority stres...

1,141 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High HIV prevalence suggests an urgent need for risk reduction interventions for male-to-female transgender persons and recent contact with medical providers was observed, suggesting that medical providers could provide an important link to needed prevention, health, and social services.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study described HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons and determined factors associated with HIV. METHODS: We recruited transgender persons through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals; 392 male-to-female and 123 female-to-male transgender persons were interviewed and tested for HIV. RESULTS: HIV prevalence among male-to-female transgender persons was 35%. African American race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82, 11.96), a history of injection drug use (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.56, 4.62), multiple sex partners (adjusted OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.50, 4.62), and low education (adjusted OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.68) were independently associated with HIV. Among female-to-male transgender persons, HIV prevalence (2%) and risk behaviors were much lower. Most male-to-female (78%) and female-to-male (83%) transgender persons had seen a medical provider in the past 6 months. Sixty-two percent of the male-to-female and 55% of the female-to-male transgender persons were depressed; 32% of each population had attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: High HIV prevalence suggests an urgent need for risk reduction interventions for male-to-female transgender persons. Recent contact with medical providers was observed, suggesting that medical providers could provide an important link to needed prevention, health, and social services.

758 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest the need for practitioners to focus on interventions that reduce avoidant coping strategies, while simultaneously increasing social support, in order to improve mental health for transgender individuals.
Abstract: Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine facilitative and avoidant coping as mediators between distress and transition status, social support, and loss. Method A total of 351 transgender individuals (n = 226 transgender women and n = 125 transgender men) participated in this study. Participants completed measures on transgender identity, family history of mental health concerns, perceptions of loss, coping, depression, and anxiety. Results The rates of depressive symptoms (51.4% for transgender women; 48.3% for transgender men) and anxiety (40.4% for transgender women; 47.5% for transgender men) within the current study far surpass the rates of those for the general population. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data-2 separate models were hypothesized, based on reports of anxiety or depression. The SEM results suggest that the processes for transgender women and transgender men are primarily similar for depression and anxiety; avoidant coping served as a mediator between transition status and both distress variables. Social support was directly related to distress variables, as well as indirectly related through avoidant coping. Conclusion Results suggest the need for practitioners to focus on interventions that reduce avoidant coping strategies, while simultaneously increasing social support, in order to improve mental health for transgender individuals. Individuals who are in the beginning stages of their transition will use different coping strategies than those who are in later stages; interventions should be adjusted on the basis of the transition status of transgender clients.

494 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For THSW, psychological vulnerability must be addressed in counseling, support groups, and health promotion programs specifically tailored to race/ethnicity.
Abstract: Objectives. We determined racial/ethnic differences in social support and exposure to violence and transphobia, and explored correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work (THSW).Methods. A total of 573 THSW who worked or resided in San Francisco or Oakland, California, were recruited through street outreach and referrals and completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire.Results. More than half of Latina and White participants were depressed on the basis of Center For Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. About three quarters of White participants reported ever having suicidal ideation, of whom 64% reported suicide attempts. Half of the participants reported being physically assaulted, and 38% reported being raped or sexually assaulted before age 18 years. White and African American participants reported transphobia experiences more frequently than did others. Social support, transphobia, suicidal ideation, and levels of income and ed...

355 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Interventions for younger MTFs are needed to reduce the psychological impact of gender abuse and limit the effects of this abuse on high-risk sexual behavior, as well as the efficacy of peer-based interventions in which older M TFs teach their younger counterparts how to cope with this abuse.
Abstract: Objectives. We examined gender abuse and depressive symptoms as risk factors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI) among male-to-female transgender persons (MTFs).Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study of factors associated with incident HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydia, and gonorrhea among 230 MTFs from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included Cox proportional hazards analysis with time varying covariates.Results. Among younger MTFs (aged 19–30 years), gender abuse predicted depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 20), and gender abuse combined with depressive symptoms predicted both high-risk sexual behavior (unprotected receptive anal intercourse) and incident HIV/STI. These associations were independent of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sexual orientation, hormone therapy, and sexual reassignment surgery.Conclusions. Gender abuse is a fundamental distal risk factor for HIV/STI among younger MTFs. Interventio...

167 citations