A UML 2.0 profile for architecting B3G applications
Summary (3 min read)
- Beyond Third-Generation (B3G)  network is an emerging technology which conceives the convergence of telecommunication networks with IP based networks.
- On the other hand, SA descriptions allow for analysis and verification of architectural choices, both qualitative and quantitative, since the early stages of the software life-cycle .
- Hence, since they actively affect the overall system’s performance and behavior, they cannot be taken apart but must be considered, along with all their characteristics, within the design process.
- In particular, the authors show how, starting from a small survey of the networks involved in B3G scenarios, it has been elicited a set of properties that characterizes B3G-oriented applications and, then they present an enhanced UML profile  for explicitly defining and analyzing SAs that take into account these properties of interest.
2 B3G Network Properties Elicitation
- B3G network technology indicates the convergence of telecommunication networks with IP based networks.
- Services associated with B3G provide the ability to transfer both voice data and non-voice data through different types of network, either wired or wireless.
- Wireless networks are categorized into three groups based on their coverage range: (i) Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN) that includes wide coverage area technologies such as 3G cellular (UMTS), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), i-Mode, etc. . . , (ii) Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) that includes 802.11, HiperLAN, and several others, and (iii) Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) that represents wireless personal area network technologies such as Bluetooth and IrDA.
- In this section the authors discuss the networks state-of-the-art by eliciting the properties of interest needed to architect B3G applications.
2.1 Networks in B3G
- The widely accepted way to achieve interworking between heterogeneous network is the use of TCP/IP protocol suite.
- Based on the shared-bus concept, it operates different data transfer rates (ranging from 10Mbps to 1Gbps) but it does not provide any support for QoS management neither any other type of service.
- Also in this case, using TCP/IP over this network does not require any additional effort .
- General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) – General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)  is a mobile communication standard based on packet-switched radio transmission.
- In particular, Bluetooth allows users to set up wireless ad-hoc networks that achieve real-time voice and data exchange between limitedresources devices.
2.3 Network Services
- As introduced above, in their vision B3G networks are no longer “passive” entities, but they are “active” parties that have their own behavior and provide services to the end-users.
- – Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a encryption protocol designed to secure wireless networks.
- Due to a fixed amount of bandwidth is dedicated to connections over CSD and HSCSD (9.6Kbps and 14.4Kbps respectively), they are charged on a per-second basis, regardless of the amount of data sent over the link.
- – Since GPRS is based on existing GSM networks, they share the same secure access mechanism and encryption facility.
- In particular, the bearer services are: – Circuit switched data services and real-time data services which allow for interworking with the GSM network.
3 An UML Profile for B3G Software Architectures
- In previous section, the authors presented the common networks involved in B3G scenarios by eliciting their main properties of interest.
- As previously remarked, while designing B3G-oriented application these characteristics should not be abstracted away by SA descriptions, but rather they should be considered and analyzed since the early stages of the software life-cycle.
- To this extent, in this section, the authors describe a UML 2.0 Profile for specifying B3G-oriented SAs which take into account all the discussed properties.
- Hence, Dually simply maps SA-Components directly into UML components.
- SA-Channels – In UML 2.0: “An assembly connector is a connector between two components that defines that one component provides the services that another component requires.
3.2 Extending SA-Channels for B3G
- The Dually profile described above fulfills the gap between ADLs and UML 2.0 in specifying SAs.
- Furthermore, CNet is specialized into the CN Wired and CN Wireless subtypes which provide Wired Network Channel and Wireless Network Channel respectively.
- [ID] represents an array containing all the SSIDs retrieved.
- In particular, it extends the set of attributes according to the advanced QoS properties discussed in Section 2.2, appropriately overrides inherited methods, and provide the following common services: – void mobilityManagement(ID): provides the service for managing mobility issues, such as handover and roaming.
- Provides the service for sending Short Messages, also known as – void sendSMS(MSG).
3.3 Early Example
- We present a simple example which aims to summarize the characteristics introduced above.the authors.
- Note that, while Web Server accesses the XParlay connector services by using a CN Wired channel, the wireless clients are linked to it by using different CNW WWAN channels.
- Let the UMTS PDA holder want to send an SMS to both the GSM Phone and the Laptop clients.
- Even though this example is really simple and the SA is composed of few components, it shows the overall complexity inherent to B3G scenarios.
- Modeling the same SA by using either ADLs or SA-oriented UML profiles would hide the main characteristics of this type of networks (i.e., QoS properties) and the services they provide (e.g, SMS service).
4 B3G Software Architecture Analysis
- As remarked in previous section, SA descriptions allow for analysis and validation of architectural choices obtaining better software quality and shorter time-tomarket development .
- To this extent, the B3G UML profile presented in previous section provides the ability to perform the following analysis by using UML-based automated tools: (i) SA Model Checking which allows for checking architectural model consistency, (ii) Performance Analysis of SA which allows for making quantitative analysis on SAs, and (iii) SA-driven Testing which allows for checking whether the implementation under test fulfills the architectural specification, and (iv) Runtime SA-based System Reconfiguration which allows for monitoring and reconfiguring the system at runtime.
- Performance Analysis of SA – Software performance is the process of predicting and evaluating whether a system meet the user performance requirements .
- This, allows us to automatically transform B3G-oriented SAs into QNs and then carry on a performance analysis that takes into account also the network QoS properties discussed in Section 2.
- To this extent, the use of SA performance analysis, for evaluating the actual system status and choosing the next system configuration, achieves fine tuned reconfiguration process that overcomes the observed QoS problems .
5 Conclusions and Future Work
- B3G technology conceives the convergence of telecommunication networks with IP based networks for providing enhanced services.
- This define a new application domain where applications can not only interact with each other, but they can also interact with non-software entities (i.e., humans).
- Then, the authors proposed an extended UML Profile which allows for defining B3G-oriented SA and for performing different kind of analysis which aim to validate B3G-oriented applications with respect to both qualitative and quantitative requirements.
- The work discussed herein represents the first step of a long term research.
- Plastic is a IST Project , the authors are involved in, which aims to construct a platform for delivering software services deployed over B3G networks.
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Cites methods from "A UML 2.0 profile for architecting ..."
...Mauro (Caporuscio and Issarny, 2006) proposed a UML profile to define and analyze software architectures that exploit explicitly the domain properties of B3G (Beyond ThirdGeneration)....
Cites background from "A UML 2.0 profile for architecting ..."
...Wireless communications can be classified into three groups on the basis of the transmission range ....
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