A technique for the measurement of attitudes
01 Jan 1932-
TL;DR: The instrument to be described here is not, however, indirect in the usual sense of the word; it does not seek responses to items apparently unrelated to the attitudes investigated, and seeks to measure prejudice in a manner less direct than is true of the usual prejudice scale.
Abstract: THIS paper describes a technique which has been developed for the measurement of race prejudice. This technique differs from most prejudice inventories in that it avoids the following assumptions: (a) that the individual can say, to his own or the investigator's satisfaction, "This is how prejudiced I am," and (b) that, to the extent that the individual can accurately assess his degree of antipathy, he will report honestly the findings of such introspection. Most sociologists would perhaps agree that race attitudes rarely reside on a completely articulate level. Even where the individual holds to intellectual or ideological convictions which would seem to leave no room for out-group antipathies, such do persevere. Thus, we may expect the number of Americans who honestly think themselves "unprejudiced" to be considerably larger than effective research would reveal. Moreover, the number who present themselves as unprejudiced probably exceeds considerably the number who honestly, though often inaccurately, see themselves in this light. Most indirect techniques for the measurement of attitudes have their rationale in observations such as these. The instrument to be described here is not, however, indirect in the usual sense of the word; it does not seek responses to items apparently unrelated to the attitudes investigated. We do, however, seek to measure prejudice in a manner less direct than is true of the usual prejudice scale. In our instrument we seek to measure anti-Negro prejudice. Persons are called upon to respond on social distance scales to whites and Negroes who occupy a variety of occupational positions. The measure of prejudice is derived through the summation of the differences in distance responses to Negroes as opposed to whites in the same occupations. Thus, for lack of a better label,
TL;DR: A 36-item short-form survey designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study is constructed.
Abstract: A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
TL;DR: Findings support the use of the SF-36 survey across the diverse populations studied and identify population groups in which use of standardized health status measures may or may not be problematic.
Abstract: The widespread use of standardized health surveys is predicated on the largely untested assumption that scales constructed from those surveys will satisfy minimum psychometric requirements across diverse population groups. Data from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) were used to evaluate data completeness and quality, test scaling assumptions, and estimate internal-consistency reliability for the eight scales constructed from the MOS SF-36 Health Survey. Analyses were conducted among 3,445 patients and were replicated across 24 subgroups differing in sociodemographic characteristics, diagnosis, and disease severity. For each scale, item-completion rates were high across all groups (88% to 95%), but tended to be somewhat lower among the elderly, those with less than a high school education, and those in poverty. On average, surveys were complete enough to compute scales scores for more than 96% of the sample. Across patient groups, all scales passed tests for item-internal consistency (97% passed) and item-discriminant validity (92% passed). Reliability coefficients ranged from a low of 0.65 to a high of 0.94 across scales (median = 0.85) and varied somewhat across patient subgroups. Floor effects were negligible except for the two role disability scales. Noteworthy ceiling effects were observed for both role disability scales and the social functioning scale. These findings support the use of the SF-36 survey across the diverse populations studied and identify population groups in which use of standardized health status measures may or may not be problematic.
TL;DR: The theory of SEM, which allows for the analysis of independent observations for both unrelated and family data, the available software for SEM, and an example of SEM analysis are reviewed.
Abstract: Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a multivariate statistical framework that is used to model complex relationships between directly observed and indirectly observed (latent) variables. SEM is a general framework that involves simultaneously solving systems of linear equations and encompasses other techniques such as regression, factor analysis, path analysis, and latent growth curve modeling. Recently, SEM has gained popularity in the analysis of complex genetic traits because it can be used to better analyze the relationships between correlated variables (traits), to model genes as latent variables as a function of multiple observed genetic variants, and to assess the association between multiple genetic variants and multiple correlated phenotypes of interest. Though the general SEM framework only allows for the analysis of independent observations, recent work has extended SEM for the analysis of data on general pedigrees. Here, we review the theory of SEM for both unrelated and family data, describe the available software for SEM, and provide examples of SEM analysis.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: This paper showed that single-item questions pertaining to a construct are not reliable and should not be used in drawing conclusions, and compared the reliability of a summated, multi-item scale versus a single item question.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to show why single-item questions pertaining to a construct are not reliable and should not be used in drawing conclusions. By comparing the reliability of a summated, multi-item scale versus a single-item question, the authors show how unreliable a single item is; and therefore it is not appropriate to make inferences based upon the analysis of single-item questions which are used in measuring a construct.
TL;DR: Results provide strong support for the view that differentiation does exist among the five areas and that the measures do relate to the phenomena with which they are identified.
Abstract: Access is an important concept in health policy and health services research, yet it is one which has not been defined or employed precisely. To some authors "access" refers to entry into or use of the health care system, while to others it characterizes factors influencing entry or use. The purpose of this article is to propose a taxonomic definition of "access." Access is presented here as a general concept that summarizes a set of more specific dimensions describing the fit between the patient and the health care system. The specific dimensions are availability, accessibility, accommodation, affordability and acceptability. Using interview data on patient satisfaction, the discriminant validity of these dimensions is investigated. Results provide strong support for the view that differentiation does exist among the five areas and that the measures do relate to the phenomena with which they are identified.
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