scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

A survey on the dynamic characterization of A/D converters

01 Dec 1998-Measurement (Elsevier)-Vol. 24, Iss: 4, pp 263-279

TL;DR: The three different methods used to measure the differential non-linearity (DNL) and the integral non- linearity (INL) are explained and a comparison between these three algorithms in simulation and through an experimental case shows that their behaviours differ when the histogram presents edging effects.

AbstractThis article presents the different ways used to characterize A/D converters through the “CanTest System” test bench and its functionalities. The different ways used to characterize A/D converters dynamically could be organized into three parts: time domain, statistical and spectral analysis. The most commonly used algorithms in time domain analysis are presented. Due to instrumentation error, some may give “inaccurate” results. We explain why and propose a new method based on a direct estimation of conversion noise to avoid this problem. The different methods and applications linked to statistical analysis are also described. We explain the three different methods used to measure the differential non-linearity (DNL) and the integral non-linearity (INL). A comparison between these three algorithms in simulation and through an experimental case shows that their behaviours differ when the histogram presents edging effects. The final study presented in this paper concerns the A/D converter performance evaluation by analysis in frequency domain. From the output power spectrum, relationships are given for the computation of all spectral parameters. We present a correction to include in the computation of spectral parameters when the analog input does not span the entire full-scale range of the A/D converter under test. When the input generator provides a sine wave with harmonics, we propose the “Dual-Tone” method in order to separate the distortion associated with the component and the one associated with the generator. In the last part of this paper, we describe the test bench giving its specifications (acquisition system, frequency range,…). Some typical measurements and comments about the interest of analysis in different modes are given also.

Topics: Frequency domain (57%), Time domain (55%), Test bench (52%), Sine wave (52%), Distortion (51%)

Summary (1 min read)

Jump to:  and [Introduction]

Introduction

  • Submitted on 18 Oct 2009 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research documents, whether they are published or not.
  • The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.

Did you find this useful? Give us your feedback

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

HAL Id: hal-00180199
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00180199
Submitted on 18 Oct 2009
HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access
archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci-
entic research documents, whether they are pub-
lished or not. The documents may come from
teaching and research institutions in France or
abroad, or from public or private research centers.
L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est
destinée au dépôt et à la diusion de documents
scientiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non,
émanant des établissements d’enseignement et de
recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires
publics ou privés.
A survey on the dynamic characterization of A/D
converters
Dominique Dallet, Yannick Berthoumieu
To cite this version:
Dominique Dallet, Yannick Berthoumieu. A survey on the dynamic characterization of A/D con-
verters. Measurement - Journal of the International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO), Elsevier,
1998, 24 (4), pp.263-279. �hal-00180199�

! "#$%$&(')*$+,'.-0/1/32
4 57698$:<;>= ?A@ BDCE; FG=9@IHKJ LM MCNHK8OHKMBO;P8QLSRTHUBDLS?A@ ?WV
4 X<Y M#?Z@A:G;[8$B\;P8]5
^`_a^PbdcecgfihUbdjlk<mn_aofSp,h)qlrsltAugfSs
wvxy{z|z~}y{vd}gew~}gy{e}~}.y{ey3{|e}wx}~geez~}00e{x~3}&*\d$2,-02x'
x~}ge~ld{ex}0y{Q'+-l,e%x}z~y|gey1~{.'S+3+1¡3¢&yz~}g0}}0x}0'ey{0}S{}3l£+3+¥¤l{¦l21¡§{¦¨+§*'.}0ly|z
xy{z|z~}0e©~3zv ,3ex}0yv ª«

! "#$%$&(')*$+,'.-0/1/32 -
4 57698$:<;>= ?A@ BDCE; FG=9@IHKJ LM MCNHK8OHKMBO;P8QLSRTHUBDLS?A@ ?WV
4 X<Y M#?Z@A:G;[8$B\;P8]5

 !#"%$& (')*+-,"./0 12#354768/9:+/9,;7
<1=
>!?+*+ @ACBDE"GFH,I/9J->)"%$K>')*+-,>"L/0DM 2
3N476O /7:+0"*+@LP*/7,>I"QBD/7;R2"SI>/E ET0I@L0"/9@U-VDMP
"W 15*+JQE@L/70/7@L@E/9*U,>"X;9/7@ENQ@E">/7@UY*+Z
> "-JU6#,/.I>,@E M/7./7VG/9@E0@.*E;9:R
<
,1[A\,PJL]W0^+_I
'>*`"S/9/9UL 'a@E /+"SB"Q/7QL"bI@.I/9./F/7:+/7./9/c:R/9"
)/7B@SJ!0"%$K>)@E /+")"d>I/9I>eR "E/MI*R)f/
">B"gJX]W ^R>hW>U c"%$& @L>/R">Z,"X/d@LP,Lc">i$K_C/9+j
P*lkm6#nNo-pE"Wc;71/9+jqP*rk_stn5ogpJ(3u/9@E/9QB'l>c 
;7/7@Lf@E,I/9)"b/7,;9\0^+ @E>M9PC/7'gGGBD:+/7,>K"%$K
'>>I/9;7M@a  ";7;0[$& PJ(!v,"*f "Z(/7 
!35476w/7>:R  KxFm/7@U:+,/7B*N*RKI#Fmy+, *0"/7@.-JDzD/7@8/9,>,
D/7' D,@SV h/7>5;9:R fFm/7!N/9@E,>M/7/FDD1GM@L PJG]r
>0f/7 /7S/LI>,"0.f/9@E,1I/9E/F{ 1M@E#'SZ/9;
>,)"/+N/9)c0>NFH,ijtNM>;70/F{f35476|/9:+,">NPJ#]Xc
>,);91/9N/9:R" 5ff'):9)'}@E/7>I PV+'0/7D/7Z
<
6#,%jt/7>1A@L>/R"
Q/9"b/c1L"/9I/9Y/R h"Q'Q/9@ED/7 5"Q/9E/+_"
'W>U;91/7PJrstl._ZDf/FNfDVC'">Bc.EBDr;7:+;c
 %vP/7.kmy+,/7S*+@SVKFmy+, *QM>;77V!JPJJ1pJ?+/7@LZ*+PG@E,>@LN"
 /7@E@L{B/9,>0/F{*+!IL"%$& @L/+"b;7:+E/DJ
~L+W|7G
35476/7>:R  PV+1IP-I*+IV+DM*+PV9@L)"/9@U*RPJ

 d*



Pd §

! #"%$'&)(*+-,/.0-,2134./6587-90&:,;$'&:5=<&)(>(.4?@1A(B+1A(DC./7E(7F?A&:CHGI&:,0?KJH.0&8./6(L5=>,01@$-7E?
&)(DNM1K3$'&)(D*O-,31P&)(Q,0#JOL$'F3.02RNL7E?@1A./SI&ETD.027E(U7E?A&:C;3V1AC:(7E?NGI1K$'Q13$'&:(*O>,0.0#J1A(W7I(L5=>,01@$-7E?
TX&),/5YM[Z\.]13;.0>,0'TX&:,0^1@5=<&),/._7E(D.4./&H5`F7)3VL,0[.03VS3V.0-587F.01K$!-,/,0&),a7E(JbJ+'TXF$'.3c1@(.0,/&+JOL$'FJ8dS
.0D=7F(7E?@&)Ce./&YJO1@C)1@._7E?f$'&)(*+-,31A&:(M[Z\(g.0D13;<7E<-,>hiGI6<,/F3>(.W7=.0>&),0>.01$>7E?7F(Jj-k+<-,01@5=-(+._7E?
7E<D<,0&l7)$'=TX&),I./[JOS+(7E5=1K$;$'7F,_7:$'.0-,/1AmF7F.01@&)(&ET./[! F"n$'&:(*O>,0.0o,-M
Zp(q.0Yr,3.=<7F,0.8&ETs.01K3<7F<t>,e13<,0F3V-(./FJu7j./-&:,0-./1$-7F?;d7)$oBOC:,0&)LD(Ju&ETs.0Y./,0-Y5v7-90&),
5=-./&+J3;TX&),6.0DeW F"w$'&)(D*O-,/.0o,_3;$o7E,7)$'./-,01@mF7E./1A&)(xMYyi1A,3.>h.0z7E(U7E?ASD31K3^&ET].0z;"W{n&)L./<L.
31@C)(7F?N13$'&:(31KJO-,/FJ41A(].01A5`JO&:587E1@(M&:d._7F1A(FJ;<7F,_7F5=-.0>,_3'h-GID1$']7E?@?A&)G|7E(s;"!{z<t>,TX&),/587E(U$'
-*l7E?ALU7E.01@&)(h+7F,0;,/-?7F.0FJ6.0&[.0GI&]3._7F(J7F,_J3W}i./W~N";{3.7E(J7F,_J=C)1@*O1@(C^<U7E,_7F5=-./-,JO'rU(1A./1A&)(U3
Ao
7F(J!./ZVi
-:;
.7E(JD7E,_J[3-./.01@(CI.05=F7)3VL,0>5=-(+.5=-./&+J3
E
MfQ(&ETD.0F3V<7E,7E5=-./-,_3
13Q.0(L5d-,&FTI'F$'./1A*+Wd1A.3
(n
eff
)
M6Zp(JO>FJh7F(
r
d1A.[! #"%$'&)(D*O-,/.0-,213W7)3/3&+$'1K7E./FJGI1@.07
3SD3./-587F.01$>,0,0&:,-h+.0WRNL7F(.01@mF7E./1A&)(6(D&)13VNhOGID&N3W./-&),/-.01K$-7E?<&)GI>,
B
rms
JO><t>(J3&:(
r
MqD-(
7E(z! #"n$'&)(*+-,/.>,GI1A./=.0a307E5`;,0F3V&)?@L.01@&)(=1K3.0#3.0#JhO./W5=F7)3VL,0#JRNL7E(D.01Am#7E.01@&)((&)1K3;U7)3Q7
<&)GI-,
B
q
C),/F7E./-,I.07F(
B
rms
M
&h7E(8F3V.01@587E./1A&)(&ETf7^(L5d-,&FT'F$o.01A*+dD1A._3I7:303V&+$'17F.0FJ=GI1A./
.0D!5`F7)3VL,0FJ8RNL7E(D.01Am#7E.01@&)(=(D&)13V6$'&:L?J=d^C:1A*+-(=dS`$'&:5=<7E,/13V&)(8GI1A./e.0D!./-&:,0-./1$-7F?&)(NM2Zp(
.0DI.01A5`J+&)587F1A(7E(U7E?ASD31K3'h)./
B
rms
13J+FJOL$'#J!TX,0&)5.0I>,0,0&:,31@C)(7F?ph+JO'rU(FJ67)3./QJO1-,/-($'
d-.0GI>-(;.0DI1A(<LD.7E(J6&)LD.0<L.f31AC:(7E?K3&ET.0Q]"!{QMNZp(6.01K3i$>7)3lh1@(^&:,_JO-,./&;F3./1A587F.0.0DI1A(<LD.
31@C)(7F?ph.0D&:L.0<LD.^(L5`-,01K$'7F?31AC:(7E?1K3!$o&)5=<LD.0FJY7F(Jr./.0FJeL3V1A(C|7=?AF7:3.\30RNL7F,05=-.0D&+J./&
&)dD._7E1@(Y7F(eF3V.01A5v7E.01@&)(=&FT1A.347F5=<?@1A.0LUJONhN&Ex3>.-hTX,0FRNL-($oS=7F(JH<U7)3
F
M213I5=-./&+J=1A5=<?@1AF3
.0D6,0F3V&)?ALD.01A&:(j&FTQ7(D&)(?@1A(F7F,WFRLU7E.01@&)(g3VS3V.0-5dS81A.0>,_7E./1A*+W5=-.0D&+Jh,0#RL1@,01@(C1@(1A./17F?i*l7E?ALDF3'M
F3V;*N7F?AL#3C)>(-,_7F?A?@S$'&),/,0F3V<t&:(J=.0&6./;.0#3.I3V-.0LD<HGI1@.087^<-,VTXF$'.1A(D<L.Q31@C)(7F?C:-(-,7E.0&:,-MZT
C)>(-,_7F.0&:,_3GI-,0,0F7F?A?@S4<-,VTXF$'.-hF7F(SQ$'?K7)303V1$-7F?N,0F3V&)?@L.01@&)([7E?@C)&),/1A./54-GI./&)(hNQ,_7)J+1A-(.>h
1@5=<?@-kh
M-M-Mo$'&:L?Jg$'&)(D*O-,/C)W.0&z7z$'&),/,0F$'.W,/F3L?@.-ML.>h1@(j./`$-7)3V=GI-,/6.01A(<DL.;TX,0FRNL-($oSe*N7F?AL

 d*



Pd +
13(D&).Q<,0F$o13lhO.0DF3W7F?AC:&),01@.05v3GI&)L?KJ(&).]$'&:(*O>,0C)lMZp(H&:,_JO>,I.0&-?A1@5=1A(7F.0I./13I1A(

UL-($'lhGI
<,/&)<&N3V^7W5=-./&+J^C)1@*O1@(C[7^JO1@,0F$'.F3V.01@587E./1A&)([&ET./;]"!{$'&)(D*O-,31@&)(W(&)1K3NMZp.13d7:3FJ&)(=./
-1@C)-(J+F$'&)5`<t&l31@.01A&:(=*N7F?AL]&ET./6$'&:,0,/-?7F.01A&:(8587E./,01Ak`J7F._7

E
MD13I5=-.0D&+JvGI1@?A?dt[<,0#3-(./FJ
1A(8./W.01@,_J83F$o.01A&:(8&ET.01K3<7E<-,>M
4(&:.0>,^7F(7E?@S3V13[$'&)($o-,0(3W3V._7E./13V.01$>3'M=I7:31K$-7E?@?AS+h7813V.0&:C),_7F5 1K3;dL1A?@.-hC)1@*O1@(C8.0(L5d-,Q&ET
&+$-$'LD,0-($oY$'&+JO#3
H[i]
hIJO-<-(UJO1A(C&:(q.0g$'&+J+Y*N7E?@L
(i)
Mi&gdj(D&),05v7E?A1@m-FJh
H[i]
13./-(
JO1@*O1KJOFJ^dSW.0D4./&)._7F?(L5dt>,&ET3/7E5=<D?AF3
N
MD;;"W{b.0,7E(3pTX-,2$'7F,_7)$o.0-,/13./1$<7F,_7E5`-.0-,3'h)?@1AB+
JO1P>,0-(./17F?(&)(D?A1A(DF7E,/1A.0S
DNL
7E(UJv1@(.0>C),_7F?(&)(?@1A(#7E,01@.0S
INL
h7E,/[JO1A,/F$'.0?@SJOFJOLU$'FJ TX,/&)5 .0
1K3.0&:C),7E5YMQZp(e./13I<7E<-,>h.0D,0-sJO1-,/-(.I$o7E,7)$'./-,01@mF7E./1A&)(`5=-.0D&+J3c,/-?7F.0FJ8.0&.03V._7F.013V.01K$-7E?
7E(U7E?ASD31K37F,0;<,/F3>(.0FJM

=1K3.0DW$'&)5`<7E,/13&:(=d-.0GI>'(6./;'F$'./1A*+1K3./&)C),7E5w7F(J./
.0D-&),/-.01K$-7E?1K3./&)C),7E5&)d.7E1A(DFJHGI>(g$'&)(3V1JO>,01A(DC=76<-,TXF$o.;;"W{

:
M

b7E(UJ

7F,0;d7:3FJ=&:(H./W$'LD5=L?7F.01P*ND13./&)C:,_7E5 7E(J8$'&:5=<7E,/4./W$'LD5=L?@7E./1A*NTX,/FRNL-($'S[&+$-$'L,/-($'#3
&ET3L$-$oF303V1A*+Q$'&+JOF3
F
h

E
M
yt&:,
 
z7F(J
!
Nh+.0[7F5=<?A1@.0LJ+;7F(JH&F3V-.Q&ET.0W1A(D<L.Q31@C)(7F?iU7E*+I.0&6d^B+(&)GI(
7E(UJ TX&),
"
7W,0'TX-,/-($'QRNL7F(.0L5
q
ref
13(#$'F303/7E,/SOM1K37:303LD5=<.01@&)(]90L3./1r#37[3./LJOS&ET
F7:$'65=-./&+J
$#
3,0&)dDL3./(F303.0&:GQ7E,_JD3i.0QF3V.01A5v7E.01@&)(6-,/,0&:,_3'M&)./831@5=L?@7E./1A&)(U3i7F(J-k+<-,01@5=-(+._7E?
,0#3L?@._3I3D&)GIFJ7 d-./.0-,Id-U7E*+1A&)LD,TX&),
%
j7F(J

P-
M
<F$'./,_7F?7F(7E?@S3V13;13;./-(g$'&:(31KJO-,0#JMyt,0&:5 ./6<&)GI-,]3<F$'./,0L5 7F,0`JOFJOLU$'FJe.0D=3V1AC)(U7E?.0&F
(&:13],_7E./1A&DhGI1A.0`&),GI1@.0&:L.I7F,05=&:(1$QJO13V.0&:,_31@&)(g
SNDR
&),
SNR
_h+.0;U7E,05`&)(1K$;JO13V.0&:,_31@&)(
,_7F.0
(T HD)
h7F(Je.0D6(L5dt>,&FT2'F$'.01@*O]d1A.3
(n
eff
)
&
F
h
'
E
M]yt&:,4./6;"W{ 1@(<L.]31@C)(7F?ph7E?@?
7E?@C)&:,01A./5832$'&)(3V1JO>,Q7sTXL?@?\30$-7F?AW7F(JH<-,VTXF$'. 31A(D!GQ7F*NNM
Zp(=.0D4r,_3V.Q3./-<hOGIQ3V&)GqD&)Gq<7F,_7E5`-.0-,37E,0[JO#JOL$'FJ^TX,0&:5 .0D;.0>&),0>.01$>7E?FRNL7E./1A&)(U3'hOGID-(
.0D!DSO<&)./F3V13RNL&:.0FJ=F7F,0?A1@-,1K3TXL?rU?A?A#JM>(HGI]<,0F3V-(.-*+-(./L7E?5`&+JO1r$>7E.01@&)(3dDS7)JJO1@(C
$'&:,0,0#$'.01@&)(=./-,05831A(=./;-*l7E?ALU7E.01@&)(=&FT
SNDR
h
SNR
h
T HD
7E(J
n
eff
h+GI-(hNTX&),I1A(U3._7F($'NhN./

Citations
More filters

07 May 2001
TL;DR: Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Technology to be presented with due permission for public examination and criticism in the Auditorium S1 at Tampere University of Technology, on the 7 th of May 2001.
Abstract: Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Technology to be presented with due permission for public examination and criticism in the Auditorium S1 at Tampere University of Technology, on the 7 th of May 2001, at 12 o'clock noon.

5 citations


Cites methods from "A survey on the dynamic characteriz..."

  • ...(Dallet 1998) presents more concepts used for characterising the analogue-to-digital converters....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 May 2016
Abstract: The bandwidth of the sampling systems, especially for time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters, needs to be extended along with the rapid increase of the sampling rate. A digitally assisted technique becomes a feasible approach to extend the analog bandwidth, as it is impractical to implement the extension in analog circuits. This paper derives accurate order estimation formulas for the bandwidth extension filter, which is designed in the minimax sense with the ripple constraints as the design criteria. The derived filter order estimation is significant in evaluating the computational complexity from the viewpoint of the top-level system design. Moreover, with the proposed order estimates, one can conveniently obtain the minimal order that satisfies the given ripple constraints, which contributes to reducing the design time. Both the performance of the extension filter and its order estimation are illustrated and demonstrated through simulation examples.

4 citations


Cites background from "A survey on the dynamic characteriz..."

  • ...I. INTRODUCTION Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are generally required to perform with the flat frequency response up to the Nyquist band in many applications [1]....

    [...]


01 Jun 2002
TL;DR: Results of ADC testing systems comparison between Laboratoire de microelectronique IXL, University Bordeaux and ADCM&T Laboratory, Dept. of Measurement of FEE CTU, Prague are presented.
Abstract: The paper presents results of ADC testing systems comparison between Laboratoire de microelectronique IXL, University Bordeaux and ADCM&T Laboratory, Dept. of Measurement of FEE CTU, Prague. The comparison was performed using transportable reference AD device designed and developed in FEE CTU.

4 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Homin Jiang1, Howard Liu1, Kim Guzzino1, Derek Kubo1, Chao-Te Li1, R. Chang1 
01 Dec 2012
TL;DR: An 8 bits, 5 Giga samples per second Analog to Digital Printed Circuit Board has been designed by the authors for digitizing The Yuan Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy and other radio telescopes.
Abstract: An 8 bits, 5 Giga samples per second Analog to Digital Printed Circuit Board has been designed by the authors for digitizing The Yuan Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy(AMiBA) and other radio telescopes. Associated with the Field Programmable Gate Array platform developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research community, AMiBA will have a digital correlator system in the future, that was fiscally difficult in 2001 when it was at design phase. The board can digitize input radio frequencies from DC up to 2.5GHz with a flatness of 5dB. The ENOB ranges from 6.1 to 6.5 bits across the 2.5GHz band, the SFDR from 41 dB to 48 dB, and the SINAD from 32 dB to 37.5 dB if the gain and offset tuning is applied.

3 citations


Cites methods from "A survey on the dynamic characteriz..."

  • ...To avoid artifacts from the quantization noise correlation [13] [14], or the effect of Differential Nonlinearity (DNL), a low power noise was added to the carrier....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents a high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager, consisting of a signal conditioner, a data conversion module and a signal processing module, combined with a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS).
Abstract: RATIONALE Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)-based acquisition systems are widely applied in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOFMS) due to their ability to record the signal intensity of all ions within the same pulse. However, the acquisition system raises the requirement for data throughput, along with increasing the conversion rate and resolution of the ADC. It is therefore of considerable interest to develop a high-performance real-time acquisition system, which can relieve the limitation of data throughput. METHODS We present in this work a high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager, consisting of a signal conditioner, a data conversion module and a signal processing module. Two optimization strategies are implemented using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to enhance the efficiency of the real-time processing. A pipeline procedure is used to reduce the time consumption of the accumulation strategy. To realize continuous data transfer, a high-efficiency transmission strategy is developed, based on a ping-pong procedure. RESULTS The digital signal averager features good responsiveness, analog bandwidth and dynamic performance. The optimal effective number of bits reaches 6.7 bits. For a 32 μs record length, the averager can realize 100% efficiency with an extraction frequency below 31.23 kHz by modifying the number of accumulation steps. In unit time, the averager yields superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with data accumulation in a computer. CONCLUSIONS The digital signal averager is combined with a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The efficiency of the real-time processing is tested by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ordinary printed materials. In these experiments, 22 kinds of compounds are detected, and the dynamic range exceeds 3 orders of magnitude.

2 citations


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: This new book provides a broad perspective of spectral estimation techniques and their implementation concerned with spectral estimation of discretespace sequences derived by sampling continuousspace signals.

2,681 citations


01 Jan 1987
Abstract: This new book provides a broad perspective of spectral estimation techniques and their implementation. It concerned with spectral estimation of discretespace sequences derived by sampling continuousspace signals. Among its key features, the book: · Emphasizes the behavior of each spectral estimator for short data records. · Provides 35 computer programs, including fast algorithms. · Provides the theoretical background and review material in linear systems, Fourier transforms matrix algebra, random processes, and statics. · Summarizes classical spectral estimation as it is practiced today. · Covers Prony’s method, parametric methods, the minimum variance method, eigenanalysis-based estimators, multichannel methods, and twodimensional methods. · Includes problems. · Contains appendices that cover Sunspot Numbers, Complex Test Data, Temperature Data, and Program Conversion for Complex-to-Real Case. Of Special Interest A disk is included that has a double-sides 360kB format readable by any personal computer with an MS-DOS 2 or 3 operating system, such as the IBM XT or AT.

1,963 citations


01 Jan 1966
Abstract: ArtDirector RuthM.EdmistonProduction Editor HEADQUARTERSSTAFF ~~~~~~~~be senttotheeditor ofthatTransactions attheaddress shownintheOctober issue ofIEEESPEC- CarlMaler ~~~~~~~TRUM, page112.Whenindoubt, sendthemanuscript toE.K.Gannett, Director, Editorial Ser- Advertising Producetion Manager vices, atIEEEHeadquarters, forforwarding tothecorrect party.

1,491 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Improved computer-aided analog-to-digital converter (ADC) characterization methods based on the code density test and spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform are described.
Abstract: Improved computer-aided analog-to-digital converter (ADC) characterization methods based on the code density test and spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform are described. The code density test produces a histogram of the digital output codes of an ADC sampling a known input. The code density can be interpreted to compute the differential and integral nonlinearities, gain error, offset error, and internal noise. Conversion-rate and frequency-dependent behavior can also be measured.

521 citations