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Journal ArticleDOI

A web of achieving in physical education: Goals, interest, outside-school activity and learning

01 Jan 2004-Learning and Individual Differences (The University of North Carolina at Greensboro)-Vol. 14, Iss: 3, pp 169-182

AbstractAchievement goals and interests are recognized as primary motivators for learning in physical education. The study examined the dynamics of the motivators as associated with organized outside-school physical activity experiences and learning outcomes. Data of achievement goals, personal interest, learning outcomes, and outside-school experiences were gathered from students ( N = 104) randomly selected from two middle schools. The correlation analysis revealed a complex relationship among the motivators and learning outcomes. The MANOVA showed that the students participating in organized outside-school physical activities had a stronger ego-goal orientation and were more physically active in learning. Their knowledge and skill assessment outcomes did not differ from other students. The findings suggest that participation in outside-school programs may result in an active engagement, but may not lead to a paralleled learning achievement. These findings depicted a complex and dynamic web of relationships between the motivators and learning outcomes that needs to be addressed in future research.

Topics: Experiential learning (64%), Active learning (64%), Goal orientation (52%), Physical education (52%), Need for achievement (50%)

Summary (3 min read)

1. Introduction

  • Among the many motivators for school learners, achievement goal orientations and interests have been recognized to have unique motivation impact on learning behavior and achievement (Harackiewicz & Sansone, 2000; Sansone & Smith, 2000).
  • Barron, Pintrinch, Elliot, & Thrash, 2002), the dual-goal structure has been observed repeatedly in the students’ perceptions of goals for learning (Kaplan & Middleton, 2002).
  • Exploring the dynamic interactive impact of goals, interest, and out-of-school experiences on learning in physical education will allow us to gain additional understanding about learner motivation and the functions of different motivators.
  • Students (N= 104) were randomly selected from two middle schools in the Washington–Baltimore metropolitan area.

2.2. The research setting

  • The schools were selected randomly from a pool that met the following two criteria: (a) the curriculum was in line with both national and state standards and (b) student learning was assessed using measurable means (skill and knowledge tests) in each content unit.
  • Among the school districts in the Washington–Baltimore metropolitan area, one was identified as having physical education programs most likely to meet the criteria, given its long-time tradition of emphasizing concept-based physical education from kindergarten to eighth grade.
  • Student grading was required to be based on the assessment of skill and knowledge acquisition.
  • Thus, the primary responsibility of physical education teachers was to teach physical education full time in their respective schools.
  • The meeting hours for these periods during a particular day varied according to the schools’.

2.3. 1. Achievement goal orientations

  • The students’ achievement goal orientations were measured using the 13-item (five-point scale) task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda & Nicholls, 1992).
  • The task- and ego-goal dual subconstructs were validated through a factor analytical approach and were deemed valid.
  • The internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach α) were .82 and .89, respectively.
  • The activities included fitness exercises, individual sports, team sports, and rhythmic movement content such as dance.
  • To minimize the threat to internal validity that may derive from self-interpretations of ratings of personal interest (Tobias, 1994), the authors used a protocol to limit the possible self-interpretation in the survey.

2.3.3. Physical intensity

  • The students’ physical intensity in classes was measured using the Yamax Digiwalker, which recorded total steps each participant took during a lesson.
  • The literature has shown acceptable validity and reliability of physical intensity measures by the device (Bassett, 2000; Tudor-Locke & Myers, 2000; Welk, Corbin, & Dale, 2000).
  • In a pilot trial of the device for the study, the concurrent validity coefficients of the Digiwalker data ranged between .65 and .91, in accordance with heart rates recorded using the Polar Heart Rate Monitors.

2.3.4. Assessment outcome

  • The students’ performance assessments on skill tests and written exams given by the teachers in various instructional units were used as the indicator of their assessment outcomes.
  • The points were equally assigned to physical skill and knowledge tests, although the teachers usually used a predetermined weighting system to reflect their perception of importance in skill tests (e.g., serving test was weighed more than forearm pass test in volleyball).
  • The authors did not impose any additional achievement assessment to preserve the authenticity of the learning assessment.
  • The authors categorized all assessment scores into either skill or knowledge category.
  • Scores in the two categories were then aggregated and averaged on the 20-point scale to represent learner assessment outcome.

2.3.5. Out-of-school participation

  • Information on out-of-school physical activity experiences was gathered in a survey by asking the participants to indicate, with specific information (e.g., where, what, when, paid or unpaid), whether they took part in organized after-school physical activity programs.
  • Organized activity programs are more likely to nurture and develop particular motivators (goal orientations, personal interest) that the study was investigating.
  • Thus, the authors decided to use ―participation in organized out-of-school programs‖ as the grouping indicator for the data analysis.
  • The reader should take this grouping limitation into account when interpreting the findings.

2.4. Data collection

  • The participants’ responses to the TEOSQ, personal interest, out-of-school activity participation, and other demographic information were collected in two prior-to-class sessions in a quiet classroom adjacent to the gymnasium.
  • Physical intensity data were collected in two randomly selected instructional lessons (not introduction or assessment lessons) in each of the following content units: dancing, fencing, fitness club, gymnastics, multigames, and volleyball.
  • During these lessons, each participant wore a Yamax Digiwalker to measure the number of steps that he/she took.
  • Skill test and written exam grades were collected from the teachers after the instruction, for a unit was officially complete.
  • All data collection was conducted by the researchers.

2.5. Data analysis

  • Goal orientation data were reduced according to the construct subscales (Duda & Nicholls, 1992).
  • Out-ofschool physical activity data were reduced into participation and nonparticipation.
  • Personal interest data were reduced using principal component analysis.
  • Skill and written test grades were aggregated and averaged to represent assessment outcomes in these content units.
  • The association between goal orientations, interest, physical intensity, and achievement was examined using the Pearson Product–Moment.

3. Results

  • As reported in Table 1, the principal component analysis reduced the participants’ personal interests into a fourcategory structure.
  • The results of the Pearson Product–Moment Correlation Analysis are reported in Table 2.
  • In addition to task orientation, physical intensity correlated with contact sport, alternate games, and other.
  • In the MANOVA, in after-school physical activity was used as the factor, and the measures of goals, interest, physical intensity, and assessment outcome were the dependent variables.
  • Further comparisons, reported in Table 4, revealed that the participant students had stronger ego orientation,.

4. Discussion

  • The study was designed to investigate the extent to which goal orientations, personal interest, and measurable learning outcomes (a) were dynamically associated and (b) differed in terms of learners’ out-of-school physical activity participation experiences.
  • Based on the analyzed data, the authors attempt to address the research questions in (a) a web of motivators and learning outcome and (b) a reality check on out-of-school connections.

4. 1. The web of motivators and outcomes

  • The correlation analysis showed a weak relationship between goal orientations and learning outcomes.
  • Their purposes of action may determine the dynamics of behavior.
  • According to Butler (2000), when in an information-seeking context such as learning, students are most likely to engage in actions that may result in acquiring information relevant to the motivators that they adapt to.
  • In other words, learners are likely to strive to achieve to either satisfy their superior ability (ego orientation), to demonstrate their mastery of the skill (task orientation), or to fulfill their personal interest.
  • The authors argue, consequently, that learners’ motivated actions in physical education lessons may not necessarily result in learning achievement that meets the curriculum goals or standards.

4.2. A reality check on out-of-school connections

  • The MANOVA results indicated that participation in organized out-of-school physical activity programs led to a stronger ego-goal orientation and to higher interest in contact sports (including other activities) and physical intensity in physical education lessons.
  • As Windchill (2002) summarized, for instance, learner alternative conceptions (or misconceptions) acquired from out-ofschool sources can be difficult for the teacher to adapt to, manage, and deal with in teaching, where most learner alternative conceptions are found inconsistent with the specified learning standards of the curriculum.
  • Participant and nonparticipant students did not differ in assessment outcome measures (F= 1.16, P=.28), and yet, the participant students demonstrated a higher in-class physical intensity level (F = 5.21, P=.03).
  • Further studying the impact of out-of-school physical activity programs on learning in physical education appears to be imperative from an achievement motivation perspective, too.
  • The actual motivation effects of the motivators may rely on the learner, the learning environment, and expected learning outcome.

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A web of achieving in physical education: Goals, interest, outside-school activity and learning
By: Ang Chen, Bo Shen
Chen, A., & Shen, B. (2004). A web of achieving in physical education: Goals, interest, outside-school activity
and learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(3), 169-182.
Made available courtesy of Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com
***Reprinted with permission. No further reproduction is authorized without written permission from
Elsevier. This version of the document is not the version of record. Figures and/or pictures may be
missing from this format of the document.***
Abstract:
Achievement goals and interests are recognized as primary motivators for learning in physical education. The
study examined the dynamics of the motivators as associated with organized outside-school physical activity
experiences and learning outcomes. Data of achievement goals, personal interest, learning outcomes, and
outside-school experiences were gathered from students (N= 104) randomly selected from two middle schools.
The correlation analysis revealed a complex relationship among the motivators and learning outcomes. The
MANOVA showed that the students participating in organized outside-school physical activities had a stronger
ego-goal orientation and were more physically active in learning. Their knowledge and skill assessment
outcomes did not differ from other students. The findings suggest that participation in outside-school programs
may result in an active engagement, but may not lead to a paralleled learning achievement. These findings
depicted a complex and dynamic web of relationships between the motivators and learning outcomes that needs
to be addressed in future research.
Keywords: Achievement motivation; Physical education; Outside-school activity
Article:
1. Introduction
Since the publication of the 1996 Surgeon General’s Report (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],
1996), the consequences of lack of physical activity have been drawing increased public attention and support
to physical education curriculum reform. Actions taken by the federal and many local education authorities are
intended to promote an education movement that is expected to address the epidemic of physical inactivity in
our children. For example, the U.S. Congress has developed the Carol M. White Physical Education for
Progress (PEP) program in 2001 to provide US$400 million in 5 years to fund local schools in need for the
curriculum reform. In this effort, it becomes very important to help children acquire knowledge and skills
necessary for them to develop and maintain a physically active lifestyle.
However, learner motivation in physical education has been an issue. The lack of motivation can be inferred
from instances such as most adolescents do not choose to take elective physical education during their high
school years after they have met the minimal physical education credit requirement for graduation. The
enrollment in elective physical education in high schools decreased an average of 30% yearly from 1988 to
1996 (National Center for Educational Statistics, 1996), and only 19% of adolescents took physical education
regularly beyond graduation requirement to receive health benefits (CDC, 1996).
In education, motivation to achieve in learning is defined as ―the process whereby goal-directed activity is
instigated and sustained‖ (Pintrich & Schunk, 2002, p. 5). Although achievement motivation is an invisible
process, it can be measured in observable indicators. As Pintrich and Schunk (2002) summarized, achievement
motivation is measured in most research studies using direct observations, ratings by others, and self-report.
Direct observation measures include the learners’ choice of tasks (difficult or easy), effort exerted in an activity,
and persistence demonstrated when encountering difficulties. Ratings by others range from teachers formally
assessing the learners’ performance on a task to observers using systematic observation instruments to

document and evaluate the learners’ behaviors. Self-report encompasses a variety of psychometric instruments
and techniques that elicit the learners’ self-assessment of motivation.
Learner achievement motivation is characterized by content specificity (Bong, 2001). Motivational function
from the motivators varies in terms of the content that the learners are interacting with. It is suggested that to
maximize motivational effects, teachers may consider using different motivators most relevant to a particular
content domain and to the learner at a particular learning stages.
Learners’ achievement motivation is based on motivators relevant for them in a particular learning context.
Achievement goal orientations and interests, for example, are but two among many potential motivators. Recent
research on achievement motivation, however, has identified the two as the most useful because they can be
manipulated by teachers to create an optimal motivating learning environment (Sansone & Harackiewicz,
2002).
Among the many motivators for school learners, achievement goal orientations and interests have been
recognized to have unique motivation impact on learning behavior and achievement (Harackiewicz & Sansone,
2000; Sansone & Smith, 2000). Research evidence from physical education has demonstrated similar
motivation effect from the goal orientations (e.g., Papioannou, 1998; Vlachopoulos & Biddle, 1997; Xiang &
Lee, 1998) and interest (Chen & Darst, 2001, 2002). Although research on achievement motivation has been
very much centered on the association of the goals and interests with the learners’ in-school behavior and
performances, it has been postulated that the motivators are based upon the learners’ existing knowledge base
and value systems, which, more often than not, are developed and mediated by both in- and out-of-school
experiences (Jacobs & Eccles, 2000).
As a primary motivator, achievement goal orientations are assumed to play a central role in learners.
Achievement goals are defined, similar with the definition widely adopted in educational research, as why
students want to achieve what they achieve (Urdan, 1997). In other words, goals are conceptualized as
underlying purposes that a learner may be adapted to guide his/her learning behavior. Briefly, in a dual-goal
theoretical framework, students achieve in learning for two general purposes (goals): (a) outperforming others
(an ego or performance goal) and (b) completing the learning tasks at hand (a task or mastery goal). Although
critics of the dual-goal framework argue that the framework is limited in scope of purposes demonstrated by
students in learning (Harackiewicz, Barron, Pintrinch, Elliot, & Thrash, 2002), the dual-goal structure has been
observed repeatedly in the students’ perceptions of goals for learning (Kaplan & Middleton, 2002). Their
motivation functions, nevertheless, have yet to be determined, with empirical evidence linking them directly to
learning performance, before a conclusion can be reached about which is a ―good‖ or ―bad‖ motivator for
learning or if a multiple-goal framework needs to be adopted (Harackiewicz et al., 2002; Kaplan & Middleton,
2002).
It is assumed that the motivation functions of the goals ―depends on the purposes espoused in the achievement
context‖ (Kaplan & Middleton, 2002, p. 648). In other words, the fidelity of learner goal orientations is
dependent on the competence-based learning goals defined in the curriculum. The link between learner goal
orientations and their learning outcomes can provide needed information for educators to clarify the issue.
Interest has been viewed as another powerful motivator for children (Dewey, 1913). In research, interest is
conceptualized as personal or situational. Personal interest refers to a person’s psycho-logical disposition in
preference of an activity or an action. Situational interest is defined as the appealing effect of the characteristics
of an activity on individuals (Krapp, Hidi, & Renninger, 1992). Both interests have been described as a person
environment (e.g., activity, events, ideas, and objects) interactive construct (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000) and
both are content specific and have cognitive and affective components. In addition, it has been argued that
interests are a key that underlies learner motivation in all learning stages with domain specificity (Alexaner,
Jetton, & Kulikowich, 1995).

Although personal interest is recognized as a powerful motivator, in general, it has been deemed difficult to
utilize in instruction (Hidi & Anderson, 1992) mainly because of its differentiated nature among learners. It has
been suggested that teachers should emphasize situational, instead of personal, interest in teaching, given the
fact that it is extremely difficult to develop a motivation strategy that satisfies all learners’ personal interests
(Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000).
Nevertheless, personal interests, no matter how diverse, should be taken as learner assets that will eventually
lead to achievement. Alexaner et al. (1995) argued that without a strong personal interest, high self-motivation
is very difficult for learners to develop. Given that the ultimate goal in physical education is to nurture a
physically active life style in the learner, personal interests in any physical activity should be taken as a positive
asset of the learner in physical education. In addition, developing personal interest in physical activity should be
a focus of the learning experiences in physical education for the learner to become a self-motivated, life-long
participant in physical activity.
Outside-school experiences may shape and reshape the learners’ achievement goals (Duda, 2001) and interests
(Renninger, 2000) through impacting their values about the content (Jacobs & Eccles, 2000). Physical education
is a unique learning context where learners are expected not only to construct a cognitive understanding of a
physical activity, but also to be able to perform it. It is a common observation that learning in physical
education is often mediated by the learners’ outside-school physical activity experiences (Lee, 1997). It should
not be difficult to assume that outside-school experiences in organized physical activity help learners develop
particular goal orientations and personal interest. These motivators, in turn, work hand-in-hand to impact the
learners’ motivation in physical education classes. Therefore, identifying the effective motivators for physical
education learners seems to be an important topic in physical education research.
It has been hypothesized (Dweck & Leggett, 1988) that children’s goal orientations are likely to develop in
consistence with the task/mastery or ego/performance emphases valued in a context where children are engaged
in an achievement activity. It has been documented (Duda, 2001; Treasure, 2001) that organized youth sport
programs (e.g., varsity teams, clubs) may not exclusively emphasize the ego/ performance goal (winning in
competition). The motivation climate in these programs may be centered on a task/mastery emphasis. However,
the relationship between outside-school experiences and the motivators has rarely been examined and so has the
association of them with student learning outcomes in physical education.
The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamic associations of middle school learners’ goal orientations
and interests with outside-school physical activity experiences and learning outcomes in physical education.
Specifically, we intended to investigate the extent to which (a) goal orientations and personal interest were
dynamically associated, meaning that variation in personal interest (e.g., contact sports, rhythmic activities) was
compatible with a type of goal orientation and (b) the learners’ in-class physical activity levels (intensity) and
assessment outcome (performance on skill and written tests) were associated with goal orientations, interest,
and experiences in outside-school physical activity.
For this study, we assumed that goal orientations and personal interest are embedded in the learners’
experiences with physical activities that take place in their out-of- and in-school life. In addition, we assumed
that students do learn in physical education programs where they are held accountable for learning by the
teacher using formal, summative assessments.
Learning is associated with experiences that have been constructed either in- or outside-of-school settings.
Exploring the dynamic interactive impact of goals, interest, and out-of-school experiences on learning in
physical education will allow us to gain additional understanding about learner motivation and the functions of
different motivators. This study may shed light on this endeavor and further inform researchers and teachers
about the dynamics of learner motivation issues and learning.

2. Methodology
2. 1. Participants
Students (N= 104) were randomly selected from two middle schools in the WashingtonBaltimore metropolitan
area. The combined student body consisted of approximately 1 100 students in three grades (sixth, seventh, and
eighth) at the time of the study. From a simple randomized selection, the sample highly represented the
demographics of the student population in the area in ethnicity (64% Caucasian, 36% Minority). All middle-
school grades were evenly represented (33.33% in each grade). However, the boys were slightly
underrepresented (42% boys, 58% girls). Parental permission was received from all participants prior to data
collection.
2.2. The research setting
The schools were selected randomly from a pool that met the following two criteria: (a) the curriculum was in
line with both national and state standards and (b) student learning was assessed using measurable means (skill
and knowledge tests) in each content unit. Among the school districts in the WashingtonBaltimore
metropolitan area, one was identified as having physical education programs most likely to meet the criteria,
given its long-time tradition of emphasizing concept-based physical education from kindergarten to eighth
grade. Student grading was required to be based on the assessment of skill and knowledge acquisition. The
district’s educational policies associated with physical education included that physical education must be
taught by teachers certified in physical education and that elementary and middle schools do not offer
interscholastic athletic programs to the students. Thus, the primary responsibility of physical education teachers
was to teach physical education full time in their respective schools.
To determine the pool for sampling, a short survey was distributed at an in-service workshop to the physical
education department chairs of all the middle schools in the district (n = 18). The survey was designed to
acquire information about yearly and semestral instructional plans as associated with national and state
standards, the teaching experiences of each teacher in the department, and the instructional-related information
such as average class size, scheduling, and number of teachers. We also consulted the physical education
supervisor of the district for similar information for verification. Two schools were eliminated because of the
district rezoning-related personnel issues. The pool for sampling included the remaining 16 schools.
The schools in the pool used a 90-min rotating block schedule. A typical school day included four periods, with
the first period devoted to reading. Physical education classes met in the remaining three periods throughout the
day. The meeting hours for these periods during a particular day varied according to the schools’ A- or B-day
schedules. Students, therefore, had physical education classes every other day throughout the school year.
Based on the resources available for the study, we decided to randomly select two schools from the pool. There
were three certified physical education teachers in each of the schools. The teachers were all active AAHPERD
members. The programming of the physical education was expertise-based in that a teacher taught selected units
according to his/her expertise. The students were offered an opportunity at the beginning of the school year to
choose a sequence from several to learn the same physical activities/sports. Students from the same grade had
physical education in the same period. In each school, the instructional space included a gymnasium, a
multipurpose room, a fitness laboratory equipped with exercise machines, and several outdoor fields and
facilities for other physical activities and sports.
2.3. Variables and measures
2.3. 1. Achievement goal orientations
The students’ achievement goal orientations were measured using the 13-item (five-point scale) task and ego
orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda & Nicholls, 1992). The task- and ego-goal dual subconstructs
were validated through a factor analytical approach and were deemed valid. The internal consistency
coefficients (Cronbach α) were .82 and .89, respectively.

2.3.2. Personal interest
The students’ personal interest in physical activity was measured in a survey by asking the participants to rate
15 physical activities on a seven-point scale (1 = least interesting, 7 = most interesting). The activities included
fitness exercises, individual sports, team sports, and rhythmic movement content such as dance. To minimize
the threat to internal validity that may derive from self-interpretations of ratings of personal interest (Tobias,
1994), we used a protocol to limit the possible self-interpretation in the survey. It requires the respondent to fill
in a blank with an activity of the highest personal interest (any school or home activity) first, rate it 7, and use it
as the criterion activity, against which the 15 physical activities were compared.
2.3.3. Physical intensity
The students’ physical intensity in classes was measured using the Yamax Digiwalker, which recorded total
steps each participant took during a lesson. The literature has shown acceptable validity and reliability of
physical intensity measures by the device (Bassett, 2000; Tudor-Locke & Myers, 2000; Welk, Corbin, & Dale,
2000). In a pilot trial of the device for the study, the concurrent validity coefficients of the Digiwalker data
ranged between .65 and .91, in accordance with heart rates recorded using the Polar Heart Rate Monitors.
2.3.4. Assessment outcome
The students’ performance assessments on skill tests and written exams given by the teachers in various
instructional units were used as the indicator of their assessment outcomes. In both schools, the teachers used a
20-point scoring system in each unit. The points were equally assigned to physical skill and knowledge tests,
although the teachers usually used a predetermined weighting system to reflect their perception of importance in
skill tests (e.g., serving test was weighed more than forearm pass test in volleyball). We did not impose any
additional achievement assessment to preserve the authenticity of the learning assessment. We categorized all
assessment scores into either skill or knowledge category. Scores in the two categories were then aggregated
and averaged on the 20-point scale to represent learner assessment outcome.
2.3.5. Out-of-school participation
Information on out-of-school physical activity experiences was gathered in a survey by asking the participants
to indicate, with specific information (e.g., where, what, when, paid or unpaid), whether they took part in
organized after-school physical activity programs. Although students often participate in self-initiated physical
activities, organized activity programs are more likely to nurture and develop particular motivators (goal
orientations, personal interest) that the study was investigating. Thus, we decided to use ―participation in
organized out-of-school programs‖ as the grouping indicator for the data analysis. The reader should take this
grouping limitation into account when interpreting the findings.
2.4. Data collection
The participants’ responses to the TEOSQ, personal interest, out-of-school activity participation, and other
demographic information were collected in two prior-to-class sessions in a quiet classroom adjacent to the
gymnasium. Physical intensity data were collected in two randomly selected instructional lessons (not
introduction or assessment lessons) in each of the following content units: dancing, fencing, fitness club,
gymnastics, multigames, and volleyball. During these lessons, each participant wore a Yamax Digiwalker to
measure the number of steps that he/she took. Skill test and written exam grades were collected from the
teachers after the instruction, for a unit was officially complete. All data collection was conducted by the
researchers.
2.5. Data analysis
Goal orientation data were reduced according to the construct subscales (Duda & Nicholls, 1992). Out-of-
school physical activity data were reduced into participation and nonparticipation. Personal interest data were
reduced using principal component analysis. The Digiwalker data were aggregated and averaged from all the
lessons to represent the learner’s average in-class physical intensity. Skill and written test grades were
aggregated and averaged to represent assessment outcomes in these content units. The association between goal
orientations, interest, physical intensity, and achievement was examined using the Pearson ProductMoment

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Cites background or methods or result from "A web of achieving in physical educ..."

  • ...Previous research in physical education (Chen & Shen, 2004; Shen & Chen, 2006) has revealed that students’ recognition of situational interest was associated with their physical engagement....

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  • ...…interest research in physical education has provided limited data showing the connection between individual and situational interest and various learning outcomes, the strength of the connection is not as strong as theoretically predicted (Chen & Ennis, 2004; Chen & Shen, 2004; Shen et al., 2003)....

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  • ...Some researchers (e.g., Berlant & Weiss, 1997; Chen & Shen, 2004; Solmon & Boone, 1993) have found that achievement goals may have very limited direct impact on learning in physical education....

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  • ...In physical education, other researchers have widely used this method to assess students’ individual interest in a physical activity (e.g., Chen & Shen, 2004; Shen & Chen, 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological processes. The model specifies how individuals' implicit theories orient them toward particular goals and how these goals set up the different patterns. Indeed, we show how each feature (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) of the adaptive and maladaptive patterns can be seen to follow directly from different goals. We then examine the generality of the model and use it to illuminate phenomena in a wide variety of domains. Finally, we place the model in its broadest context and examine its implications for our understanding of motivational and personality processes. The task for investigators of motivation and personality is to identify major patterns of behavior and link them to underlying psychological processes. In this article we (a) describe a research-based model that accounts for major patterns of behavior, (b) examine the generality of this model—its utility for understanding domains beyond the ones in which it was originally developed, and (c) explore the broader implications of the model for motivational and personality processes.

8,033 citations


Book
21 Sep 1995
TL;DR: Motivation: Introduction and Historical Foundations, and theories of Motivation, and Teacher Influences.
Abstract: Chapter 1. Motivation: Introduction and Historical Foundations Chapter 2. Expectancy-Value Theories of Motivation Chapter 3. Attribution Theory Chapter 4. Social Cognitive Theory Chapter 5. Goals and Goal Orientations Chapter 6. Interest and Affect Chapter 7. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Chapter 8. Sociocultural Influences Chapter 9. Teacher Influences Chapter 10. Classroom and School Influences Glossary References Name Index Subject Index

4,878 citations


BookDOI
01 Jan 1995
Abstract: Growing up Constructivist - Languages and Thoughtful People Unpopular Philosophical Ideas - A History in Quotations Piaget's Constructivist Theory of Knowing The Construction of Concepts Reflection and Abstraction Constructing Agents - The Self and Others On Language, Meaning and Communication The Cybernetic Connection Units, Plurality, and Number To Encourage Students' Conceptual Constructing.

2,301 citations


OtherDOI
08 Dec 1995
Abstract: Part of a series that reflects research and theory concerned with motivation and achievement in work, school and play, this title focuses on a particular issue or theme.

1,714 citations


Book
01 Jan 1984
Abstract: This is an account of the largest on-the-scene study of U.S. schools ever undertaken. Called A Study of Schooling' and carried on over 4 years, trained investigators went into more than 1,000 classrooms in 38 elementary and secondary schools in seven different sections of the United States. These schools were located in urban, rural, and suburban areas. The investigators talked to teachers, students, administrators, school board officials, parents, and other members of the community. The result is this landmark report, written by one of the country's most astute and experienced educators. His message is one of cautious optimism, despite the extensive problems uncovered, and he provides a realistic agenda for improvement. This report will be a rich and stimulating resource for all those concerned with the education of our youth.

1,516 citations