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Journal ArticleDOI

A survey of perceptual evaluations and requirements of three-dimensional TV

01 Mar 2004-IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)-Vol. 14, Iss: 3, pp 381-391
TL;DR: The perceptual requirements for 3-D TV that can be extracted from the literature are summarized and issues that require further investigation are addressed in order for 3D TV to be a success.
Abstract: A high-quality three-dimensional (3-D) broadcast service (3-D TV) is becoming increasingly feasible based on various recent technological developments combined with an enhanced understanding of 3-D perception and human factors issues surrounding 3-D TV. In this paper, 3-D technology and perceptually relevant issues, in particular 3-D image quality and visual comfort, in relation to 3-D TV systems are reviewed. The focus is on near-term displays for broadcast-style single- and multiple-viewer systems. We discuss how an image quality model for conventional two-dimensional images needs to be modified to be suitable for image quality research for 3-D TV. In this respect, studies are reviewed that have focused on the relationship between subjective attributes of 3-D image quality and physical system parameters that induce them (e.g., parameter choices in image acquisition, compression, and display). In particular, artifacts that may arise in 3-D TV systems are addressed, such as keystone distortion, depth-plane curvature, puppet theater effect, cross talk, cardboard effect, shear distortion, picket-fence effect, and image flipping. In conclusion, we summarize the perceptual requirements for 3-D TV that can be extracted from the literature and address issues that require further investigation in order for 3-D TV to be a success.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The importance of various causes and aspects of visual discomfort is clarified and three-dimensional artifacts resulting from insufficient depth information in the incoming data signal yielding spatial and temporal inconsistencies are believed to be the most pertinent.
Abstract: Visual discomfort has been the subject of considerable research in relation to stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays. In this paper, the importance of various causes and aspects of visual discomfort is clarified. When disparity values do not surpass a limit of 1°, which still provides sufficient range to allow satisfactory depth perception in stereoscopic television, classical determinants such as excessive binocular parallax and accommodation-vergence conflict appear to be of minor importance. Visual discomfort, however, may still occur within this limit and we believe the following factors to be the most pertinent in contributing to this: (1) temporally changing demand of accommodation-vergence linkage, e.g., by fast motion in depth; (2) three-dimensional artifacts resulting from insufficient depth information in the incoming data signal yielding spatial and temporal inconsistencies; and (3) unnatural blur. In order to ad- equately characterize and understand visual discomfort, multiple types of measurements, both objective and subjective, are required. © 2009 Society for Imaging Science and Technology. DOI: 10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2009.53.3.030201

990 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic, comprehensive and up-to-date review of perceptual visual quality metrics (PVQMs) to predict picture quality according to human perception.

895 citations


Cites methods from "A survey of perceptual evaluations ..."

  • ...In addition, there is a call for new methodology to assess perceptual quality of IPTV, HDTV, 3D and multi-view data, with the progress in the related technology [6,44,96,103], since most of the existing metrics are for standard-definition and single-view visual data....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A quality metric for the assessment of stereopairs is proposed using the fusion of 2D quality metrics and of the depth information and is evaluated using the SAMVIQ methodology for subjective assessment.
Abstract: Several metrics have been proposed in literature to assess the perceptual quality of two-dimensional images. However, no similar effort has been devoted to quality assessment of stereoscopic images. Therefore, in this paper, we review the different issues related to 3D visualization, and we propose a quality metric for the assessment of stereopairs using the fusion of 2D quality metrics and of the depth information. The proposed metric is evaluated using the SAMVIQ methodology for subjective assessment. Specifically, distortions deriving from coding are taken into account and the quality degradation of the stereopair is estimated by means of subjective tests.

391 citations


Cites background from "A survey of perceptual evaluations ..."

  • ...Then, considering one 3D imaging system, e ffects such ascrosstalkbetweenviews,key-stonedistortion,depth-plane curvature, puppet theater e ffect, cardboard e ffect, shear distortion, picket-fence e ffect,and imageflipping canappear [ 12 ]. Also, compared to bidimensional data, raw stereo data representation requires higher storage capacity and higher bandwidth for transmission....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the importance of various causes and aspects of visual discomfort was clarified and the following factors were identified: (1) excessive demand of accommodation-convergence linkage, e.g., by fast motion in depth, viewed at short distances, 3D artefacts resulting from insufficient depth information in the incoming data signal yielding spatial and temporal inconsistencies, and unnatural amounts of blur.
Abstract: Visual discomfort has been the subject of considerable research in relation to stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays, but remains an ambiguous concept used to denote a variety of subjective symptoms potentially related to different underlying processes. In this paper we clarify the importance of various causes and aspects of visual comfort. Classical causative factors such as excessive binocular parallax and accommodation-convergence conflict appear to be of minor importance when disparity values do not surpass one degree limit of visual angle, which still provides sufficient range to allow for satisfactory depth perception in consumer applications, such as stereoscopic television. Visual discomfort, however, may still occur within this limit and we believe the following factors to be the most pertinent in contributing to this: (1) excessive demand of accommodation-convergence linkage, e.g., by fast motion in depth, viewed at short distances, (2) 3D artefacts resulting from insufficient depth information in the incoming data signal yielding spatial and temporal inconsistencies, and (3) unnatural amounts of blur. In order to adequately characterize and understand visual discomfort, multiple types of measurements, both objective and subjective, are needed.

293 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The LIVE 3D IQA database is explained, which is the first publicly available 3DIQA database that incorporates ‘true’ depth information along with stereoscopic pairs and human opinion scores, and is available for researchers in the field to use in order to enable objective comparisons of future algorithms.
Abstract: Stereoscopic/3D image and video quality assessment (IQA/VQA) has become increasing relevant in today's world, owing to the amount of attention that has recently been focused on 3D/stereoscopic cinema, television, gaming, and mobile video. Understanding the quality of experience of human viewers as they watch 3D videos is a complex and multi-disciplinary problem. Toward this end we offer a holistic assessment of the issues that are encountered, survey the progress that has been made towards addressing these issues, discuss ongoing efforts to resolve them, and point up the future challenges that need to be focused on. Important tools in the study of the quality of 3D visual signals are databases of 3D image and video sets, distorted versions of these signals and the results of large-scale studies of human opinions of their quality. We explain the construction of one such tool, the LIVE 3D IQA database, which is the first publicly available 3D IQA database that incorporates ‘true’ depth information along with stereoscopic pairs and human opinion scores. We describe the creation of the database and analyze the performance of a variety of 2D and 3D quality models using the new database. The database as well as the algorithms evaluated are available for researchers in the field to use in order to enable objective comparisons of future algorithms. Finally, we broadly summarize the field of 3D QA focusing on key unresolved problems including stereoscopic distortions, 3D masking, and algorithm development.

280 citations

References
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Book
15 Jan 1958

3,060 citations

Book
30 Nov 1995
TL;DR: Binocular and stereoscopic vision in animals and the physiology of binocular vision, and the limits of stereoscopicVision in animals, are studied.
Abstract: Introduction 1. Binocular correspondence and the horopter 2. Sensory coding 3. The physiology of binocular vision 4. The limits of stereoscopic vision 5. Matching corresponding images 6. Types of disparity 7. Binocular fusion and rivalry 8. Binocular masking and transfer 9. Vergence eye movements 10. Stereo constancy and depth cue interactions 11. Depth contrrast and cooperative processes 12. Spatiotemporal aspects of stereopsis 13. Vision in the cyclopean domain 14. Development and pathology of binocular vision 15. Binocular and stereoscopic vision in animals References Subject index

913 citations


"A survey of perceptual evaluations ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The perceived depth obtained from disparity (inversely proportional to the square of the distance ) is too small compared with its perceived size (inversely proportional to the distance ) and as a result objects appear flattened [71]....

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Journal ArticleDOI

823 citations


"A survey of perceptual evaluations ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...More complex judgment models were proposed by Torgerson [51]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Sep 1993
TL;DR: It is shown that a number of image distortions can be eliminated by the appropriate choice of camera and display systems parameters, however, there are some image distortions, which cannot be avoided due to the nature of human vision and limitations of current stereoscopic video display techniques.
Abstract: This paper discusses the origins, characteristics and effects of image distortions in stereoscopic video systems. The geometry of stereoscopic camera and display systems is presented first. This is followed by the analysis and diagrammatic presentation of various image distortions such as depth plane curvature, depth non-linearity, depth and size magnification, shearing distortion and keystone distortion. The variation of system parameters is also analyzed with the help of plots of image geometry to show their effects on image distortions. The converged (toed-in) and parallel camera configurations are compared and the amount of vertical parallax induced by lens distortion and keystone distortion are discussed. The range of acceptable vertical parallax and the convergence/accommodation limitations on depth range are also discussed. It is shown that a number of these distortions can be eliminated by the appropriate choice of camera and display systems parameters. There are some image distortions, however, which cannot be avoided due to the nature of human vision and limitations of current stereoscopic video display techniques.

398 citations


"A survey of perceptual evaluations ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Below we give an overview of different types of stereoscopic and autostereoscopic display techniques....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2002-Displays
TL;DR: It is found that a local low subjective evaluation appeared for both high degree of parallax and amount of motion in the test stereoscopic images, but motion components were very small, the subjective evaluation value was rarely very low.

345 citations


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